Assessment of factors associated with pre-diabetes in HCV infection including direct and dynamic measurements of insulin action

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.
Journal of Viral Hepatitis (Impact Factor: 3.91). 07/2012; 19(7):480-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2011.01568.x
Source: PubMed


Although hepatitis C (HCV) is associated with diabetes, few studies have examined pre-diabetes in this population. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with pre-diabetes in HCV-infected patients, including direct measurement of insulin action. Ninety-seven non-cirrhotic, non-diabetic and HCV-infected patients underwent clinical evaluation and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during insulin suppression test. Early phase and total insulin secretion were determined using OGTT. Rates of pre-diabetes were as follows: 21% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 7% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 9% combined IFG/IGT. Twelve percent of Caucasians, 50% of African Americans and 70% of Latinos had pre-diabetes (P = 0.002). Patient characteristics among the glucose metabolism categories were similar except those with combined IFG/IGT had a higher body mass index (BMI) vs normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (30 vs 26 kg/m(2), P = 0.007) and lower LDL vs NGT and IGT (74, 104 and 112 mg/dL, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). On multivariable analysis, non-Caucasian race (OR 23.1, P = 0.003), BMI (OR 3.4, P = 0.02) and greater liver inflammation (OR 7.9, P = 0.03) predicted IFG, whereas non-Caucasian race (OR 14.8, P = 0.01) and SSPG (OR 1.1 per 10 units, P = 0.01) predicted IGT. Early and total insulin secretion adjusted for the degree of insulin resistance was decreased in pre-diabetes compared with NGT (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). Pre-diabetes is highly prevalent among HCV-infected patients, and in some instances, coincides with host responses to the virus. In most cases, however, factors that are associated with pre-diabetes in HCV-infected patients are similar to those observed in the non-HCV population.

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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic HCV infection is the leading cause for the development of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is the primary cause for liver transplantation in the western world. Insulin resistance is one of the pathological features in patients with HCV infection and often leads to development of type II diabetes. Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of various complications associated with HCV infection. Recent evidence indicates that HCV associated insulin resistance may result in hepatic fibrosis, steatosis, HCC and resistance to anti-viral treatment. Thus, HCV associated insulin resistance is a therapeutic target at any stage of HCV infection. HCV modulates normal cellular gene expression and interferes with the insulin signaling pathway. Various mechanisms have been proposed in regard to HCV mediated insulin resistance, involving up regulation of inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor-α, phosphorylation of insulin-receptor substrate-1, Akt, up-regulation of gluconeogenic genes like glucose 6 phosphatase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, and accumulation of lipid droplets. In this review, we summarize the available information on how HCV infection interferes with insulin signaling pathways resulting in insulin resistance.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and AimsEarly recognition of prediabetes can lead to timely clinical interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Both Latino ethnicity and chronic hepatitis C (HCV) have been identified as diabetic risk factors. We aimed to investigate predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), a common prediabetic state, among Latinos with and without HCV.Methods One hundred Latino adults with no history of diabetes or cirrhosis underwent clinical, laboratory, and metabolic evaluation, including oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and insulin suppression testing to quantify directly measured insulin resistance (IR). Isolated IFG was defined as fasting glucose ≥100mg/dL and <140mg/dL at 2 hours with normal glucose tolerance during OGTT.ResultsOverall subject characteristics included median age 44 years, 64% male, 40% HCV-positive, and 32% with isolated IFG. Factors associated with isolated IFG included subject age (OR 2.42 per decade, 95%CI 1.40-3.90, p=0.001), HCV infection (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.71-9.72, p=0.002), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (OR 2.35 per doubling, 95%CI 1.46-3.77, p<0.0001). Multipredictor logistic regression analysis identified ALT (OR 2.05 per doubling, p=0.005, 95% CI 1.24-3.40) and age (OR 2.20 per 10 years, p=0.005, 95%CI 1.27-3.80) as factors independently associated with IFG. While HCV was associated with 4-fold higher odds of IFG, this entire effect was mediated by ALT.Conclusions We found strong evidence that liver inflammation is a risk factor for prediabetes among Latinos with and without HCV. Among HCV-infected individuals, early antiviral therapy could mitigate the effect of inflammation and represent an important intervention to prevent diabetes in this at-risk population.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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