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Abstract

In contemporary society, prolonged sitting has been engineered into our lives across many settings, including transportation, the workplace, and the home. There is new evidence that too much sitting (also known as sedentary behavior - which involves very low energy expenditure, such as television viewing and desk-bound work) is adversely associated with health outcomes, including cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers, type 2 diabetes and premature mortality. Importantly, these detrimental associations remain even after accounting for time spent in leisure time physical activity. We describe recent evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that makes a persuasive case that too much sitting should now be considered an important stand-alone component of the physical activity and health equation, particularly in relation to diabetes and cardiovascular risk. We highlight directions for further research and consider some of the practical implications of focusing on too much sitting as a modifiable health risk.

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... Background Several studies have shown evidence that excessive sedentary behavior can harm the health of people [1][2][3][4] and that programmed physical activity may increase health-related fitness [5,6]. According to the new recommendations of the World Health Organization, adults (18-64 years) should exercise for 150-300 minutes a week at moderate intensity or 75-150 minutes at vigorous intensity [7]. ...
... This questionnaire evaluates 26 symptoms due to the simulator. Questions on nausea (question numbers 1,8,10,11,12,22,25), oculomotor disorders (question numbers 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 12, 15), and disorientation (question numbers 7,1,14,15,16,17,18) were asked in the questionnaire. The task of the person examined using SSQ consists of making a subjective assessment of the severity of specific symptoms. ...
... This questionnaire evaluates 26 symptoms due to the simulator. Questions on nausea (question numbers 1,8,10,11,12,22,25), oculomotor disorders (question numbers 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 12, 15), and disorientation (question numbers 7,1,14,15,16,17,18) were asked in the questionnaire. The task of the person examined using SSQ consists of making a subjective assessment of the severity of specific symptoms. ...
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Background: Many young adults do not reach the World Health Organization’s minimum recommendations for the amount of weekly physical activity. The virtual reality 3D head-mounted display (VR 3D HMD) exergame is a technology that is more immersive than a typical exercise session. Our study considers gender differences in the experience of using VR games for increasing physical activity. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the differences in the effects of VR 3D HMD gaming in terms of immersion, simulator sickness, heart rate, breathing rate, and energy expenditure during two 30-minute sessions of playing an exergame of increasing intensity on males and females. Methods: To examine the effects of the VR 3D HMD exergame, we experimented with 45 participants (23 males and 22 females) exercising with VR 3D HMD Oculus Quest 1, hand controllers, and Zephyr BioHarness 3.0. Players exercised according to the Audio Trip exergame. We evaluated the immersion levels and monitored the average heart rate, maximum heart rate, average breathing rate, maximum breathing rate, and energy expenditure in addition to simulator sickness during two 30-minute exergame sessions of increasing intensity. Results: Audio Trip was well-tolerated, as there were no dropouts due to simulator sickness. Significant differences between genders were observed in the simulator sickness questionnaire for nausea (F2,86=0.80; P=.046), oculomotor disorders (F2,86=2.37; P=.010), disorientation (F2,86=0.92; P=.040), and total of all these symptoms (F2,86=3.33; P=.04). The measurements after the first 30-minute VR 3D HMD exergame session for all the participants showed no significant change compared to the measurements before the first 30-minute exergame session according to the total score. There were no gender differences in the immersion (F1,43=0.02; P=.90), but the measurements after the second 30-minute exergame session showed an increase in the average points for immersion in women and men. The increase in the level of immersion in the female group was higher than that in the male group. A significant difference between genders was observed in the average breathing rate (F2,86=1.44; P=.04), maximum breathing rate (F2,86=1.15; P=.047), and energy expenditure (F2,86=10.51; P=.001) measurements. No gender differences were observed in the average heart rate and maximum heart rate measurements in the two 30-minute sessions. Conclusions: Our 30-minute VR 3D HMD exergame session does not cause simulator sickness and is a very immersive type of exercise for men and women users. This exergame allows reaching the minimum recommendations for the amount of weekly physical activity for adults. The second exergame session resulted in simulator sickness in both groups, more noticeably in women, as reflected in the responses in the simulator sickness questionnaire. The gender differences observed in the breathing rates and energy expenditure measurements can be helpful when programming VR exergame intensity in future research. JMIR Serious Games 2022;10(4):e41234 doi:10.2196/41234
... While it is generally accepted that a physically active lifestyle is important for cognitive and brain health (Barnes & Yaffe, 2011;Dougherty et al., 2016Dougherty et al., , 2017Dougherty et al., , 2021Erickson et al., 2014;Hamer & Chida, 2009;Yaffe et al., 2001), sedentary behavior has increasingly become a public health focus due to evidence that it may impart unique risk for chronic diseases (Dunstan et al., 2012;Katzmarzyk et al., 2009). Sedentary behaviors are defined as any waking behavior characterized by low levels of energy expenditure, while in a seated, reclined or lying posture (Ainsworth et al., 2000). ...
... We observed a weak correlation between television viewing and physical activity, replicating what has been observed in similar populations (Dunstan et al., 2012;Hoang et al., 2016;Katzmarzyk et al., 2009). Because sedentary behavior and physical activity are separate behavior phenotypes (Ainsworth et al., 2000), that have shown to impart unique risk of disease (Dunstan et al., 2012;Katzmarzyk et al., 2009), it is necessary to identify their independent contributions in order to understand the consequences of these lifestyle behaviors on gray matter volume. ...
... We observed a weak correlation between television viewing and physical activity, replicating what has been observed in similar populations (Dunstan et al., 2012;Hoang et al., 2016;Katzmarzyk et al., 2009). Because sedentary behavior and physical activity are separate behavior phenotypes (Ainsworth et al., 2000), that have shown to impart unique risk of disease (Dunstan et al., 2012;Katzmarzyk et al., 2009), it is necessary to identify their independent contributions in order to understand the consequences of these lifestyle behaviors on gray matter volume. In our sample of middle-aged community dwelling adults, accounting for physical activity did not eliminate the negative association between television viewing and gray matter volume. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether long-term television viewing patterns, a common sedentary behavior, in early to mid-adulthood is associated with gray matter brain volume in midlife and if this is independent of physical activity. We evaluated 599 participants (51% female, 44% black, mean age 30.3 ± 3.5 at baseline and 50.2 ± 3.5 years at follow-up and MRI) from the prospective Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. We assessed television patterns with repeated interviewer-administered questionnaire spanning 20 years. Structural MRI (3T) measures of frontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampal, and total gray matter volumes were assessed at midlife. Over the 20 years, participants reported viewing an average of 2.5 ± 1.7 h of television per day (range: 0–10 h). After multivariable adjustment, greater television viewing was negatively associated with gray matter volume in the frontal (β = − 0.77; p = 0.01) and entorhinal cortex (β = − 23.83; p = 0.05) as well as total gray matter (β = − 2.09; p = 0.003) but not hippocampus. These results remained unchanged after additional adjustment for physical activity. For each one standard deviation increase in television viewing, the difference in gray matter volume z-score was approximately 0.06 less for each of the three regions (p < 0.05). Among middle-aged adults, greater television viewing in early to mid-adulthood was associated with lower gray matter volume. Sedentariness or other facets of television viewing may be important for brain aging even in middle age.
... 8 Technological advancements have altered work and recreation in the United States to be more conducive to sedentary behaviors, especially prolonged sitting. 9, 10 Prolonged sitting has been found to have adverse implications for health, 11,12 and the workplace has become an important environment for the promotion of physical activity and reduction of sedentary behavior. In a typical, contemporary occupational environment, workers spend more than half of their entire workday seated. ...
... 13 Due to the reduction in discretionary time after the workday, overall workplace demands tend to influence lifestyle choices outside of work (ie, less time engaged in both light-and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity). 10,14 Therefore, the occupational environment represents an important realm of an individual's activity profile. A recent systematic review found that occupational behaviors, such as sitting, can have negative health implications due to duration and repetition of the behavior, and both environmental and psychological factors. ...
Article
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Modifiable, behavioral risk factors like occupational sitting may contribute to inflammation, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This study evaluated the association of self-reported occupational sitting with changes in c-reactive protein (CRP) and the role of sex. We examined occupational sitting and baseline CRP levels for 2889 African American participants in the Jackson Heart Study. Four multivariable linear regression models were estimated to determine the association of occupational sitting and CRP. Analyses were conducted in 2020. The mean age was 50.8 years and 61% were female. Participants who reported occupational sitting as “often/always” had CRP levels of 4.9±6.8 mg/L, “sometimes” had levels of 4.8±8.1 mg/L, and “never/seldom” had levels of 4.3±6.8 mg/L. In the unadjusted model, “often/always” engaging in occupational sitting was significantly associated with higher levels of CRP when compared to “never/seldom” ( P < .05). This differed by sex with female participants who reported “often/always” occupational sitting had CRP levels of 6.0±7.6 mg/L compared to only 5.1±6.9 mg/L for “never/seldom.” Neither the overall association nor the female-specific association remained statistically significant in the adjusted models. We found an association between occupational sitting and inflammation, measured by CRP. This association varied by sex but did not remain significant after fully adjusting for covariates.
... Adults spend the majority (i.e., 10 to 13 h) of their waking day being sedentary [1,2]. High levels of sedentary activity are associated with morbidity and mortality [1][2][3][4], including a dose-response relationship between sitting time and mortality from all causes [5,6] and cardiovascular disease [2,7]. Thus, the sedentary nature of the work environment supports reconfiguring the workspace to reduce sitting time. ...
... Meanwhile, there is emerging evidence that time spent in light-intensity physical activity, including walking (< 5 mph), can counteract the negative health effects of prolonged sitting [4,18]. Most recently, there has been growing interest in targeted workplace interventions using active workstations (e.g., sit-stand desks, stepping devices, pedal machines) to interrupt prolonged sitting [19][20][21][22][23][24] or treadmill desksa vertical workstation with a treadmill (i.e., a motorized platform with a continuous belt) to permit working and walking [25]. ...
Article
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Background As the health risks of sedentary working environments become more clear, greater emphasis on the implementation of walking interventions to reduce sitting time is needed. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigate the role of treadmill-desk interventions on energy expenditure, sitting time, and cardiometabolic health in adults with sedentary occupations. Methods Relevant studies published in English were identified using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases up to December 2020. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to pool study results. Results Thirteen relevant studies (six workplaces and seven laboratories) were found with a total of 351 participants. Pooled analysis of laboratory studies showed a significant increase in energy expenditure (105.23 kcal per hour, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.41 to 120.4), as well as metabolic rate (5.0 mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 3.35 to 6.64), among treadmill desk users compared to sitting conditions. No evidence of significant differences in blood pressure were found. In workplace studies, we observed a significant reduction in sitting time over a 24-h period (− 1.73 min per hour, 95% CI: − 3.3 to − 0.17) among users of treadmill desks, compared to a conventional desk. However, there were no evidence of statistically significant changes in other metabolic outcomes. Conclusions Treadmill desks offer a feasible and effective intervention to increase energy expenditure and metabolic rate and reduce sitting time while performing work-related tasks. Future studies are needed to increase generalizability to different workplace settings and further evaluate their impact on cardiometabolic health.
... Prolonged sitting is associated with impairments to cardiometabolic health and increased mortality 2,8) , and low levels of physical activity cost $A1.6 billion annually in healthcare and lost productivity 9) . Reducing prolonged sitting, while also increasing physical activity, can therefore benefit global industries from both a health and economic standpoint 1,10) . ...
... Improvements in cognitive performance may have additional benefits for workers including increased productivity and safety whilst on-shift, and possibly even post-shift. Many studies have focused on the cognitive performance impacts of breaking up sitting whilst working, such as completing a cognitive test at the same time as pedalling on an ergometer 10,18,20,22) . Additionally, other studies have explored how greater sedentary time has also been associated with increases in cognitive performance in certain cognitive sub-domains 24) . ...
Article
Sedentary behavior at work contributes to detrimental cognitive outcomes (e.g., decreases in attention). The length of time that cognitive performance benefits are sustained following bouts of breaking up sitting (e.g., using sit-stand desks or walking) is not known. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using a systematic search strategy, with keywords related to breaking up sitting interventions in office-based environments and cognitive performance outcomes in the period immediately post the cessation of the breaking up sitting intervention. Three types of office-based breaking up sitting interventions were identified; 1) sit-stand desks, 2) walking desks and 3) cycling desks. From the eight studies which met the criteria, the impacts of these interventions on cognitive performance outcomes were mixed, with significant benefits in some studies and others reporting no benefit. Of the cognitive domains assessed, working memory, attention, and psychomotor function showed significant sustained improvement for up to 30 minutes post intervention. While there are benefits to a key set of cognitive performance domains following breaking up sitting interventions in office-based settings, no studies have evaluated whether benefits to cognitive performance persist for longer than 30 minutes after the breaking up sitting intervention. Furthermore, specific applications of these cognitive benefits to tasks outside of work (e.g., driving home from work) are unknown.
... This combined with increasing sedentary behaviour increases health complications and the risk of falling. It has been estimated that adults spend 51-68% of their waking time in sedentary behaviours [3], defined as activities done while sitting or reclining with energy expenditure ≤1.5 METs [4]. Indeed, technological and social factors have made sitting the most ubiquitous behaviour during working, domestic and recreational time [5,6]. ...
... Fortunately, it has been suggested that brief, frequent muscular contractions throughout the day can have a potent influence on key physiological processes that mediate the adverse effects of prolonged sedentariness [3,10]. Indeed, accumulating evidence suggests that interrupting long periods of sedentary time with regular physical activity "breaks" throughout the day has numerous health benefits, including increasing energy expenditure [31], protecting cardiovascular endothelial function [32], lowering blood pressure [33], improving postprandial glucose metabolism [34] and decreasing lower back musculoskeletal discomfort [35]. ...
Article
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The ageing process results in reduced neuromuscular function. This alongside prolonged sedentary behaviour is associated with decreased muscle strength, force control and ability to maintain balance. Breaking up sedentary time with regular bouts of physical activity has numerous health benefits, though the effects on neuromuscular function are unknown. This study investigated the effect of breaking up sedentary time with calisthenic exercise on neuromuscular function. 17 healthy adults (33 ± 13.1 years), who spent ≥6 h/day sitting, were assigned to a four-week calisthenics intervention (n = 8) or control group (n = 9). The calisthenics intervention involved performing up to eight sets of exercises during the working day (09:00–17:00); with one set consisting of eight repetitions of five difference exercises (including squats and lunges). Before and immediately after the intervention, measures of knee extensor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and submaximal force control (measures of the magnitude and complexity of force fluctuations), and dynamic balance (Y balance test) were taken. The calisthenics intervention resulted in a significant increase in knee extensor MVC (p = 0.036), significant decreases in the standard deviation (p = 0.031) and coefficient of variation (p = 0.016) of knee extensor force fluctuations during contractions at 40% MVC, and a significant increase in Y balance test posterolateral reach with left leg stance (p = 0.046). These results suggest that breaking up sedentary time with calisthenics may be effective at increasing muscle strength, force steadiness and dynamic balance all of which might help reduce the effects of the ageing process.
... Of note, no specific recommendations currently exist for being or not being sedentary. MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity SB and chronic diseases, 30 there is a surprising lack of information on the roles that SB and physical inactivity play in the increasing prevalence of obesity. ...
... More importantly, sedentary time was positively associated with trunk fat, independent of time spent in MVPA. Observa-tional studies report that people who are overweight spend in general 2.5 h/day sitting more than people with normal weight, and they engage in bouts of SB that are of longer duration.30,72 Conversely, people with normal weight interrupt prolonged sedentary periods with short bouts of PA more often and spend more time in LPA than people who are overweight.22 ...
Article
The role of physical activity (PA) in the regulation of body weight is still a major topic of debate. This may be because studies have essentially focused on the effects of moderate/vigorous PA (MVPA) on body weight while overlooking the other components of PA, namely, light-intensity PA (LPA, daily life activities) and sedentary behaviors (SB, too much sitting). In this review, we will (i) describe the history of changes in PA behaviors that occurred with modernization; (ii) review data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that examined the associations between PA, SB, and measures of obesity; (iii) review interventional studies that investigated the effects of changes in PA and SB on body weight and adiposity; and (iv) discuss experimental studies that addressed potential biological mechanisms underlying the effects of PA and SB on weight regulation. Overall recent findings support the importance of considering all components of PA to better understand the regulation of energy balance and suggest an important role for LPA and SB in addition to MVPA on body weight regulation. Longitudinal large-scale rigorous studies are needed to advance our knowledge of the role of PA/SB in combating the obesity epidemic.
... Over the past 2 decades, accumulating evidence has emerged to indicate that sedentary behavior may exert direct effects on the pathogenesis of CVD. Accordingly, sedentary behavior is now thought to represent a clinically important aspect of an individual's overall physical activity profile [8][9][10]. With US adults estimated to spend half to three-quarters of the waking day sedentary, and contemporary trends showing that the US population continues to become more sedentary over time (~ 1 h/day increase in the past decade), sedentary behavior represents a prevalent public health issue that continues to grow in developed nations [9,11,12]. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Review the most recent evidence on the role of sedentary behavior in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent Findings Prospective cohort studies continue to suggest a relationship between sedentary behavior and CVD, but the dose–response association, and the implications of sedentary pattern (vs. total volume) and context on CVD risk require further investigation. Most recent evidence suggests that physical activity influences the association between sedentary time and CVD risk, and that replacing sedentary time with other movement behaviors yields cardiometabolic benefits. Short-term intervention studies have further demonstrated that interrupting prolonged sitting with bouts of physical activity can elicit acute improvements on cardiometabolic biomarkers and vascular function relative to prolonged, uninterrupted sitting, albeit limited evidence exists on the long-term effects. Summary More conclusive evidence regarding the implications of sedentary time on CVD risk is warranted before the optimal sedentary behavior reduction prescription for the prevention of CVD can be elucidated.
... Previous studies have shown signi cant associations of meeting the recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA > 60min/d) (5,6), ST (≤ 2h/d) (7)(8)(9), and sleep duration (9-11hr/d) (10,11)) guidelines with a lower risk of obesity and its associated metabolic comorbidities during adolescence. However, despite these established guidelines, the PA levels are on a steady decline (7,12), time spent in sedentary behaviors (SB) has increased (2,13), sleep disturbances remain high (8,11,14,15) and the prevalence of obesity continues to be on a progressive rise in adolescents across developed and developing countries (16,17). This necessitates a better understanding of the interactions between MVPA, SB, and sleep patterns in adolescents and the associations of the clustering of these behaviors with adiposity measures. ...
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Background: Inadequate physical activity (PA), excess screen time (ST), and sub-optimal sleep quality tend to co-occur during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the associations of these behaviors as a cluster with adiposity indicators in Indian adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the independent and combined influences of PA, ST, and sleep quality on body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in 10-15 years old adolescents in Mumbai, India. A secondary aim was to explore if these influences vary between sexes. Methods: Cross sectional study. Adolescents (n=772, mean age 13.2 (1.4) years) reported frequency and duration of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and time using screens on a previously validated instrument. Sleep quality was estimated using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were performed to explore associations between adiposity indicators (BMI z scores > +1SD and WHtR > 0.5) and unhealthy behaviors (PA< 60min/d, ST > 120 min/d and PSQI scores >5), stratified by sex. Results: The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was 38.3%. Overall, 62.0% and 85.0% reported MVPA< 60min/d and ST> 120min/d respectively. Girls reported higher ST (218.21 (69.01) min/d as compared to boys (165.3 (101.22) min/d, p < 0.001). Clustering of low PA and excess ST was observed in 69.2% and of all three unhealthy behaviors in 18.8%. Among girls, MVPA < 60 min/d (OR= 1.78, 95% CI 1.54-1.92, p < 0.001) and PSQI scores > 5 (OR= 2.01, 95% CI 1.78-2.25, p < 0.001) predicted increased BMI. The odds of being overweight was 2.10 times higher in boys reporting low PA and 4.13 times higher in those with low PA+ ST > 120min/d. Clustering of all three unhealthy behaviors increased obesity risk in both sexes. Conclusions: The results indicated a co-existence of multiple unhealthy lifestyle factors of obesity and that clustering of these behaviors can further aggravate obesity risk as compared to their independent effects. Integrated interventions that leverage the cumulative benefits of being active, less sedentary, and sufficient sleep are warranted to facilitate greater improvements in obesity risk behaviors.
... This has important public implications because it points to an alarming trend in which individuals have decreased light-intensity physical activity and increased sedentary time as a result of the pandemic. As sedentary behavior is associated with premature mortality, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Dunstan et al., 2012;Hamilton et al., 2007;Owen et al., 2010), it is important to continue to investigate the downstream behavioral and health related impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, it is important that surveillance efforts are in place to understand to what degree deleterious, population-level changes in physical activity patterns persist. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to investigate changes in physical activity patterns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in individuals with overweight and obesity who were participating in a school district worksite weight loss program. We conducted comparative design interrupted time series analyses on physical activity device (Fitbit) data from the 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 school years (N = 211). We administered a questionnaire in 2020 to supplement device data. After the stay-at-home orders in 2020, participants tended to decrease their weekly step count (B = −1315.7, SE = 627.7, p = .045), decrease their weekly “Lightly active minutes” (B = −39.1, SE = 12.6, p = .007), and increase their weekly “Very active minutes” compared to their counterparts from the year before (B = 7.6, SE = 3.2, p = .020). Decreased motivation, gym closures, and safety concerns were cited as barriers to physical activity. Having more time and health consciousness were cited as facilitators of physical activity. The COVID-19 pandemic was related to changes in physical activity in both positive and negative ways, revealing opportunities to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in this population. More research is needed to determine optimal approaches to health promotion in the post-COVID-19 era.
... Additionally, in a 12-year follow-up study examining the relationship between sitting time and the risk of death from cancer in women aged 50 years and older, the risk of death from cancer was 1.21 times increased for those who sat for eight hours per day, compared to those who sat for less than four hours per day [2]. Despite this evidence, it has been reported that SB accounts for approximately 60% of daily waking hours, while moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) accounts for approximately only 5% of adults' waking hours [3]. ...
Article
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In Japan, standing while working has not yet become commonplace, and there is little evidence to support the benefits of standing during the workday. Therefore, this study assessed the relationship between the introduction of a sit-stand desk and its ability to reduce the negative effects of sitting too long and increase employees' general health and productivity. Seventy-four Japanese desk workers participated in this three-month intervention study. Using a randomized controlled trial, the participants were divided into intervention (n = 36) and control (n = 38) groups. The participant characteristics were ascertained using a questionnaire. The intervention effectiveness was assessed by measuring health-, physical activity-, and work-related outcomes. The results indicate that the intervention group significantly decreased their sitting time at work (p = 0.002) and had reduced neck and shoulder pain (p = 0.001). There was a significant increase in subjective health (p = 0.002), vitality in work-related engagement (p < 0.001), and self-rated work performance over a four-week period (p = 0.017). These findings indicate a significant difference between the two groups, demonstrating the effectiveness of a sit-stand desk in reducing sedentary behavior and improving workers' health and productivity. Future research can accumulate further evidence of best practice use of sit-stand desks.
... Previous studies have shown significant associations of meeting the recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA > 60 min/d) [5,6], ST (≤ 2 h/d) [7][8][9], and sleep duration (9-11 h/d) [10,11]) guidelines with a lower risk of obesity and its associated metabolic comorbidities during adolescence. However, despite these established guidelines, the PA levels are on a steady decline [7,12], time spent in sedentary behaviors (SB) has increased [2,13], sleep disturbances remain high [8,11,14,15] and the prevalence of obesity continues to be on a progressive rise in adolescents across developed and developing countries [16,17]. This necessitates a better understanding of the interactions between MVPA, SB, and sleep patterns in adolescents and the associations of the clustering of these behaviors with adiposity measures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Inadequate physical activity (PA), excess screen time (ST), and sub-optimal sleep quality tend to co-occur during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the associations of these behaviors as a cluster with adiposity indicators in Indian adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the independent and combined influences of PA, ST, and sleep quality on body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in 10-15 years old adolescents in Mumbai, India. A secondary aim was to explore if these influences vary between sexes. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Adolescents (n = 772, mean age 13.2 (1.4) years) reported frequency and duration of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent using screens on a previously validated instrument. Sleep quality was estimated using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were performed to explore associations between adiposity indicators (BMI z scores > +1SD and WHtR > 0.5) and unhealthy behaviors (PA < 60 min/d, ST > 120 min/d and PSQI scores > 5), stratified by sex. Results: The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was 38.3%. Overall, 62.0 and 85.0% reported MVPA< 60 min/d and ST > 120 min/d respectively. Girls reported higher ST (218.21 (69.01) min/d) as compared to boys (165.3 (101.22) min/d, p < 0.001). Clustering of low PA and excess ST was observed in 69.2% and of all three unhealthy behaviors in 18.8%. Among girls, MVPA < 60 min/d (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.54-1.92, p < 0.001) and PSQI scores > 5 (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.78-2.25, p < 0.001) predicted increased BMI. The odds of overweight/obesity were 2.10 times higher in boys reporting low PA and 4.13 times higher in those with low PA+ ST > 120 min/d. Clustering of all three unhealthy behaviors increased prevalence of obesity in both sexes. Conclusions: The results indicated a co-existence of multiple unhealthy lifestyle factors of obesity and that clustering of these behaviors can further aggravate obesity risk as compared to their independent effects. Integrated interventions that leverage the cumulative benefits of being active, less sedentary and sufficient sleep are warranted to facilitate greater improvements in obesity risk behaviors.
... Daily sitting time in particular has been a focus of SB research, and is associated with increased mortality risk, with Chau, Grunseit [10] reporting a 5% increased mortality risk, with every hour of sitting in excess of 7 hours a day, in the general population. Cardio-metabolic markers associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are also widely recognised to increase with extended SB and specifically sitting time [11][12][13][14][15]. Sedentary behaviour and sitting time, and therefore their associated negative health consequences may be predisposed and exacerbated in MD, given the recognised muscle weakness and fatigue associated with the condition [16]. ...
Article
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Background Current investigations into physical behaviour in Muscular Dystrophy (MD) have focussed largely on physical activity (PA). Negative health behaviours such as sedentary behaviour (Physical Behaviour) and sitting time (Posture Classification) are widely recognised to negatively influence health, but by contrast are poorly reported, yet could be easier behaviours to modify. Methods 14 ambulant men with MD and 12 healthy controls (CTRL) subjects completed 7-days of free-living with wrist-worn accelerometry, assessing physical behaviour (SB or PA) and Posture Classification (Sitting or Standing), presented at absolute (minutes) or relative (% Waking Hours). Participant body composition (Fat Mass and Fat Free Mass) were assessed by Bioelectrical Impedance, while functional status was assessed by 10 m walk test and a functional scale (Swinyard Scale). Results Absolute Sedentary Behaviour (2.2 Hours, p = 0.025) and Sitting Time (1.9 Hours, p = 0.030 was greater in adults with MD compared to CTRL and Absolute Physical Activity (3.4 Hours, p < 0.001) and Standing Time (3.2 Hours, p < 0.001) was lower in adults with MD compared to CTRL. Absolute hours of SB was associated with Fat Mass (Kg) (R = 0.643, p < 0.05) in ambulatory adults with MD, Discussion This study has demonstrated increased Sedentary Behaviour (2.2 hours) and Sitting time (1.9 Hours) in adults with MD compared to healthy controls. Extended waking hours in sitting and SB raises concerns with regards to progression of potential cardio-metabolic diseases and co-morbidities in MD.
... I utilize a relatively basic example here. The sedentary, screen-focused nature of much professional work has documented adverse health effects over time (Dunstan et al., 2012). The hypothetical organization wants to help remedy this issue by replacing stationary desks with sit-stand models and by employing an AI-driven program that prompts employees to move during the day and reduce screen time. ...
Article
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Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly inputting into various human resource management (HRM) functions, such as sourcing job applicants and selecting staff, allocating work, and offering personalized career coaching. While the use of AI for such tasks can offer many benefits, evidence suggests that without careful and deliberate implementation its use also has the potential to generate significant harms. This raises several ethical concerns regarding the appropriateness of AI deployment to domains such as HRM, which directly deal with managing sometimes sensitive aspects of individuals’ employment lifecycles. However, research at the intersection of HRM and technology continues to largely center on examining what AI can be used for, rather than focusing on the salient factors relevant to its ethical use and examining how to effectively engage human workers in its use. Conversely, the ethical AI literature offers excellent guiding principles for AI implementation broadly, but there remains much scope to explore how these principles can be enacted in specific contexts-of-use. By drawing on ethical AI and task-technology fit literature, this paper constructs a decision-making framework to support the ethical deployment of AI for HRM and guide determinations of the optimal mix of human and machine involvement for different HRM tasks. Doing so supports the deployment of AI for the betterment of work and workers and generates both scholarly and practical outcomes.
... More than 30% of people older than 15 years are physically inactive, with the highest proportion in the United States [2]. Sedentary lifestyle has been associated with cardiometabolic risk, type 2 diabetes and premature mortality [3]. Currently, sedentary behavior has increased in many aspects of life including at home, in commuting, and at the workplace. ...
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The effects of treadmill workstation use on kinematic gait symmetry and computer work performance remain unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to analyze the effects of treadmill workstation use on lower body motion symmetry while performing a typing task when compared to overground and treadmill walking. The lower body motion of ten healthy adults (6 males and 4 females) was recorded by a motion capture system. Hip, knee, and ankle joint rotations were computed and compared for each condition. Despite comparable lower body kinematic gait asymmetries across conditions, asymmetric knee flexion motions at early gait cycle were only found in treadmill workstation users (left knee significantly more flexed than the right one). This demonstrates that the interaction between walking and another task is dependent on the task cognitive content. Our findings suggest that lower body kinematic gait symmetry may be influenced by the use of treadmill workstations.
... Given these, we may speculate that participation in PE classes is mediated by a psychological function and in turn acts as a buffer against stressful events [38] such as studying for prolonged hours. Indeed, recent evidence suggests that breaking up prolonged sitting can be beneficial to health and well-being [39]. However, it is important to note that, in our study, only a high dose of PE classes participation was associated with the less/no stress indicator. ...
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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the associations between participation in physical education (PE) classes and the psychological well-being and sleep satisfaction of Korean adolescents.METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 127,804 Korean adolescents (aged 12–18 years) who participated in the 2016 and 2017 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Surveys (KYRBS) were analyzed. The exploratory variable was the frequency of participation in PE classes every week, while the dependent variables included the psychological well-being and sleep satisfaction, as assessed by the KYRBS questionnaire. Sex- and grade-stratified logistic regression analyses were conducted to generate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: Overall 16.9% of adolescents reported that they did not participate in PE classes while 33.0% reported participating for more than three times a week. After adjusting for the academic achievements, family’s economic status, consumption frequency of breakfast and highly caffeinated drinks, and physical activity level, a greater participation in the PE classes was found to be associated with happiness in a dose-response fashion in both sexes and grades (p<.05). As for stress, participation in the PE classes for more than three times a week was associated with less/no stress in boys (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.31, p<.05) and high school students (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03–1.44, p<.05). Moreover, greater participation in the PE classes was associated with a lower odds of reporting sleep satisfaction in a linear fashion among high school students.CONCLUSIONS: More frequent participation in PE classes was associated with the psychological well-being and sleep satisfaction in a large sample of Korean adolescents. Increasing the number of mandatory PE sessions is a promising strategy for promoting the psychological well-being of Korean adolescents.
... Moreover, their temporal fluctuation, as well as, variance in day-to-day activities are of interest to characterize individuals' specific behavior and predict the trend of functional status [5]. Indeed, even when adults meet the weekly PA guidelines, sedentary postures for prolonged periods affect metabolic health, known as the "Too much sitting" issue [6,7]. Thus, basic quantitative PA metrics such as the daily walking time, number of bouts, or the total sedentary time (e.g. ...
Conference Paper
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Accurate assessment of the type, duration, and intensity of physical activity (PA) in daily life is considered very important because of the close relationship between PA level, health, and well-being. Therefore, the assessment of PA using lightweight wearable sensors has gained interest in recent years. In particular, the use of activity monitors could help to measure the health-related effects of specific PA interventions. Our study, named as Run4Vit, focuses on evaluating the acute and longterm effects of an eight-week running intervention on PA behaviour and vitality. To achieve this goal, we developed an algorithm to detect running and estimate instantaneous cadence using a single trunk-fixed accelerometer. Cadence was computed using time and frequency domain approaches. Validation was performed over a wide range of locomotion speeds using an open-source gait database. Across all subjects, the cadence estimation algorithms achieved a mean bias and precision of - 0.01 ± 0.69 steps/min for the temporal method and 0.02 ± 1.33 steps/min for the frequency method. The running detection algorithm demonstrated very good performance, with an accuracy of 98% and a precision superior to 99%. These algorithms could be used to extract metrics related to the multiple dimensions of PA, and provide reliable outcome measures for the Run4Vit longitudinal running intervention program. Clinical Relevance- This work aims at validating a multi-dimensional physical activity (PA) classification algorithm for assessing the acute and long-term effects of eight weeks running intervention on PA behaviours and vitality.
... Previous research has shown that the younger generation [51] and higher-level education are associated with higher self-reported workplace sitting time [52]. Most sedentary workers have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease than jobs requiring workers to stand [53]. Epidemiological studies have proven that prolonged sitting at work can impact mental health [54]. ...
Conference Paper
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The high prevalence of sedentary behavior among workers is an emerging health concern due to the negative impact on human health. This study aimed to evaluate employees' sitting behavior and physical activity during their working time. A total of 130 employees participated in this study, with an average of working hours/week (38.92 ± 20.28). The cross-sectional data were collected from Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) filled out by participants about their self-reported percentage of sitting, standing, walking, and heavy labor at work. The present data revealed that most workers reported a high rate of prolonged sitting time in the workplace, which is significantly higher among employees in the sedentary profession (73.3.3 ± 9.6). Age and education level are also significant between physically active jobs and those with sedentary jobs. Concerning this, it is essential to develop and promote programs to reduce sedentary time and the importance of interrupting sedentary time and participating in light-intensity activities in the workplace due to the detrimental effect of sitting time on health among employees.
... Prolonged sitting had been thought as an unhealthy way of working by many researches, which could lead to a range of health problems, including MSDs. [34][35][36] With the development of mechanisation and intelligence, sedentary work in the manufacturing industry is increasing as well. The following musculoskeletal diseases should be of concern. ...
Article
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Objective To survey the prevalence of lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Chinese manufacturing workers, and to identify the associated factors. Design Observational study with cross-sectional design. Setting A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in four manufacturing factories in China. Participants 7908 manufacturing workers were included in this study after excluding non-conforming personnel. Outcome measures Individual and work-related information, and MSDs in the whole leg and knee region were measured by the anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Individual and work-related factors associated with MSDs and their effects were identified through multivariate logistic regression. Results Of all respondents, 3241 (41.0%) reported having had lower extremity MSDs in the recent 12 months, and for the knees, ankles/feet and hips/thighs were 29.5%, 23.9% and 16.7%, respectively. After confounder-adjusted single-factor analysis, 22 variables (of 24) were significantly related to the disorders. Factors like always kneeling/squatting for long periods, always standing for long periods and often lifting in an uncomfortable position were shown to have higher risks, with ORs of 2.77 (95% CI: 2.33 to 3.30), 2.30 (1.96 to 2.69) and 2.25 (2.04 to 2.47). Comparable results were found on knee disorders. The final model included 15 variables of demography, biomechanics and work organisation. The following factors showed increased risks of lower extremity MSDs: being female, being older, longer working years, higher body mass index (BMI), keeping the same posture for a long time, awkward position, shift work and monotonous work. Whereas having enough breaks reduced the risk. Conclusion The prevalence of lower extremity MSDs among Chinese manufacturing workers is high. The most commonly affected body regions were the knees and ankles/feet. Multiple factors were found associated with lower extremity MSDs including age, BMI, work experience, work organisations, physical ergonomics exposures, etc.
... playing as much as possible) to facilitate skill gain or improve rank is a suboptimal strategy. Moreover, sitting for prolonged periods of time is known to pose health risks [10] and prolonged computer use may contribute to musculoskeletal injury of the neck and upper extremities [7]. Thus, increasing playtime to gain proficiency may not only be ineffective but may also increase risk for the above mentioned health issues. ...
Chapter
Playing video games has become a major factor of spending leisure time. As competitive and e-sports games grow in popularity and size, demands of complexity, time investment and cognitive strain to acquire proficiency and keep up with competitors grow with them. Fundamental psychological work stresses the detrimental impact of sinking extensive amounts of time into tasks onto mental health and capabilities to perform in those tasks. However, the effects of prolonged task execution without adequate rest in self-imposed leisure environments (e.g. video games) are largely under-investigated. We therefore seek to investigate these effects as well as their related consequences in the highly competitive scene of e-sports games. Prolonged task execution in tasks that are primarily of a cognitive nature is usually not associated with physical strain or physical fatigue. We therefore primarily investigate effects on cognitive capabilities, like the onset of mental fatigue, as well as mental well-being. Over the course of seven weeks, we monitored the playing routines of League of Legends players and tracked measures of mental fatigue before and after sessions. Together with qualitative remarks, explanations and attitudes towards playing, time investment and skill acquisition, we gathered player reports showing significantly deteriorated moods and dispositions to playing as well as high indications of mental fatigue based on significant occurrences of related symptoms. Additionally, we analyzed the matches played by the participants during the study period and found a gaussian-like distribution of performance relative to the number of successively played matches. We discuss associated problems and propose ideas for methods facilitating more time-efficient alternatives of video game skill acquisition.KeywordsMental fatigueVideo gamesE-sportsGame survey
... Factors associated with physical inactivity are not well understood. Sedentary or physically inactive has adversely affected mental and physical health [1]. Recent researchers suggest that cellular phones make individuals more sedentary [2]. ...
... Along with cardiovascular disease, there is an elevated risk for other chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes) that is independent of the time spent on exercising [111][112][113][114]. Sedentary behavior is also linked to decreased muscle mass and low muscle strength [115]. ...
Article
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Background Overall life expectancy continues to rise, approaching 80 years of age in several developed countries. However, healthy life expectancy lags far behind, which has, in turn, contributed to increasing costs in healthcare. One way to improve health and attenuate the socio-economic impact of an aging population is to increase overall fitness through physical activity. Telomere attrition or shortening is a well-known molecular marker in aging. As such, several studies have focused on whether exercise influences health and aging through telomere biology. This systematic review examines the recent literature on the effect of physical activity on telomere length (TL) and/or telomerase activity as molecular markers of aging. Methods A focused search was performed in the databases PubMed and Web of Science for retrieving relevant articles over the past ten years. The search contained the following keywords: exercise, sport, physical activity, fitness, sedentary, physical inactivity, telomere, telomere length, t/s ratio, and telomerase. PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were observed. Results A total of 43 articles were identified and categorized into randomized controlled trials (RCT), observational or interventional studies. RCTs ( n = 8) showed inconsistent findings of increased TL length with physical activity in, e.g. obese, post-menopausal women. In comparison with a predominantly sedentary lifestyle, observational studies ( n = 27) showed significantly longer TL with exercise of moderate to vigorous intensity; however, there was no consensus on the duration and type of physical activity and training modality. Interventional studies ( n = 8) also showed similar findings of significantly longer TL prior to exercise intervention; however, these studies had smaller numbers of enrolled participants (mostly of high-performance athletes), and the physical activities covered a range of exercise intensities and duration. Amongst the selected studies, aerobic training of moderate to vigorous intensity is most prevalent. For telomere biology analysis, TL was determined mainly from leukocytes using qPCR. In some cases, especially in RCT and interventional studies, different sample types such as saliva, sperm, and muscle biopsies were analyzed; different leukocyte cell types and potential genetic markers in regulating telomere biology were also investigated. Conclusions Taken together, physical activity with regular aerobic training of moderate to vigorous intensity appears to help preserve TL. However, the optimal intensity, duration of physical activity, as well as type of exercise still need to be further elucidated. Along with TL or telomerase activity, participants’ fitness level, the type of physical activity, and training modality should be assessed at different time points in future studies, with the plan for long-term follow-up. Reducing the amount of sedentary behavior may have a positive effect of preserving and increasing TL. Further molecular characterization of telomere biology in different cell types and tissues is required in order to draw definitive causal conclusions on how physical activity affects TL and aging.
... Office workers may not be competent in using equipment, such as chairs and seats [6]. Prolonged sedentary time is associated with musculoskeletal disorders and various illnesses, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease [7]. ...
Article
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The present study aims to investigate the health behaviors of university office workers related to the working environment, compare them with leisure time satisfaction, and suggest ergonomic solutions. Office workers at Bitlis Eren University and Munzur University, which are situated in the eastern part of Turkey, constituted the population of this study. The sample size was 196 based on the formula [n = (N*t2*p*q)/d2*(N-1)+t2*p*q)], which was applied when the number of people in the population was known. The required sample size was determined based on the estimation of a proportion of 0.5 in a finite population of 401, with a 95% confidence interval of ± 0.05 using simple random sampling. The data of Questionnaire and Leisure Satisfaction Scale (LSS) were collected from 178 participants by a face-to-face interview voluntarily. The findings obtained in this study showed that nearly half of the participants did not sufficiently support their wrists and backs and did not adjust their working posture or the screen inclination and brightness. The mean score of leisure time satisfaction was higher for those who worked in places with ideal physical conditions, including heat and sound insulation and in places with good psychological conditions without stress and work overload. The leisure time satisfaction score was significantly higher among those who engaged in leisure time activities, such as recreational activities reading books, and physical activity. It was observed that employees in offices with improved noise, heat, workload and stress had better satisfaction levels in leisure time. One cannot separate leisure activities from workplace activities and both should be conducted in harmony. As an ergonomic solution, the worktable and tools should be comfortable and designed in a way that does not require the back muscles to be strained.
... Sedentary behaviour and physical inactivity have become the "disease" of the 21st century, causing a large number of chronic conditions [1,2]. The relationship between sedentary lifestyles and the prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders has been demonstrated [3][4][5]. Sedentary behaviour is associated with greater predisposition to develop cardiovascular diseases, and it is one of the main risk factors of coronary disease [6][7][8][9][10][11]. It is currently estimated that 55-70% of daily activities, without considering the time spent sleeping, are considered sedentary [3,[12][13][14], and sedentary time increases with age [13,15,16]. 2 of 12 Vascular ageing is influenced by the parameters of vascular structure and function, reflecting the dissociation between the chronological age and biological age of the main arteries, whose alteration leads to the appearance of cardiovascular events [17][18][19][20][21]. ...
Article
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Sedentary behaviour is associated with a greater predisposition to developing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between sedentary time and early vascular ageing. A total of 501 participants (49.70% men) were recruited through random sampling stratified by age group and sex. Vascular ageing was evaluated considering three criteria: (1) the vascular ageing index (VAI); (2) the carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) 10th and 90th percentiles of the reference values in the European population by age; and (3) the Framingham’s heart age. The carotid intima–media thickness was measured using a Sonosite Micromaxx ultrasound, the presence of peripheral artery disease was assessed by calculating the ankle–brachial index using a VaSera VS-1500, and the cfPWV was measured with a SphygmoCor® device. Weekly sedentary hours were evaluated through a sitting time questionnaire. The average age of the population was 55.90 ± 14.24 years. The men spent more hours sitting per week (47.6 ± 16.6 vs. 36.8 ± 17.3 h/W), at work (16.7 ± 16.2 vs. 9.73 ± 14.9 h/W), and watching TV (21.6 ± 12.5 vs. 18.7 ± 11.9 h/W). In the logistic regression analysis, the individuals with early vascular aging (EVA), with respect to those with healthy vascular aging (HVA), spent more hours sitting per week (OR = 1.03 vs. OR = 1.02; p < 0.05) and watching TV (OR = 1.03 vs. OR = 1.03; p < 0.05), using the criteria of the European guideline and VAI, and more hours sitting when commuting (OR = 1.04; p < 0.05), using Framingham’s heart age to define EVA. The results of this study indicate that sedentary time is associated with early vascular ageing. Therefore, reducing sedentary time would improve vascular health.
... PA guidelines set by the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommend children to engage in at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per day [8] and adults to engage in at least 150 min of MVPA per week (corresponding to at least 30 min of MVPA during 5 days) [9]. For SB, studies and national guidelines recommend for both children and adults to minimise the amount of time spent in prolonged sitting and to break up long periods of sitting as often as possible [10]. Further, specifically for children it is recommended not to exceed two hours of recreational screen-time per day [11][12][13]. ...
Article
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Background A healthy lifestyle decreases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The current cross-sectional study aimed to describe self-reported lifestyle behaviours and compare them to current health guidelines in European Feel4Diabetes-families at risk for developing type 2 diabetes across six countries (Belgium, Finland, Spain, Greece, Hungary and Bulgaria). Methods Parents and their children were recruited through primary schools located in low socio-economic status areas. Parents filled out the FINDRISC-questionnaire (eight items questioning age, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, PA, daily consumption of fruit, berries or vegetables, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, history of high blood glucose and family history of diabetes), which was used for the risk assessment of the family. Sociodemographic factors and several lifestyle behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, water consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, soft drink consumption, sweets consumption, snack consumption, breakfast consumption) of both adults and children were assessed by parental questionnaires. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to investigate families’ lifestyle behaviours, to compare these levels to health guidelines and to assess potential differences between the countries. Analyses were controlled for age, sex and socio-economic status. Results Most Feel4Diabetes-families at risk (parents and their children) did not comply with the guidelines regarding healthy behaviours, set by the WHO, European or national authorities. Less than half of parents and children complied with the physical activity guidelines, less than 15% of them complied with the fruit and vegetable guideline, and only 40% of the children met the recommendations of five glasses of water per day. Clear differences in lifestyle behaviours in Feel4Diabetes-families at risk exist between the countries. Conclusions Countries are highly recommended to invest in policy initiatives to counter unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in families at risk for type 2 diabetes development, taking into account country-specific needs. For future research it is of great importance to focus on families at risk in order to counter the development of type 2 diabetes and reduce health inequity.
... An 'active' break is considered to be at least three minutes of walking (approximately 250 steps) or completion of simple body weight resistance exercise activities that have been adapted from previous experimental trials [18]: calf raises, squats, and single leg kickbacks, done in three sets of three 20-s bouts totaling approximately 3 minutes. Since excessive sitting and excessive standing may both be harmful [31,32], 50% was chosen as a level that is a simple, heuristic approach that has been safely achieved by participants in our previous trials [33] and is 2 h/day lower than the average sedentary time reached by adults with type 2 diabetes [11], assuming a 16 h waking day. ' Active' breaks to interrupt sitting were promoted in recognition that not all sitting replacement activities have equal benefit [34,35] with ambulation and resistance exercise showing particular benefit [36]. ...
Article
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Background Clinical practice guidelines recommend that adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) sit less and move more throughout the day. The 18-month OPTIMISE Your Health Clinical Trial was developed to support desk-based workers with T2D achieve these recommendations. The two-arm protocol consists of an intervention and control arms. The intervention arm receives 6 months health coaching, a sit-stand desktop workstation and an activity tracker, followed by 6 months of text message support, then 6 months maintenance. The control arm receives a delayed modified intervention after 12 months of usual care. This paper describes the methods of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention, compared to a delayed intervention control. Methods This is a two-arm RCT being conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Desk-based workers (≥0.8 full-time equivalent) aged 35–65 years, ambulatory, and with T2D and managed glycaemic control (6.5–10.0% HbA1c), are randomised to the multicomponent intervention (target n = 125) or delayed-intervention control (target n = 125) conditions. All intervention participants receive 6 months of tailored health coaching assisting them to “sit less” and “move more” at work and throughout the day, supported by a sit-stand desktop workstation and an activity tracker (Fitbit). Participants receive text message-based extended care for a further 6-months (6–12 months) followed by 6-months of non-contact (12–18 months: maintenance). Delayed intervention occurs at 12–18 months for the control arm. Assessments are undertaken at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 15 and 18-months. Primary outcomes are activPAL-measured sitting time (h/16 h day), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c; %, mmol/mol) and, cognitive function measures (visual learning and new memory; Paired Associates Learning Total Errors [adjusted]). Secondary, exploratory, and process outcomes will also be collected throughout the trial. Discussion The OPTIMISE Your Health trial will provide unique insights into the benefits of an intervention aimed at sitting less and moving more in desk-bound office workers with T2D, with outcomes relevant to glycaemic control, and to cardiometabolic and brain health. Findings will contribute new insights to add to the evidence base on initiating and maintaining behaviour change with clinical populations and inform practice in diabetes management. Trial registration ANZCTRN12618001159246 .
... In line with our findings, several studies had reported excessive usage of digital devices among adolescents during the pandemic [3,8,18]. The adverse health consequences of excess ST on the risk of obesity, anxiety, depression, and cardiovascular problems are established [6,7,22,31]. However, there is also a growing interest to explore the use of screens as coping measures for learning, connecting with people, curbing boredom, and having better access to scientific information. ...
Article
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Objective This study attempted to address the limited knowledge regarding the impact of screen time (ST) on lifestyle behaviors in Indian adolescents during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives were to 1) evaluate frequency and duration of using screens, and screen addiction behaviors in 10–15 years old adolescents in Mumbai during the COVID-19 pandemic and 2) examine the association of ST with lifestyle behaviors- eating habits, snacking patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, sleep quality and depression symptoms. Methods An online survey was completed between January and March 2021. Eating habits, snacking patterns, time spent in different screen-based activities, and screen addiction behaviors were reported. The PA levels, sleep quality, and depression symptoms were evaluated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children/Adolescents (PAQ C/A), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the impact of ST on lifestyle behaviors. Results Adolescents (n = 1298, M age 13.2(1.1), 53.3% boys) reported the mean weekday and weekend ST as 442.3 (201.5) minutes/d and 379.9 (178.2) minutes/d respectively. Overall, 33.4% spent > 6hours/d for studying or doing homework, 65.4% used social networking sites for at least 2–3 hours/d, and 70.7% agreed that ST had taken up the majority of their leisure time. Only 12% engaged in moderate to vigorous PA (PAQ C/A scores <2). More than half (52.5%) reported PSQI >5 indicating poor sleep quality and 8.6% scored ≥ 3 on PHQ-2 to suggest a risk of depression. A higher ST was associated with lower PA and increased sleep problems and a greater screen addiction was inversely associated with the eating habit, PA, and sleep-related variables. Conclusion The study draws attention to a high prevalence of excess ST and its impact on eating habits, PA levels, and sleep quality in Indian adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Targeted health promotion interventions that encourage judicious use of screens for education and entertainment and emphasize the adverse health effects of excess ST are required.
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This prospective, cross-sectional, cohort observational study was conducted to evaluate the associations between sedentary behavior and arteriosclerosis-related vascular issues in community-dwelling frail older adults. We included 116 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (92 females and 24 males) who availed daycare at two long-term care insurance facilities in the cities of Yokkaichi and Handa between 2017 and 2019. An unpaired t-test and the chi-square test were used for intergroup comparisons. Logistic regression analysis was conducted with cardio-ankle vascular index as the dependent variable, sedentary behavior as the explanatory variable, and the other evaluated factors as covariates. Long-time sedentary behavior (based on the median value for all participants) was associated with high cardio-ankle vascular index after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ankle-brachial index, and walking MET-minutes in 1 week (odds ratio 3.086, 95% confidence interval 1.275-7.467, p=0.012). After adjusting for other variables (care needs certificate, skeletal muscle mass index, body fat percentage, grip strength, 4-m walking duration, etc), there was a significant association between long-time sedentary behavior and high cardio-ankle vascular index values (odds ratio 4.977, 95% confidence interval 1.497-16.554, p=0.009). The results study confirmed an association between long-time sedentary behavior in frail older adults and the degree of arterial stiffness assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index. Interventions in older adults that focus on daily sedentary time to prevent the onset and exacerbation of geriatric syndromes secondary to the progression of arteriosclerosis warrant further investigation.
Article
This study investigates the effects of a dynamic seat pan design on sitting biomechanics, perceived pain and seat movement compared to a control. Thirty male participants were recruited for two experimental sessions consisting of a 2-h sitting exposure (standardized typing task). Spine angles, back muscle activity, perceived pain and calf circumference were measured pre and post exposure. Sitting in the dynamic condition resulted in lower pain ratings (p = 0.031), decreased calf circumference (p < 0.001), lower average seat pressure (p < 0.001), and greater seat contact area (p = 0.003) compared to the control. Spine angles and low back EMG for all 6 muscles showed no significant differences between chair conditions. These results suggest this dynamic seat pan design is effective at decreasing several negative components associated with sitting for the occupant. Future work should examine the longer-term effects of dynamic office chair features in the field setting with a more generalizable population.
Article
Objective: To examine the effect on continuously monitored blood glucose (CGM) among participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) who used a height-adjustable desk while working. Methods: The study was a repeated measures pilot study in overweight or obese women who had IFG (blood glucose [BG] >100 mg/dL) and a sedentary job. Blood glucose was monitored with CGM devices during two 1-week periods at work; 1 week in the seated position and 1 week using alternate bouts of sitting and standing (by adjusting their desks) throughout the workday. Results: Ten women completed the study. Sedentary time significantly predicted BG independently of diet and overall physical activity (P=.02). Dietary carbohydrates, protein, and fat were significant predictors of BG (P<.001). Conclusions: Sedentary time is a strong predictor of increased BG in women with IFG and a sedentary job.
Article
During their activities of daily living, humans run, walk, stand, sit, and lie down. Recent changes in our environment have favored sedentary behavior over more physically active behavior to such a degree that our health is in danger. Here, we sought to address the problem of excessive time spent seated from various theoretical viewpoints, including postural control, human factors engineering, human history and health psychology. If nothing is done now, the high prevalence of sitting will continue to increase. We make a case for the standing position by demonstrating that spending more time upright can mitigate the physiological and psychological problems associated with excessive sitting without lowering task performance and productivity. The psychological literature even highlights potential benefits of performing certain tasks in the standing position. We propose a number of recommendations on spending more time (but not too much) in the standing position and on more active, nonambulatory behaviors. There is a need to inform people about (i) harmful consequences of excessive sitting and (ii) benefits of spending more time performing active, nonambulatory behaviors. One clear benefit is to reduce detrimental health consequences of excessive sitting and to provide potential additional benefits in terms of productivity and performance.
Article
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic response limited access to many traditional forms of physical activity (PA). Purpose:To assess changes in objectively measured PAofUniversity staff during the initial stageofthe COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We implemented a repeated measures natural experiment design. PA data (walking distance, steps∙d#x2D;1, and Moderate#x2D;to#x2D;Vigorous PA (MVPA) time) from commercial grade triaxial accelerometers were collected from employees (N#x3D;625) of a large, public university in the southeast United States during the months of Jan#x2D;May in calendar years 2019 and 2020. Results: Walking distance (6#x2D;9#x25;, p#x3C;0.001) and steps∙d#x2D;1(7#x2D;11#x25;, p#x3C;0.001) were lower during April and May 2020 compared to 2019. However, MVPA time was not significantly different among calendar years for the months of March#x2D;May. Steps∙d#x2D;1significantly decreased after WHO's worldwide pandemic declaration (10,348#xB1;171 v. 9551#xB1;156 steps∙d#x2D;1, p#x3C;0.001) and campus closure (10,100#xB1;160 v. 9,186#xB1;167 steps∙d#x2D;1, p#x3C;0.001). Conversely, steps∙d#x2D;1significantly increased after implementation of the state's "Healthy at Home" order (9,693#xB1;177 vs. 10,156#xB1;185 steps∙d#x2D;1, p#x3C;0.001). Conclusion: A decrease in daily steps, but not MVPA, suggests increased sedentary behavior, not reduced participation in exercise, during the early stages of the COVID#x2D;19 pandemic. Specific pandemic response policies may positively or negatively affect PA and sedentary behavior.
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether an approach that promotes reduction in sedentary behavior (SB) during hospitalization and after hospital discharge reduces SB in patients with minor ischemic stroke (MIS) compared with an approach that promotes an increase in physical activity levels. Design: Randomized controlled trial design. Setting: During hospitalization and after hospital discharge. Participants: We randomly assigned patients (N=61) with MIS (average age, 71.3±8.3y; 65.6% men) admitted to an acute hospital to either the intervention group (reduced SB, n=31) or the control group (increased physical activity levels, n=30). Interventions: During hospitalization, the intervention group received education on reducing SB, goal setting for SB after hospital discharge, and self-monitoring of SB and step count. In contrast, the control group received education on increasing physical activity levels and self-monitoring of step count. Patients in both groups wore an accelerometer during hospitalization until 3 months after hospital discharge. The intervention group received self-monitoring of SB and step count, stickers including information about reducing their SB, and phone calls once every 2 weeks for encouragement and feedback. The control group only wore the accelerometer. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was SB (in percentage) at 3 months after hospital discharge. Results: There was an interaction between the 2 groups for SB. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a significantly reduced SB (intervention group: baseline, 70.5%; 3 months after hospital discharge, 48.6%; control group: baseline, 71.5%; 3 months after hospital discharge, 57.5%; F value=5.981; P=.018). Conclusions: The results suggested that an approach that promotes SB reduction during hospitalization and after hospital discharge is effective in reducing SB in patients with MIS 3 months after hospital discharge.
Article
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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if caloric expenditure and typing speed differed among three positions (sitting, standing, walking). Methods: Participants included 40 college students (18-22 years, 30 males and 10 females) on either the baseball or track and field teams. Each participant was tested for 5 minutes in three different positions. Caloric expenditure was measured via indirect calorimetry and typing productivity via a 3-minute typing test. Repeated measures ANOVAs and T-Tests were performed to determine statistical differences for caloric expenditure and typing speed. Results: Caloric expenditure (calories per 5 minutes) was significantly higher for walking (16.4 ± 3.1) than for sitting (9.0 ± 2.4, p <0.0001) and standing (9.4 ± 2.0, p <0.0001). For typing productivity, standing resulted in faster typing speed than walking (37.4 ± 10.2 vs. 34.7 ± 10.7 wpm, p = 0096). Conclusions: Using a standup walking desk to type while working expends significantly more calories than typing while sitting or standing at a desk. However, typing speed was significantly higher while standing at a desk than while walking at a desk.
Article
This review summarizes the energy recommendation adopted in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2020 (DRIs 2020). DRIs 2020 is designed to prevent the progression of frailty and malnutrition among older individuals as well as the onset and progression of chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. In DRIs 2020, BMI (target BMI range) was adopted as the reference for maintaining an equilibrium between appropriate energy intake and expenditure. The target BMI range was defined for four adult age categories. Basically, the ranges were determined based on BMI values with the lowest all-cause mortality reported in observational epidemiological studies. However, for individuals aged 65 years and over, a tentative BMI range was determined by considering the actual BMI distribution for this age population and the obesity-related increased risk of disability.
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Background. Few studies have examined 24-hour activity and sleep behaviors and their contribution to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Latino adolescents and young adults with obesity. Aim. This study included quantitative data on T2D risk and 24-hour activity and sleep behaviors and qualitative data on individual, social, and environmental behavioral determinants. Method. A 7 day, 24-hour, wrist-worn accelerometer protocol assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SB), sleep, and sleep regularity, in adolescents ( N = 38; 12–16 years) and young adults ( N = 22; 18–22 years). T2D-related outcomes included adiposity (BMI, BF%, waist circumference), fasting, and 2-hour glucose. A subsample of participants ( N = 16 adolescents, N = 15 young adults) completed interviews to identify behavioral determinants. Results. High levels of PA were observed among adolescents ( M = 103.8 ± 67.5 minutes/day) and young adults ( M = 96.8 ± 78.8 minutes/day) as well as high levels of SB across both age groups (≥10 hours/day). Sleep regularity was negatively associated with adiposity (all ps < .05) in both age groups as well as fasting and 2-hour glucose in young adults (all ps < .05). Social support was associated with PA in both age groups as well as SB in younger youth. Auditory noises, lights, and safety inhibited sleep in both age groups. Conclusion. PA is critical for disease reduction, yet reducing SB and improving sleep are also important targets for reducing T2D risk in Hispanic adolescents and young adults. Future health promotion and disease prevention strategies should leverage qualitative findings regarding behavioral determinants.
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Background Limited data are available on objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) among adults with and without visual impairment (VI). Objective To compare PA and SB levels and patterns in adults with and without VI and to examine how these differ based on sex and day of the week. Methods Thirty-two participants with VI and 32 participants without VI participated in this cross-sectional study. PA and SB were assessed using GT3X ActiGraph accelerometers during waking hours for 7 days, and variables were examined in terms of disability group, sex, and day of the week. Nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used, and significance was set at p < 0.05. Results PA did not differ in terms of sex or day of the week in participants with VI. The PA of participants without VI was significantly higher for men than it was for women and was significantly higher during weekdays than on weekend days. Total sedentary time and the duration of SB breaks were significantly longer for female participants with VI than for those without VI. The number of sedentary bouts lasting ≥10 min during weekend days was significantly higher for participants with VI than for those without VI. Conclusions Most adults with and without VI did not meet the recommended levels of daily PA and spend a large portion of the day being sedentary. Interventions to enhance PA and reduce sedentary time in adults with and without VI are required.
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Participating in sufficient levels of physical activity is important for sustaining health and quality of life across the age span. The United States Physical Activity Guidelines recommend individuals of all ages “move more, more often” by frequently engaging in aerobic activity while avoiding prolonged bouts of sitting. This is indicative of a slow shift in focus in the study of active aging that has occurred in the last two decades. Historically, researchers interested in the influence of physical activity on older adults' health and quality of life focused on discrete sustained bouts of intense activity (i.e., structured exercise). More recently the widespread usage of accelerometers contributed to a large body of evidence demonstrating that long periods spent sedentary were associated with a host of negative health outcomes ranging from poorer cardiometabolic health to poorer physical functioning and elevated risk of death. These findings often persisted when controlling for time spent in higher-intensity physical activity, spurring separate fields of intervention research concerned with promoting exercise or reducing sedentary time. Novel data emerging in recent years on the importance of an individual's overall activity profile (i.e., amount and patterning of light and moderate-to-vigorous activity) has driven yet another shift in focus toward interventions focused explicitly on movement profiles. In this narrative review, we discuss the evolution of thought regarding older adults' physical activity behaviors. We highlight successes and challenges in first promoting structured and prolonged exercise, later in targeting sedentary behavior, and most recently in attempting to intervene on activity profiles. We end our review by highlighting current gaps in research and important future directions.
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La formazione delle Scuole di Architettura è perlopiù mono-scalare, nel senso che tende a concentrarsi su una sola scala progettuale. L'abitare è invece inter-scalare. Questa asincronia tra agire progettuale e abitare genera una tensione tra gli esiti del costruito e i suoi destinatari. Qui si mette ciò in relazione con i problemi generati da emergenze sanitarie di tipo pandemico, valutando come la limitata socialità imposta dalle misure di prevenzione ha effetti su alcuni aspetti dell'abitare.
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[Purpose] This study clarified the relationship between sedentary behavior and dynapenia in community-dwelling elderly using ambulatory service implementation facilities. [Participants and Methods] The subjects were 161 users of two outpatient nursing homes who met the conditions. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Determination of dynapenia was performed via grip strength (28 kg for men, and 18 kg for women) with reference to the definition of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. [Results] Sedentary behavior showed an association with dynapenia even after controlling for age, sex, physical activity, cognitive function, and comorbidities. [Conclusion] Interventions focusing on sedentary behavior are important for preventing the development and exacerbation of geriatric syndromes in the elderly due to the progression of dynapenia.
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Objective This study aimed to determine the impact of dietary weight loss (WL) plus aerobic exercise (EX) and a “move more, more often” approach to activity promotion (SitLess; SL) on WL and maintenance. Methods Low-active older adults (age 65-86 years) with obesity were randomized to WL+EX, WL+SL, or WL+EX+SL. Participants received a social-cognitive group-mediated behavioral WL program for 6 months, followed by a 12-month maintenance period. EX participants received guided walking exercise with the goal of walking 150 min/wk. SL attempted to achieve a step goal by moving frequently during the day. The primary outcome was body weight at 18 months, with secondary outcomes including weight regain from 6 to 18 months and objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior at each time point. Results All groups demonstrated significant WL over 6 months (p < 0.001), with no group differences. Groups that received SL improved total activity time (p ≤ 0.05), and those who received EX improved moderate-to-vigorous activity time (p = 0.003). Over the 12-month follow-up period, those who received WL+EX demonstrated greater weight regain (5.2 kg; 95% CI: 3.5-6.9) relative to WL+SL (2.4 kg; 95% CI: 0.8-4.0). Conclusions Pairing dietary WL with a recommendation to accumulate physical activity contributed to similar WL and less weight regain compared with traditional aerobic exercise.
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This study was conducted to find out the body response occurred immediately after bleep test after undergoing a pandemic period of more than one year. This research is an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional approach, using the purposive sampling technique. The research subjects were 43 students, 14 women and 29 men with the criteria (1) sports students who were physically active three times a week during the last 1-2 months; (2) no injury or (3) illness in the last 3-7 days. The instruments used are polar heart rate monitor h-10 (measure heart rate), Omron HBF 375 Karada Scan (assess the percentage of water in the body), and urine color scale (dehydration predictor). Data analysis through homogenity test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test, and Pearson Correlation test. The findings of this research were female (30.2 ± 2.63) and male (36.8 ± 5.31) VO2Max concluded as fair category. There was no significant relationship between heart rate with body water (0.071 > 0.05) and urine color (0.557 > 0.05), even body water and urine colour (0.10 > 0.05). The pandemic period is proven to make fitness levels stand in a fair category. Heart rate, body water percentage, and dehydration do not have a significant relationship with each other.
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Even when we meet physical activity guidelines, prolong sitting increase premature death risk. In this article we are discussing detrimental effects of too much sitting. Sedentary behaviors include sitting during travel to and from work, in the workplace and at home during leisure time. Sedentary behaviors are in the energy expenditure range of 1.0 to 1.5 METs (multiples of the basal metabolic rate). More studies are needed to form specific guidelines and advice that can be given to patients and the general population.
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A single exercise session can affect appetite-regulating hormones and suppress appetite. The effects of short, regular physical activity breaks across the day on appetite are unclear. This study investigated the effects of breaking up sitting with high-intensity physical activity versus a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise and prolonged sitting on appetite control. In this randomised crossover trial, 14 sedentary, inactive adults (seven women) completed three, 8-h experimental conditions: 1) prolonged sitting (SIT); 2) 30-min of moderate-intensity exercise followed by prolonged sitting (EX-SIT), and 3) sitting with 2 min 32 s of high-intensity physical activity every hour (SIT-ACT). Physical activity energy expenditure was matched between EX-SIT and SIT-ACT. Subjective appetite was measured every 30-min with acylated ghrelin and total peptide-YY (PYY) measured hourly in response to two standardised test meals. An ad libitum buffet meal was provided at the end of each condition. Based on linear mixed model analysis, total area under the curve for satisfaction was 16% higher (p=0.021) and overall appetite was 11% lower during SIT-ACT versus EX-SIT (p=0.018), with no differences between SIT-ACT and SIT. Time series analysis indicated that SIT-ACT reduced subjective appetite during the majority of the post-lunch period compared with SIT and EX-SIT, with some of these effects reversed earlier in the afternoon (p<0.05). Total PYY and acylated ghrelin did not differ between conditions. Relative energy intake was 760 kJ lower during SIT-ACT versus SIT (p=0.024). High-intensity physical activity breaks may be effective in acutely suppressing appetite; yet, appetite-regulating hormones may not explain such responses.
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Although some research highlights the benefits of behavioral routines for individual functioning, other research indicates that routines can reflect an individual's inflexibility and lower well-being. Given conflicting accounts on the benefits of routine, research is needed to examine how routineness versus flexibility in health-related behaviors correspond to personality traits, health, and occupational outcomes. We adopt a nonlinear dynamical systems approach to understanding routine using automatically sensed health-related behaviors collected from 483 information workers over a roughly two-month period. We utilized multidimensional recurrence quantification analysis to derive a measure of health regularity (routineness) from measures of daily step count, sleep duration, and heart rate variability (which relates to stress). Participants also completed measures of personality, health, and job performance at the start of the study and for two months via Ecological Momentary Assessments. Greater regularity was associated with higher neuroticism, lower agreeableness, and greater interpersonal and organizational deviance. Importantly, these results were independent of overall levels of each health indicator in addition to demographics. It is often believed that routine is desirable, but the results suggest that associations with routineness are more nuanced, and wearable sensors can provide insights into beneficial health behaviors.
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The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model is a student-centered approach that addresses the importance of health in schools. This framework acknowledges that schools are not just a place where students learn, but they are also worksites (CDC, 2021). Evidence-based employee wellness initiatives have the potential to improve employee health, increase productivity and performance, reduce absences, lower healthcare costs, and in the school setting, benefit students. School employees often serve as role models for students; therefore, it is important that school staff model healthy behaviors for students including, but not limited to healthy eating, stress management, and active lifestyles. A comprehensive school employee wellness approach coordinates programs and resources within their school and community to address multiple risk factors and health conditions to meet the health and safety needs of all school employees (CDC, 2021). This article provides strategies and steps that health and physical education teachers can take to implement and promote employee wellness in their schools.
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Purpose Due to the international paucity of empirical evidence, this study aimed to investigate the health metrics and lifestyle behaviours of a staff cohort in a higher education institution (HEI) in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 279 (16.4% response rate) HEI staff (academic, management, clerical/support), via a web-based health questionnaire that incorporated validated measures such as the Mental Health Index-5, Energy and Vitality Index, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (short form) and the AUDIT-C drinking subscale. A cluster analytical procedure was used to examine the presence of distinct clusters of individuals exhibiting either optimal or sub-optimal health behaviours. Findings A multitude of concerning patterns were identified including poor anthropometric profiles (64.4% of males overweight/obese), excessive occupational sitting time (67.8% of females sitting for = 4 h per day), hazardous drinking among younger staff (38.2% of 18–34 year olds), sub-optimal sleep duration on weeknights (82.2% less than 8 h), less favourable mean psychometric indices than the general Irish population, and insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (62.1% reporting <5 daily servings). Cluster analysis revealed “Healthy lifestyle” individuals exhibited significantly lower BMI values, lower stress levels and reported fewer days absent from work compared to those with a “Sub-optimal lifestyle”. Originality/value In contrast to the abundance of research pertaining to student cohorts, the current study is the first to examine the clustering of health-related variables in a cohort of HEI staff in Ireland. Findings will be used to inform policy at the host institution and will be of broader interest to higher education stakeholders elsewhere. Future longitudinal studies are required to monitor the health challenges experienced by this influential, yet under-researched cohort.
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While weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is considered a well-established key determinant for regulating weight and reducing risks of obesity and associated noncommunicable diseases, MVPA alone may not be enough to offset excessive sitting time. This integrative literature review aims to advance the discussion about sedentary behavior as a significant independent health risk for obesity and associated noncommunicable diseases, to increase awareness, to synthesize important evidence on sedentary behavior and a number of negative health outcomes, and to present the application of a whole-day approach to physical activity as a feasible strategy to promote health.
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In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published national guidelines on Physical Activity and Public Health. The Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the American Heart Association endorsed and supported these recommendations. The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1995 recommendations on the types and amounts of physical activity needed by healthy adults to improve and maintain health. Development of this document was by an expert panel of scientists, including physicians, epidemiologists, exercise scientists, and public health specialists. This panel reviewed advances in pertinent physiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical scientific data, including primary research articles and reviews published since the original recommendation was issued in 1995. Issues considered by the panel included new scientific evidence relating physical activity to health, physical activity recommendations by various organizations in the interim, and communications issues. Key points related to updating the physical activity recommendation were outlined and writing groups were formed. A draft manuscript was prepared and circulated for review to the expert panel as well as to outside experts. Comments were integrated into the final recommendation. Primary recommendation: To promote and maintain health, all healthy adults aged 18 to 65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. [I (A)] Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendation. [IIa (B)] For example, a person can meet the recommendation by walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeably accelerates the heart rate, can be accumulated toward the 30-min minimum by performing bouts each lasting 10 or more minutes. [I (B)] Vigorous-intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. In addition, every adult should perform activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance a minimum of two days each week. [IIa (A)] Because of the dose-response relation between physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity. [I (A)]
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Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity has an established preventive role in cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some cancers. However, recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that sitting time has deleterious cardiovascular and metabolic effects that are independent of whether adults meet physical activity guidelines. Evidence from "inactivity physiology" laboratory studies has identified unique mechanisms that are distinct from the biologic bases of exercising. Opportunities for sedentary behaviors are ubiquitous and are likely to increase with further innovations in technologies. We present a compelling selection of emerging evidence on the deleterious effects of sedentary behavior, as it is underpinned by the unique physiology of inactivity. It is time to consider excessive sitting a serious health hazard, with the potential for ultimately giving consideration to the inclusion of too much sitting (or too few breaks from sitting) in physical activity and health guidelines.
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Observational studies show breaking up prolonged sitting has beneficial associations with cardiometabolic risk markers, but intervention studies are required to investigate causality. We examined the acute effects on postprandial glucose and insulin levels of uninterrupted sitting compared with sitting interrupted by brief bouts of light- or moderate-intensity walking. Overweight/obese adults (n = 19), aged 45-65 years, were recruited for a randomized three-period, three-treatment acute crossover trial: 1) uninterrupted sitting; 2) seated with 2-min bouts of light-intensity walking every 20 min; and 3) seated with 2-min bouts of moderate-intensity walking every 20 min. A standardized test drink was provided after an initial 2-h period of uninterrupted sitting. The positive incremental area under curves (iAUC) for glucose and insulin (mean [95% CI]) for the 5 h after the test drink (75 g glucose, 50 g fat) were calculated for the respective treatments. The glucose iAUC (mmol/L) · h after both activity-break conditions was reduced (light: 5.2 [4.1-6.6]; moderate: 4.9 [3.8-6.1]; both P < 0.01) compared with uninterrupted sitting (6.9 [5.5-8.7]). Insulin iAUC (pmol/L) · h was also reduced with both activity-break conditions (light: 633.6 [552.4-727.1]; moderate: 637.6 [555.5-731.9], P < 0.0001) compared with uninterrupted sitting (828.6 [722.0-950.9]). Interrupting sitting time with short bouts of light- or moderate-intensity walking lowers postprandial glucose and insulin levels in overweight/obese adults. This may improve glucose metabolism and potentially be an important public health and clinical intervention strategy for reducing cardiovascular risk.
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Knowledge of sedentary behaviour associations with health has relied mainly on television-viewing as a proxy and studies with other measures are less common. To clarify whether sedentary behaviour is associated with disease-risk, we examined associations for television-viewing and sitting at work. Using the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 7660), we analysed cross-sectional associations between television-viewing and work sitting (four categories, 0-1 to ≥ 3 h/d) with total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, hypertension and metabolic syndrome at 45 y. We adjusted for lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and assessed mediation of associations by body mass index (BMI) and diet. We also assessed whether the sedentary indicators are related similarly to factors linked to disease-risk. There was a general trend of adverse socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics with higher h/d television-viewing, but trends in the opposite direction for work sitting. Television-viewing was associated with most biomarkers and associations were mediated by BMI: e.g. for each category increase in television-viewing, HDL-cholesterol in men was lower by 2.3% (95% CI: 1.5%, 3.2%) and, in BMI and diet adjusted analyses, by 1.6% (0.8%, 2.4%); for women, by 2.0% (1.2%, 2.9%) and 0.9% (0.1%, 1.6%) respectively. Few, weaker associations for work sitting were found, in men only: e.g. corresponding values for HDL-cholesterol were 1.2% (0.5%, 1.9%) and 0.9% (0.3%, 1.5%). Odds for metabolic syndrome were elevated by 82% and 33% respectively for men watching television or work sitting for ≥ 3 vs. 0-1 h/d. Associations with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers in mid-adulthood differed for television-viewing and work sitting. The role of sedentary behaviour may vary by leisure and work domains or the two indicators reflect differing associations with other disease-related influences.
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Watching television and using a computer are increasingly common sedentary behaviors. Whether or not prolonged screen time increases the risk for mortality remains uncertain. Mortality for 7,350 adults aged ≥ 20 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2002 and were followed through 2006 was examined. Participants were asked a single question about the amount of time they spent watching television or videos or using a computer during the past 30 days. During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 542 participants died. At baseline, 12.7% of participants reported watching television or using a computer less than 1 h per day, 16.4% did so for 1 h, 27.8% for 2 h, 18.7% for 3 h, 10.9% for 4 h, and 13.5% for 5 or more h. After extensive adjustment, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality for the top category of exposure was 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 2.05). No significant trend across categories of exposure was noted. The amount of screen time was also not significantly related to mortality from diseases of the circulatory system. In the present study, screen time did not significantly predict mortality from all-causes and diseases of the circulatory system.
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Sedentary behaviors predominate modern life, yet we do not fully understand the adverse effects of these behaviors on mortality after considering the benefits of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We tested the hypotheses that higher amounts of overall sitting time and television viewing are positively associated with mortality and described the independent and combined effects of these sedentary behaviors and MVPA on mortality. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined 240,819 adults (aged 50-71 y) who did not report any cancer, cardiovascular disease, or respiratory disease at baseline. Mortality was ascertained over 8.5 y. Sedentary behaviors were positively associated with mortality after adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, diet, race, and MVPA. Participants who reported the most television viewing (≥7 h compared with <1 h/d) were at greater risk of all-cause (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.47, 1.76), cardiovascular (HR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.56, 2.20), and cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.40) mortality after adjustment for MVPA. Overall sitting was associated with all-cause mortality. Even among adults reporting high levels of MVPA (>7 h/wk), high amounts of television viewing (≥7 h/d) remained associated with increased risk of all-cause (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.79) and cardiovascular (HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.33, 3.00) mortality compared with those reporting the least television viewing (<1 h/d). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was positively associated with mortality, and participation in high levels of MVPA did not fully mitigate health risks associated with prolonged time watching television. Adults should be encouraged to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors, when possible, and to participate in MVPA at recommended levels. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.
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The rising prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem. There is an urgent need for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent the development of T2DM. Sedentary behaviour (sitting time) has recently been identified as a risk factor for diabetes, often independent of the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes) is a study which aims to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at high risk of T2DM. A reduction in sedentary time is targeted using theory driven group structured education. The STAND programme is subject to piloting and process evaluation in line with the MRC framework for complex interventions. Participants are encouraged to self-monitor and self-regulate their behaviour. The intervention is being assessed in a randomised controlled trial with 12 month follow up. Inclusion criteria are a) aged 18-40 years with a BMI in the obese range; b) 18-40 years with a BMI in the overweight range plus an additional risk factor for T2DM. Participants are randomised to the intervention (n = 89) or control (n = 89) arm. The primary outcome is a reduction in sedentary behaviour at 12 months as measured by an accelerometer (count < 100/min). Secondary outcomes include physical activity, sitting/lying time using the ActivPAL posture monitor, fasting and 2 h oral glucose tolerance test, lipids, inflammatory biomarkers, body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, illness perceptions, and efficacy beliefs for behaviour change. This is the first UK trial to address sedentary behaviour change in a population of younger adults at risk of T2DM. The results will provide a platform for the development of a range of future multidisciplinary interventions in this rapidly expanding high-risk population. Current controlled trials ISRCTN08434554, MRC project 91409.
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Little research has been done on the long-term longitudinal associations between markers of sedentary behaviour and health risks. We hypothesised that television (TV) viewing in early to mid-adulthood predicts an adverse cardiometabolic risk factor profile in middle age independently of participation in physical activity. We used prospective data from 5,972 (2,947 men) participants of the 1958 British Birth Cohort study. TV viewing and exercise frequency were obtained at age 23 years. Daily TV viewing and weekly moderate to vigorous physical activity were assessed at age 44 years, as well as HbA(1c), triacylglycerol, total and HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and waist circumference. We used generalised linear models and multiple linear regression to examine the associations between TV viewing at age 23 years and the cardiometabolic risk markers (including a clustered cardiometabolic risk score) at 44 years, while adjusting for sex, exercise participation and TV viewing at age 44 years, and other potential confounders. In the multivariable models, TV viewing frequency at age 23 years showed positive associations with C-reactive protein (generalised linear model change 12.6%, 95% CI 3.5, 22.8; p = 0.005), fibrinogen (change 1.8%, 95% CI 0.3, 3.3; p = 0.020), waist circumference (coefficient 1.17, 95% CI 0.32, 2.01; p = 0.004), systolic (coefficient 1.44, 95% CI 0.33, 2.54; p = 0.019) and diastolic (coefficient 0.75, 95% CI -0.01, 1.51; p = 0.053) blood pressure, and clustered cardiometabolic risk score (men only, coefficient 0.06, 95% CI 0.01, 0.11; p = 0.038). Adjustments for baseline (age 23 years) BMI attenuated these associations towards null. TV viewing habits in early adulthood are associated with adverse cardiometabolic profiles in early middle adulthood that are independent of TV viewing habits and physical activity in middle age, but not independent of BMI in early adulthood.
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Although it is no longer debatable that sedentary behaviors are an actual cause of many metabolic diseases, the physiology of physical inactivity has been poorly investigated for this purpose. Along with microgravity, the physiological adaptations to spaceflights require metabolic adaptations to physical inactivity, and that is exceedingly well-simulated during the ground-based microgravity bed-rest analogs. Bed rest thus represents a unique model to investigate the mechanisms by which physical inactivity leads to the development of current societal chronic diseases. For decades, however, clinicians and physiologists working in space research have worked separately without taking full awareness of potential strong mutual questioning. This review summarizes the data collected over the last 60 years on metabolic adaptations to bed rest in healthy subjects. Our aim is to provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that physical inactivity per se is one of the primary causes in the development of metabolic inflexibility. This evidence will focus on four main tenants of metabolic inflexiblity: 1) insulin resistance, 2) impaired lipid trafficking and hyperlipidemia, 3) a shift in substrate use toward glucose, and 4) a shift in muscle fiber type and ectopic fat storage. Altogether, this hypothesis places sedentary behaviors upstream on the list of factors involved in metabolic inflexibility, which is considered to be a primary impairment in several metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Sedentary time (too much sitting) increasingly is being recognized as a distinct health risk behavior. This paper reviews the reliability and validity of self-reported and device-based sedentary time measures and provides recommendations for their use in population-based studies. The focus is on instruments that have been used in free-living, population-based research in adults. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are utilized to compare the descriptive epidemiology of sedentary time that arises from the use of different sedentary time measures. A key recommendation from this review is that, wherever possible, population-based monitoring of sedentary time should incorporate both self-reported measures (to capture important domain- and behavior-specific sedentary time information) and device-based measures (to measure both total sedentary time and patterns of sedentary time accumulation).
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The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit from engaging in amounts of exercise less than recommended. In addition to exercising regularly, there are health benefits in concurrently reducing total time engaged in sedentary pursuits and also by interspersing frequent, short bouts of standing and physical activity between periods of sedentary activity, even in physically active adults. Behaviorally based exercise interventions, the use of behavior change strategies, supervision by an experienced fitness instructor, and exercise that is pleasant and enjoyable can improve adoption and adherence to prescribed exercise programs. Educating adults about and screening for signs and symptoms of CHD and gradual progression of exercise intensity and volume may reduce the risks of exercise. Consultations with a medical professional and diagnostic exercise testing for CHD are useful when clinically indicated but are not recommended for universal screening to enhance the safety of exercise.
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We examined the associations of sitting time and television (TV) viewing time with continuously measured biomarkers of cardio-metabolic risk in Australian adults. Waist circumference, BMI, resting blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose, and fasting insulin were measured in 2,761 women and 2,103 men aged > or =30 years (mean age 54 years) without clinically diagnosed diabetes from the 2004-2005 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined associations of self-reported sitting time and TV viewing time (hours per day) with these biomarkers, adjusting for potential confounding variables. For both women and men, sitting time was detrimentally associated with waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, 2-h postload plasma glucose, and fasting insulin (all P < 0.05), but not with fasting plasma glucose and diastolic blood pressure (men only). With the exception of HDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in women, the associations remained significant after further adjustment for waist circumference. TV viewing time was detrimentally associated with all metabolic measures in women and all except HDL cholesterol and blood pressure in men. Only fasting insulin and glucose (men only) remained deleteriously associated with TV viewing time after adjustment for waist circumference. In women and men, sitting time and TV viewing time were deleteriously associated with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers, with sitting time having more consistent associations in both sexes and being independent of central adiposity. Preventive initiatives aimed at reducing sitting time should focus on both nonleisure and leisure-time domains.
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In a meta-analysis we investigated the effect of physical activity with different intensity categories on all-cause mortality. Many studies have reported positive effects of regular physical activity on primary prevention. This recent meta-analysis analyzed all-cause mortality with special reference to intensity categories. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, PUBMED, and MEDLINE data bases (1990-2006) for prospective cohort studies on physical leisure activity. Thirty-eight studies were identified and evaluated. The presentation refers to studies with 3 or 4 different intensities of regular physical activity according to a standard questionnaire. There was a significant association of lower all-cause mortality for active individuals compared with sedentary persons. For studies with three activity categories (mildly, moderately, and highly active) and multivariate-adjusted models, highly active men had a 22% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.84) compared to mildly active men. For women, the relative risk was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.90). We observed similar results in moderately active persons compared to mildly active individuals (RR=0.81 for men and RR=0.76 for women). This association of activity to all-cause mortality was similar and significant in older subjects. Regular physical activity over longer time is strongly associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality in active subjects compared to sedentary persons. There is a dose-response curve especially from sedentary subjects to those with mild and moderate exercise with only a minor additional reduction with further increase in activity level.
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Research on physical activity and health has pointed clearly to increasing the time that adults spend doing moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities: 30 minutes a day is generally recommended. Recent evidence, however, underlines the importance of also focusing on sedentary behaviours -- the high volumes of time that adults spend sitting in their remaining 'non-exercise' waking hours. In the context of contemporary interest in physical activity and health, we provide a brief overview of recent evidence for the distinct relationships between 'too much sitting' and biomarkers of metabolic health, and thus with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other prevalent chronic health problems. Particular concerns for this new field include the challenges of changing sedentary behaviours in the context of ubiquitous environmental and social drivers of sitting time; examining the effects of interventions for reducing or breaking-up sitting time; and, identifying the most-relevant implications for clinical and public health practice.
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b>OBJECTIVE —We examined the associations of television viewing time with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (2-h PG) levels in Australian adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —A total of 8,357 adults aged >35 years who were free from diagnosed diabetes and who attended a population-based cross-sectional study (Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study [AusDiab]) were evaluated. Measures of FPG and 2-h PG were obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Self-reported television viewing time (in the previous week) was assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S) and ß-cell function (HOMA-%B) were calculated based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. RESULTS —After adjustment for confounders and physical activity time, time spent watching television in women was positively associated with 2-h PG, log fasting insulin, and log HOMA-%B and inversely associated with log HOMA-%S ( P < 0.05) but not with FPG. No significant associations were observed with glycemic measures in men. The ß-coefficients across categories of average hours spent watching television per day (<1.0, 1.0–1.9, 2.0–2.9, 3.0–3.9, and ≥4.0) for 2-h PG in women were 0 (reference), 0.009, 0.047, 0.473, and 0.501, respectively ( P for trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS —Our findings highlight the unique deleterious relationship of sedentary behavior (indicated by television viewing time) and glycemic measures independent of physical activity time and adiposity status. These relationships differed according to sex and type of glucose measurement, with the 2-h PG measure being more strongly associated with television viewing. The findings suggest an important role for reducing sedentary behavior in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, especially in women.<br /