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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Buddhist meditation intervention on empathy, perceived stress, mindfulness, self-compassion, and of particular interest, the dispositional tendency to feel empathic concern rather than personal distress when perceiving another as in need, termed altruistic orientation. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 20) or a waiting list control group (n = 22). Results indicated a trend towards increases in altruistic orientation in the intervention group—an increase that significantly correlated with meditation time, decreases in perceived stress, and increases in self-compassion and mindfulness. Additionally, compared to the controls, significant increases in mindfulness and self-compassion and a significant decrease in perceived stress were obtained for the intervention group.
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Promoting Altruism Through Meditation: An 8-Week
Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Erik Wallmark &Kousha Safarzadeh &
Daiva Daukantaitė&Rachel E. Maddux
#Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the
effects of a Buddhist meditation intervention on empathy,
perceived stress, mindfulness, self-compassion, and of par-
ticular interest, the dispositional tendency to feel empathic
concern rather than personal distress when perceiving an-
other as in need, termed altruistic orientation. Participants
were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n020) or
a waiting list control group (n022). Results indicated a trend
towards increases in altruistic orientation in the intervention
groupan increase that significantly correlated with medi-
tation time, decreases in perceived stress, and increases in
self-compassion and mindfulness. Additionally, compared
to the controls, significant increases in mindfulness and self-
compassion and a significant decrease in perceived stress
were obtained for the intervention group.
Keywords Empathy .Altruism .Stress .Mindfulness .
Self-compassion .Meditation
A wide range of experiments have shown that the capacity for
compassion and altruism exists in humans (Batson 2011), and it
has also been observed in nonhuman primates (de Waal 2008).
Altruism is defined as a motivational state with the ultimate
goal of increasing anothers welfare(Batson and Shaw 1991)
and is linked to several beneficial interpersonal outcomes, such
as decreased aggression (Harmon-Jones et al. 2004; Miller and
Eisenberg 1988), improved attitudes towards stigmatized
groups (Batson et al. 1997), and enhanced social closeness
and decreased loneliness (Crocker and Carnevello 2008), and
to an increased tendency to give during a prisoners dilemma
when the other already has defected (Batson and Ahmad 2001).
Because altruism has been shown to be associated with
promising interpersonal benefits (for review, see Batson
2011), we argue that psychological interventions targeting
such an ability are a worthy scientific goal. In this pilot
study, we explore whether an intervention based on the
Buddhist meditations of loving-kindness, compassion, em-
pathic joy, and equanimity (i.e., the four immeasurables), as
well as the practice of Tonglen, can develop the disposition-
al tendency to respond altruistically.
One of the well-established antecedents to altruistic mo-
tivation is empathic concern (EC) (Batson and Shaw 1991;
Piliavin and Charng 1990; Schroeder et al. 1988). It is
defined as an other-oriented emotion elicited by and con-
gruent with the perceived welfare of someone in need
(Batson 2011,p. 11) or feelings of warmth, compassion,
and sympathy that an observer has for an unfortunate other
(Davis 1983, p. 167)definitions that closely overlap with
the terms compassion (Goetz et al. 2010)andsympathy
(Eiseberg and Eggum 2011). When a valued other is per-
ceived to be in need, EC is elicited, bringing forth a moti-
vational force aimed at reducing the perceived discrepancy
between the actual state and the valued state of the other.
This motivation to bring another to the valued appetitive
state is termed altruistic motivation(Batson 2011).
EC is not to be conflated with the broader term empathy
(Decety 2011). Whereas EC is an other-oriented response
which entails feeling for the other (Batson 2011), empathy is
most commonly defined as an automatic response stemming
from the perception of an others emotional state (Preston
and de Waal 2002), which is similar to what the other person
is feeling (Eisenberg and Eggum 2011).
Prior research shows that empathic arousal occurs when
another is perceived to be in an aversive emotional situation
E. Wallmark :K. Safarzadeh :D. Daukantaitė(*):R. E. Maddux
Department of Psychology, Lund University,
P.O. Box 213, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
DOI 10.1007/s12671-012-0115-4
(Bandura and Rosenthal 1966; Berger 1962). The arousal,
however, is not in itself a sufficient basis for engaging in
altruistic motivated behavior, but it may evolve into EC,
personal distress (PD), or both (Eisenberg and Eggum 2011;
Piliavin and Charng 1990). Emotion regulation is under-
stood to be crucial for regulating and adapting the empathic
response (Decety 2011) and preventing overarousal (associ-
ated with PD) (Eisenberg and Fabes 1992). Whereas EC is
related to feelings of compassion, tenderness, and warmth
felt for the other, PD is related to feelings of being alarmed,
disturbed, and upset (Batson et al. 1987; Davis 1983).
It has also been shown that EC and PD exhibit distinct
motivational consequences: EC promotes altruistic respond-
ing, whereas PD promotes self-focused efforts and allevia-
tion of ones own distress rather than that of the other
(Batson et al. 1987; Batson and Shaw 1991; Eisenberg et
al. 1989; Piliavin and Charng 1990; Schroeder et al. 1988).
Although EC and PD are two distinct emotional states with
different motives, they have been shown to correlate mod-
erately (r00.52), as measured by the Interpersonal Reactiv-
ity Index (IRI; Davis 1983). Individuals experiencing high
general levels of emotional reactivity may be prone to both
high levels of PD and EC (Davis 1994). It is plausible,
however, that a high dispositional level of EC paired with
alow level of PD constitutes a specific altruistic disposition
in contrast to being generally emotionally reactive. Measur-
ing the difference between the two (EC minus PD) is a
complementary approach which can tap the dispositional
tendency to act altruistically as opposed to (1) merely being
emotionally aroused or (2) engaging in self-focused efforts
aimed at alleviating PD. This measured discrepancy (EC
minus PD) is further referred to as altruistic orientation.
Another important factor related to altruistic motivation
is perspective taking (PT), defined as the ability to adopt the
perspective of the other (Davis 1983). PT is thought to be
associated with mental flexibility and cognitive top-down
regulation of the default egocentric perspective (Decety and
Jackson 2004). Adopting the perspective of another has
been widely and successfully used to induce EC in labora-
tory settings from the classical experiment by Stotland
(1969) and onwards and is understood to be an important
way for coming to value others thoughts and emotions
(Batson 2011). PT has indeed been pinpointed as an effec-
tive strategy for reducing stereotyping and prejudice (Batson
and Ahmad 2009) that seems to facilitate greater social
connectedness and prevents perceived differences between
the self and the out-group (Galinsky and Moskowitz 2000).
The use of mental imagery for putting oneself in the place
of another has recently been highlighted as an effective way
to cultivate altruism (Decety and Lamm 2011). By integrat-
ing motivation, attention, cognitive, and emotional aspects
(Wallace and Shapiro 2006), meditation may offer a method
by which such imagery can be utilized. Mindfulness-based
interventions are mainly understood to target attention and
emotional awareness and seem to be a valid approach for
promoting empathy (Shapiro and Izett 2008). However, we
argue that the four immeasurables which builds on mindful-
ness, but also involving an active affective/motivational
engagement with an imagined other, is a more powerful
and suitable method for developing EC and altruistic
The four immeasurables, also called the brahma viharas
(Buddhagosa 1975), which consist of (1) loving-kindness
(pali: metta), (2) compassion (karuna), (3) empathetic joy
(mudita), and (4) equanimity (upekkha), are drawn from the
Buddhist tradition. The first three (loving-kindness, com-
passion, and empathetic joy) are altruistic motivations ap-
plicable to contextual valence (baseline, aversive, and
appetitive) in which another is perceived to be, and the
fourth (equanimity) is concerned with valuing the other in
his or her own right. Equanimity is aimed at reducing biases
that hinder altruism, and it involves the wish that we may let
go of liking, disliking, and indifference towards others so
that our altruistic motivation may become unbiased and
truly immeasurable (Patrul Rinpoche 1994).
The approach here is adopted from Chödron (2009) and
McLeod (2001) and consists of (1) stabilizing attention by
noticing the inflow and outflow of the breath for a period of
time, followed by (2) imagining a valued other in a valenced
condition (baseline, aversive, or appetitive) in front of
oneself, (3) directing the corresponding altruistic motivation
(e.g., compassion when the other is perceived in an aversive
state) to the other, (4) practicing in a continuous moment-to-
moment awareness of sensations/emotions correlated with
directing such motivation, and (5) gradually expanding the
practice by moving onwards from the highly valued other to
a less and less valued other, maintaining the heartfelt altru-
istic motivation. A more detailed description regarding the
intervention can be found in Safarzadeh and Wallmark
Mindfulness training promotes flexible emotion regula-
tion (Chambers et al. 2009), such as an enhanced ability to
regulate the empathic response and the default self-
perspective (Decety and Jackson 2004). This potentially
increases the tendency to experience EC rather than PD
(Eisenberg and Eggum 2011) as well as adopt the perspec-
tive of the other (Decety 2011). Greater flexibility may
consequently make way for valuing the others welfare in
his or her own right, rather than based on personal prefer-
ences of what the other may bring to the self (Batson 2011).
Even though studies investigating the effects of the four
immeasurables are few, interest in the field is rapidly growing
(Hofmann et al. 2011). In a recent experiment by Hutcherson
et al. (2008), participants were instructed to first imagine
two loved ones standing beside ones self, directing love
to them by repeating words that bear the motivation of
loving-kindness. After 4 min, they were instructed to
redirect and maintain loving-kindness towards a photo-
graph of a neutral stranger. Results showed that just a
total of 7 min of loving-kindness meditation done by
the meditation-naïve participants significantly altered the
social evaluative judgments for the neutral stranger on
both implicit and explicit measures. This was further-
more generalized to other neutral strangers (not included
in the meditation), but only on explicit levels. The
procedure, in which one begins where the aspirations
arise more naturally, followed by a gradual expansion,
breaking down the barriers of learned preferences, is in
line with how the practice is traditionally used (Wallace
Altering of emotional experiences through training in the
four immeasurables has been specifically investigated by
Fredrickson et al. (2008). In this study, participants under-
went an 8-week loving-kindness meditation program in-
volving a daily assessment of time spent meditating as
well as measures of positive and negative emotions. Results
showed an increase in daily experience of positive emotions
after completing the studychanges that in turn were relat-
ed to increases in mindful attention, self-acceptance, posi-
tive relations with others, and a good physical health. These
changes were linked to increased satisfaction with life and
reduced depressive symptoms.
In addition to the four immeasurables discussed above,
the practice of Tonglen or sending and taking(Kyabgon
2007), traditionally included in the larger framework of
Lojong the seven-point mind training(Chödron 1994), is
considered a main practice aimed for the development of
altruism (Dalai Lama and Cutler 1998). In Tonglen, one
simultaneously combines the four immeasurables with
mindfulness of breathing in one single method (McLeod
2001). By reducing our habitual tendencies to respond with
aversion to others distress and cling to our own happiness,
Tonglen is regarded as promoting a radical shift in how we
relate to experience, promoting altruism and insight (Chödron
To date there are no studies known to the authors inves-
tigating the effects of Tonglen. Pace et al. (2009), however,
examined the effects of compassion meditation drawn from
the practice of Lojong, but only in the context of altered
stress responses and not related empathy or altruism. The 6-
week program they adopted showed no reductions in stress
response (as measured by plasma cortisol or interleukin-6
concentration) between meditation and control groups, but
significant correlations were obtained between meditation
practice time and reduced stress levels.
The primary purpose of this randomized controlled pilot
study is to investigate the effects of this intervention on the
dispositional tendency to feel EC rather than PD when
perceiving another as in need, named altruistic orientation.
A secondary purpose is to further examine the effects of the
intervention on mindfulness, self-compassion, and per-
ceived stress, factors thought to affect levels of empathic
accuracy and concern for otherswell-being (Shapiro and
Izett 2008).
Based on previous studies, we expected that the interven-
tion group (1) would increase their dispositional tendency to
feel EC rather than PD as compared to controls, indicating
an increased altruistic orientationfromengaginginthe
program, and (2) would exhibit an increased tendency to
adopt the perspective of others as compared to the controls,
demonstrating an increased valuing of the others
In line with prior research indicating differences between
meditators and non-meditators in emotion regulation ten-
dencies, such as decreased stress levels (Davidson et al.
2003), self-compassion (Neff 2003), and mindfulness
(Chambers et al. 2009;Ortner et al. 2007), we expected
(3) significant changes on these measures among those
who completed the 8-week program as compared to those
in the control condition and that (4) the amount of time
participants spent practicing meditation during the 8 weeks
would correlate with increases in EC and PT, mindfulness
and self-compassion, as well as decreases in perceived stress
and PD.
Data for 42 participants were analyzed: 22 in the control
group and 20 in the intervention group. The mean age of
participants was 33.8 (intervention group: M032, SD 011,
range02257; control group: M035, SD 015, range 022
69). In both groups, 86 % of the participants were women
and the majority of the participants were well-educated (i.e.,
bachelor/masters degree). No significant differences were
found between groups on demographic variables.
Participants were recruited from nonprofit organizations,
a nearby sports center, and in the vicinity of Lund Univer-
sity in Sweden. The study was marketed as an opportunity
to learn meditation, get greater balance and harmony in
everyday lifeand referred to as an introduction course in
meditationwithout mentioning keywords such as empa-
thyor altruism.Individuals who registered for the study
(n0105) were subsequently screened for inclusion (see
Fig. 1flow diagram). This involved questions about drug
and alcohol habits and whether applicants could participate
during the intended period, spending approximately 30 min
meditating per day.
Selected items from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine
Evaluation (Evans et al. 2002) scale (03 scale) were used to
gauge mental distress and/or somatic illness and pain.
Applicants were disqualified for a rating of 3 (almost all
the time) on items assessing generalized anxiety, panic
anxiety, depression, and/or somatic illness/pain. For suicidal
thoughts, self-injury, and positive psychotic symptoms,
applicants were disqualified for a rating of 2 (sometimes)
or above. Illicit drug use in the last 6 months was also
exclusionary. Applicants were furthermore excluded if they
had any prior meditation experience or more than 2 years of
continuous practice of yoga, Tai Chi, or Qigong.
Design and Procedure
We conducted a randomized controlled experiment. The
intervention was conducted one evening a week for 8 weeks,
and it consisted of nine group sessions in a picturesque
medieval meditation hall at the Swedish Church in Lund,
Sweden. Due to practical factors, such as a lack of physical
space, the meditators (n020) were divided into two smaller
groups (n010 and 10) and two meditation sessions were
conducted in successive order during the evenings.
Due to an overrepresentation of female applicants, par-
ticipants were stratified by gender and randomly assigned to
either the intervention or control group using the web-based
tool Research Randomizer (Urbaniak and Plous 2011). Par-
ticipants in the control condition were placed on a waiting
list, receiving the same program after the study.
included (a) 30 min of lecture focused on the weeks topic,
(b) 10 min of mindful movements, (c) 20 min of meditation
on the weeks immeasurable, and (d) 15 min for question
and answer. Each session began (with the exception of
Fig. 1 Flowchart of
participants through each stage
of the study
sessions 1 and 9) with 5 min of mindfulness of breathing
meditation and concluded with weekly homework assign-
ments relating to the topic of the week (see Table 1). Home-
work assignments were designed to help participants
incorporate the formal sitting meditation practice into ev-
eryday life.
All participants also received a handout at the end of each
session summarizing the content. Participants also received
an audio CD with guided meditations and were instructed to
follow the CD for their meditation practice two or three
times before doing them on their own.
The guided meditation of session 1 was based on the
vipassana body scan meditation described by S.N. Goenka.
The guided meditations of the four immeasurables and home-
work assignments (sessions 2 to 6) were based on Pema
Chödrons audiobook Perfect Just as You Are(Chödron
2009). The guided meditations of Tonglen (sessions 7 and 8)
were based on Pema Chödrons Going To the Places That
Scare You(Chödron 2002). The program was conducted by
the authors, Kousha Safarzadeh and Erik Wallmark, who both
have significant personal familiarization and experience with
the applied techniques.
The IRI (Davis 1983) taps four separate aspects of the global
concept empathy.The subscales are fantasy, PT, EC, and
PD. Each subscale has seven items rated on a five-point
scale from 0 (does not describe me well) to 4 (describes me
very well). For the present study, the authors have chosen to
exclude the subscale fantasy. The Swedish version of IRI is
translated and validated by Cliffordson (2001) and shows
acceptable alpha values ranging from 0.71 to 0.80. In this
study, obtained alpha values were 0.83, 0.66, and 0.81 for
PT, PD, and EC, respectively.
The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen et al. 1983)isa
14-item measure designed to tap the degree to which sit-
uations in ones life are appraised as stressful. The items are
rated on a five-point scale from 1 (never) to 5 (very often).
The Swedish version is validated by Eskin and Parr (1996)
Table 1 Topic and content of each session
Session Topic Summary of content
1 Mindfulness Meditation: mindfulness of breath and bodily sensations
Lecture: introduction to sitting and laying down postures, the experience
of moment-to-moment sensations
2 Receiving loving-kindness Meditation: receiving love from others
Lecture: definition of loving-kindness, coming to know ones ongoing
emotional experience
3 Loving-kindness Meditation: loving-kindness for self and others
Lecture: contemplation over the common human desire for happiness,
directing and expanding loving-kindness (seven-step expansion introduced)
4 Compassion Meditation: compassion for self and others
Lecture: contemplation over the common human desire to avoid suffering,
developing courage to stay with painful experiences through non-judgmental
observation and applying on-the-spotcompassion
5 Empathetic joy Meditation: joy with others and self
Lecture: contentment in daily life, attention to sources of happiness, cultivating
joy in ones own and others good fortune, identifying and working with
competitiveness and jealousy
6 Equanimity Meditation: noticing liking, disliking, and indifference;
Lecture: introducing the relative nature and impermanence of phenomena, noticing
and letting go of judgments/opinions, likes/dislikes
7 Tonglen for oneself Meditation: Tonglen, transforming self-directed shame and guilt into forgiveness
and spaciousness
Lecture: uniting the four immeasurables, seeing actions and their consequences,
non-conceptual wisdom
8 Tonglen for others Meditation: Tonglen for others in need
Lecture: utilizing difficult emotions to promote altruism, helping through
Tonglen when help is not possible
9 Closure
Silent meditation session, concluded with how to continue the practice
The session was included to enable collection of meditation time data from the intervention group
with an alpha value of 0.82. In this study, the alpha value
was 0.85.
The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff 2003) is a 26-
item measure with six subscales, tapping the construct of
self-compassion. The subscales are self-kindness, self-
judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, and
overidentification. The internal consistency for the total
26-item SCS was found to be 0.92 (Neff 2003). The
Swedish translation of SCS is being validated by Ström-
berg (2010, unpublished manuscript). Obtained alpha val-
ues in this study were 0.85 for self-kindness, 0.81 for
self-judgment, 0.80 for common humanity, 0.80 for
isolation, 0.64 for mindfulness, and 0.78 for
The Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer
et al. 2006)is a 39-item scale designed to measure five
factors of mindfulness: observing, describing, acting with
awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity. Items are rated
on a five-point scale from 1 (never or very rarely true) to 5
(very often or always true). The subscales showed satisfac-
tory alpha values ranging from 0.75 to 0.91 (Baer et al.
2006). Alpha coefficients for the Swedish version of the
FFMQ total scale and its five subscales ranged from 0.80
to 0.92 (Lilja et al. 2010). In this study, the obtained alpha
values were 0.82 for observing, 0.93 for describing, 0.88 for
acting with awareness, 0.93 for non-judging, and 0.88 for
Statistical Procedures
All data analyses were carried out using the Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 (SPSS
conducted to ensure that there was no violation of the
assumptions of normality, homogeneity of variances, line-
arity, and homogeneity of regression slopes. A Levenes
test, indicating that the group variances are not equal, was
foundtobesignificantforthedescribe facet of FFMQ
(p<0.02). Because the largest variance was no more than
four times the smallest, the analysis is most likely to be valid
(Howell 2010). In this case, the largest variance was
approximately twice the smallest, indicating that the violation
was not severe.
Independent-samples ttest was used to compare the
pretest scores of all dependent variables for the intervention
and control groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
was conducted to investigate the effect of the four immeas-
urables intervention on outcome measures of altruistic ori-
entation, empathy, mindfulness, self-compassion, and
stress, controlling for pretest differences on these measures
in the intervention and control groups. Paired-samples ttest
(one-tailed) was used to assess changes within groups. Pre
post effect sizes (Cohensd) were calculated using the
formula suggested by Rosenthal (1984) for matched-pairs
data (d0t/df).
A Bonferroni correction was employed to control for
multiple comparisons and to minimize the type I error rate
in the absence of distinct hypotheses at the subscale level for
the FFMQ and SCS. Only differences of p<0.01 were
considered significant.
Randomization Check
Attest for independent samples indicated that the interven-
tion group scored significantly lower on self-kindness, t
(40)02.03, p<0.05, d00.62; PD, t(40)02.18, p<0.05,
d00.67; and other-oriented tendency (ECPD), t(40) 0
2.51, p<0.05, d00.77, as compared to the control group.
No other significant differences (all other p> 0.10) on de-
pendent variables were found between groups.
Post-Intervention Difference in Altruistic-Oriented Tenden-
cy (ECPD)
A one-way between-groups ANCOVA was used to explore
the effect of the four immeasurables intervention on
altruistic-oriented tendency (i.e., ECPD). A small differ-
ence on post-intervention scores was obtained, showing a
tendency (p00.10) towards significance (see Table 2). Be-
cause of the significant differences between groups on pre-
intervention scores, additional analyses were performed to
assess changes within groups. A paired ttest showed
significant changes in altruistic-oriented tendency scores,
t(19)03.16, p00.005, d00.73, for the intervention
group. Cohensd(0.73) indicated a large effect size. No
significant within-groups change was found for the control
Post-Intervention Difference in Perceived Stress, Empathy,
Mindfulness, and Self-Compassion
ANCOVA was also used to compare the effects of training
in the four immeasurables on stress, empathy, mindfulness,
and self-compassion. After adjusting for pre-intervention
scores, significant differences were found between interven-
tion and control groups on post-intervention scores for all
measures except EC, PD and the FFMQ facet non-judge
(see Table 2).
The intervention group reported significantly lower post-
intervention scores on perceived stress as compared to the
control group, F(1, 39)08.17, p00.01, η
00.17, indicating
that the four immeasurables intervention contributes signif-
icantly to decreased levels of perceived stress.
Table 2 Means and standard deviations (in parentheses), correlations between pre vs post scores, Cohensdfor paired means, one-way ANCOVA, and effect sizes for all variables
Variable Intervention group (n020) Control group (n022) ANCOVA
Pre Post rdPre Post rdFpη²
PSS 40.15 (6.39) 34.40 (5.57) 0.44 0.93 42.23 (8.84) 40.59 (8.27) 0.71 0.26 8.17 0.01 0.17
EC 28.70 (4.04) 29.25 (4.33) 0.83 0.23 30.27 (2.76) 29.68 (3.54) 0.54 0.20 0.95 0.34 0.02
PT 25.80 (4.77) 27.20 (3.53) 0.82 0.52 25.91 (4.55) 25.68 (3.64) 0.72 0.07 4.88 0.03 0.11
PD 21.85 (3.75) 19.45 (4.89) 0.72 0.72 19.23 (4.02) 19.23 (3.26) 0.72 0.00 3.07 0.09 0.07
ECPD 6.85 (6.32) 9.80 (7.12) 0.81 0.73 11.05 (4.41) 10.45 (4.18) 0.37 ns 0.12 2.71 0.10 0.07
FFMQ, total 121.6(20.70) 139.5(19.04) 0.52 0.94 120.77(25.77) 123.59(25.31) 0.86 0.21 10.46 0.001 0.21
Observe 25.40 (6.28) 28.43 (5.24) 0.74 0.90 25.18 (6.66) 26.18 (6.87) 0.93 0.40 8.15 0.01 0.17
Describe 27.55 (5.01) 30.85 (5.84) 0.65 0.73 29.18 (7.37) 29.73 (8.58) 0.93 0.17 4.73 0.04 0.11
Act with awareness 23.95 (5.86) 27.25 (6.07) 0.49 0.57 21.36 (6.81) 20.50 (5.95) 0.60 0.15 11.38 0.001 0.23
Non-judge 25.35 (6.96) 30.20 (6.62) 0.67 0.90 25.14 (8.72) 27.82 (8.14) 0.78 0.49 2.03 0.16 0.05
Non-reactivity 18.25 (5.21) 22.05 (3.62) 0.16 ns 0.67 18.68 (5.82) 19.36 (5.64) 0.81 0.20 5.70 0.02 0.13
SCS, total 72.50 (16.35) 88.20 (13.15) 0.63 1.24 80.95 (18.23) 80.32(18.38) 0.89 0.08 19.59 0.001 0.33
Self-kindness 13.95 (4.56) 17.25 (3.06) 0.52 0.86 16.64 (4.03) 16.68 (4.28) 0.83 0.02 5.71 0.02 0.13
Self-judgment 16.20 (3.93) 12.50 (4.06) 0.72 1.26 14.14 (4.63) 13.00 (4.43) 0.74 0.36 4.60 0.04 0.11
Common humanity 11.70 (3.69) 13.95 (2.70) 0.73 0.92 13.23 (3.57) 12.86 (3.41) 0.82 0.18 11.37 0.001 0.23
Isolation 11.62 (3.79) 9.52 (2.98) 0.71 0.78 11.59 (3.91) 12.00 (4.08) 0.83 0.18 12.00 0.001 0.24
Mindfulness 11.50 (2.31) 13.20 (2.50) 0.60 0.81 12.59 (3.19) 11.77 (3.05) 0.77 0.40 12.28 0.001 0.24
Overidentification 14.80 (2.86) 12.15 (2.52) 0.55 1.06 13.77 (3.48) 14.00 (3.12) 0.80 0.11 15.28 0.001 0.28
All other rvalues are significant at at least p<0.05
ns nonsignificant, PSS Perceived Stress Scale, IRI Interpersonal Reactivity Index, EC PD empathic concern subscale minus personal distress subscale, FFMQ Five-Facet Mindfulness
Questionnaire, SCS Self-Compassion Scale
Regarding post-intervention differences in empathy-
related measures, a significant between-groups difference
was found only on PT post-intervention scores, F(1, 39) 0
4.88, p00.03, η
00.11, while no significant post-
intervention differences were found on either EC or PD.
However, when scores on PD were inspected in both groups
at the two time points, a notable decrease in scores was
observed for the intervention group while scores for the
control group remained almost unchanged. Additional anal-
yses were thus performed to assess changes within groups.
A paired ttest showed significant changes in PD scores, t
(19)03.13, p00.005, d00.72, for the intervention group.
Cohensd(0.72) indicated a large effect size. No significant
within-groups change was found for the control group.
Regarding post-intervention differences in mindfulness
as measured by the FFMQ, the largest between-groups
differences were found on the composite FFMQ post-
intervention scores, F(1, 39)010.46, p< 0.001, η
and FFMQ facet act with awareness,F(1, 39)011.38, p<
0.001, η
00.23, implying a significant increase in mindful-
ness for the intervention group.
Regarding post-intervention differences in self-compassion,
significant between-groups differences were found on all six
subscales, with the largest differences obtained on the compos-
ite SCS, F(1, 39)019.59, p<0.001, η
00.33, and its subscales:
overidentification,F(1, 39)015.28, p<0.001, η
00.28; isola-
tion,F(1, 39)012.00, p<0.001, η
00.24; and common hu-
manity,F(1, 39)011.37, p<0.001, η
00.23, indicating a
higher degree of self-kindness, sense of common humanity,
and a more balanced approach to ones own inner experiences
for those who participated in the intervention as compared to
those who did not.
Relationship Between Meditation Time and PrePost
Tab le 3shows the correlations between total meditation
practice time and prepost-intervention changes on all de-
pendent variables. Total meditation time during the inter-
vention period was significantly related to a decrease in
perceived stress, r00.47, p00.04, and an increase in the
mindfulness composite scale, r00.45, p00.05. Furthermore,
a moderate, significant association was found between med-
itation time and altruistic orientation, r00.46, p00.04, im-
plying that meditation time tends to be important for the
development of the dispositional tendency to feel EC rather
than PD in situations of perceiving another as in need.
Table 3 Pearson correlations between total meditation time and pre
post changes on all measures for the intervention group
Change in Total meditation practice time
PSS 0.47 0.04
EC 0.31 0.18
PT 0.37 0.11
PD 0.34 0.15
ECPD 0.46 0.04
FFMQ, total 0.45 0.05
Observe 0.18 0.45
Describe 0.43 0.06
Act with awareness 0.38 0.10
Non-judge 0.31 0.19
Non-reactivity 0.41 0.07
SCS, total 0.22 0.35
Self-kindness 0.03 0.80
Self-judgment 0.28 0.23
Common humanity 0.12 0.62
Isolation 0.09 0.72
Mindfulness 0.50 0.03
Overidentification 0.23 0.32
PSS Perceived Stress Scale, IRI Interpersonal Reactivity Index, EC
PD empathic concern subscale minus personal distress subscale,
FFMQ Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, SCS Self-Compassion
Tab l e 4 Correlations between pre- and post-intervention change
scores for four empathy measures and other measures concerning
stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion for the intervention group
Change in IRI
PSS 0.19 0.46** 0.52** 0.31
FFMQ, total 0.41* 0.38* 0.27 0.46**
Observe 0.05 0.25 0.30 0.27
Describe 0.52** 0.26 0.12 0.40*
Act with awareness 0.50** 0.05 0.11 0.38*
Non-judge 0.14 0.25 0.15 0.21
Non-reactivity 0.38* 0.62*** 0.29 0.46**
SCS, total 0.02 0.11 0.47** 0.39*
Self-kindness 0.08 0.03 0.44** 0.31
Self-judgment 0.12 0.09 0.23 0.26
Common humanity 0.11 0.12 0.31 0.32
Isolation 0.20 0.35 0.25 0.09
Mindfulness 0.21 0.37 0.50** 0.53**
Overidentification 0.01 0.36 0.44* 0.36
PSS Perceived Stress Scale, IRI Interpersonal Reactivity Index, EC
PD empathic concern and personal distress difference scores, FFMQ
Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, SCS Self-Compassion Scale
*p<0.10; **p< 0.05; ***p< 0.01
Relationships Between PrePost Change Scores
For Empathy-Related Measures and Other Variables
As shown in Table 4, associations between pre and post
change scores between the IRI scales (including altruistic
orientation) and other variables were observed. The in-
crease in EC was found to be related to increases in the
mindfulness facets describe,r00.52, p<0.05, and act with
awareness,r00.50, p<0.05. Increases in PT showed a
strong, significant positive correlation with changes in the
mindfulness facet non-reactivity,r00.62, p<0.01, and neg-
ative correlation with changes in perceived stress, r0
0.46, p<0.05. Decreases in PD showed a strong positive
correlation to decreases in perceived stress, r00.52, p<
0.05, as well as a negative correlation with the composite
SCS, r00.47, p<0.05. Furthermore, increases in non-
reactivity, r00.46, p<0.05, and mindfulness, both as mea-
suredbyFFMQ,r00.46, p<0.05,andbySCS,r00.53, p<
0.05, were all associated toward increases in altruistic
orientation (ECPD).
According to Cohens(1988) conventions for the correla-
tion coefficient that itself is a measure of effect size, r0±0.50
indicates a large effect size. Majority of the correlations were
close or above the threshold for a large effect size, indicating
importance of the examined relationships.
Participants who engaged in the four immeasurables program
showed very beneficial outcomes as compared to those who
remained on the waiting list. They displayed increased levels
of dispositional PT, self-compassion, and mindfulness and
decreased levels of perceived stress. Engaging in the four
immeasurables thus seems to facilitate the tendency for adopt-
ing the perspective of others, promote greater non-judgmental
kindness towards oneself, viewing suffering as a common
shared experience, and foster the relation to emotions with
mindful attention rather than over-identifying.
Surprisingly, no significant changes were observed on
dispositional EC and PDthe measures of main signifi-
cance for altered altruistic orientation. A tendency towards
significance was, however, obtained, and results of a paired t
test (i.e., within-group changes from pre- to post-
intervention) furthermore showed a significant change in
altruistic orientation for the intervention group, whereas no
change was observed for the control group. The significant
change among meditation participants indicates that the
intervention altered altruistic orientation for those engaging
in the practice. Moreover, change in altruistic orientation
among the intervention group exhibited a significant corre-
lation with the amount of time spent practicing meditation
during the intervention period. This important finding is in
line with our predictions and indicates that it is the actual
engaging in the meditations that cultivates altruism and not
just attending the group sessions.
In line with Birnie et al. (2010) exploring the effects of 8-
week mindfulness-based programs on empathy, we similarly
obtained significant pre to post changes on dispositional PT,
but not on dispositional EC, as measured with the IRI (Davis
1983). There are at least five likely explanations for these
results. First, and perhaps the most plausible explanation, is
the unfortunate pretest heterogeneity between the control
and intervention groups on dispositional EC. Second, it
may be that 8 weeks is too short of a time period for changes
in dispositional EC. Third, it is also possible that there are
construct validity issues concerning compassionas culti-
vated in meditation and ECas measured by the IRI scale.
The latter concept is highly correlated with personality traits
such as emotional reactivity, r00.52 (Davis 1983,1994),
whereas compassion in its traditional context is expected to
be associated with calmness, insight, and a natural inclina-
tion towards kindness (Dalai Lama and Cutler 1998;
McLeod 2001). No association between changes in EC
and self-compassion furthermore point to the need for addi-
tional definitional clarifications in the field. Fourth, it may
be that meditation on the four immeasurables does not alter
dispositional ECa possible but highly unlikely alternative.
A fifth more plausible explanation may be that EC is culti-
vated in the four immeasurables through activating the
valuing the other pathvia PT (Batson 2011) which thus
may exhibit a delay effect(as observed in Batson et al.
1997)from enhanced tendency to adopt the perspective of
others to the increased tendency to feel EC. A follow-up
measure on participants levels of EC could investigate such
Interestingly, changes in PT in the intervention group
were significantly related to increases in the mindfulness
(FFMQ) facet non-reactivity. In line with Decety and
Lamms(2011) assertion that facilitated inhibition (of the
self-perspective) enhances the ability to adopt the perspec-
tive of another, self-regulation may hence be a pathway by
which mindfulness skills promote PT. As noted above,
increased PT has important interpersonal implications such
as reducing prejudice (Batson and Ahmad 2009) and pro-
moting greater social connectedness (Galinsky and Mosko-
witz 2000). Consequently, meditations on the four
immeasurables seem to be viable approaches for increasing
the tendency to adopt the perspective of others.
Although dispositional PD showed no significant
between-groups differences, a paired-samples ttest showed
a significant change between pretest and posttest scores for
the intervention group, whereas no significant change was
obtained for the controls. This result is not clear-cut, but it
may indicate that engaging in the meditations of the four
immeasurables decreases PD. Decreased levels of PD in the
intervention group were most notably associated with
increases in self-compassion. This implies that self-
compassion reduces the tendency for feeling alarmed, dis-
turbed, and upset when facing others distress, reducing self-
focused efforts to alleviate ones own distress rather than the
others distress. This finding is furthermore in line with
studies indicating that self-compassion is positively linked
to mental health (Neff 2003) and inversely linked to psy-
chopathology (Van Dam et al. 2011).
Significant differences between groups on post-
intervention scores for all six self-compassion subscales
were found in this study. This result implies a higher degree
of self-kindness, sense of common humanity, and a more
balanced approach to ones own inner experiences. Medita-
tion time was, however, surprisingly not related to self-
compassion, except for the mindfulness subscalepossibly
due to the relatively small sample size.
A central theme in the four immeasurables training as
adopted here (Chödron 2009) was to let go of the story-
line”—that is, to let go of thought content and returning to
ongoing moment-to-moment direct experience and notice
the emotional effect of engaging in the practice. The four
immeasurables entail mindfulness (Hofmann et al. 2011).
As expected, significant changes in mindfulness for the
intervention group were found, confirming previous studies
on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions (e.g., Baer
2003; Davidson et al. 2003). Decreased levels of stress were
also obtained here for those participating in the intervention.
Thus, this study makes an important contribution by show-
ing that the meditations of the four immeasurables cultivate
stress-reducing effects, though this was not explicitly em-
phasized. Time spent practicing the four immeasurables was
furthermore correlated with both reduced perceived stress as
well as increased mindfulness. The finding that the amount
of meditative experience is related to the degree of mindful-
ness is in line with the findings by Lykins and Baer (2009).
Limitations of the Present Study
Although EC, as measured by the IRI (Davis 1983), has been
linked to helping and experiences of EC (Davis 1994), the
relationship between IRI and altruistic motivation is not clear
(Batson 2011). Batson et al. (1986), for example, showed that
correlations between EC (as measured with the IRI) and
condition as compared to a difficult-escape condition, indicat-
ing an egoistic motivation for viewing oneself as altruistic
rather than an actual desire to increase the others welfare may
be in play. There is ambiguous evidence for correlations
between IRI (Davis 1983) scores and neuroimaging data
investigating empathic activation (Decety and Lamm 2011).
A second limitation in this study is the small sample size,
which can lead to attenuated statistical power and an
increased risk of type II error. However, large effect sizes
indicate noteworthy changes in many studied outcomes for
those who completed the intervention as well as in the
importance of the studied relationships. The small sample
size may explain why the random assignment procedure
failed to yield more homogenous groups. Also, participants
in this study were recruited using convenience sampling. All
individuals were well-educated and strictly screened for
pathology and substance abuse. They were also highly mo-
tivated to participate in meditation practice. Generalization
of the findings is thus limited, warranting further
Conclusions and Future Directions
Meditation may offer a powerful source for human develop-
ment. This study presents a number of significant and impor-
tant effects of engaging in the Buddhist meditations of loving-
kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity, as well as the
practice of Tonglen (taking and sending). The findings sug-
gest that engaging in the meditations facilitates the tendency for
adopting the perspective of others, promotes non-judgmental
kindness towards oneself, helps view suffering as a common
shared experience, and fosters relations to emotions with mind-
ful attention rather than over-identifying with them. This study
further contributes to extant findings showing that not only
mindfulness- and relaxation-focused interventions (e.g. Baer
2003) but also meditations based on the four immeasurables
contribute to decreased levels of perceived stress. Prominent
increases in mindfulness and self-compassion suggest that
these meditations also lead to improved emotional regulation
strategies entailing a balanced awareness with ones ongoing
emotional experience, without the need to either suppress or
express it (Neff 2003).
Training the mind through meditation offers an exciting
new path of inquiry in psychology, and the field is currently
only in its infancy. This study introduced the meditations of
the four immeasurables as a promising approach for the
cultivation of compassion and interpersonal kindness. This
may go beyond individuals and have practical applications
for professional clinical psychologists. Grepmair et al.
(2007), for example, showed that psychotherapists who
engaged in mindfulness meditation were more successful
in therapy as compared to non-meditators. Patients of med-
itating therapists showed a significant decrease in symptom
severity and rated their therapist significantly higher on
clarification and problem-solving skills as compared to
patients treated by non-meditating therapists. Further studies
with more rigorous and multifaceted methods are required
for a deeper exploration of this new and promising
Batson (2011) offers in his empathy-induced altruism
hypothesis(EAH) an intriguing model where altruistic
motivation mainly emerges from the antecedents (1) per-
ceiving the other as in need and (2) valuing the others
welfare. Further studies may investigate the four immeasur-
ables in the experimental paradigm of EAH and especially
whether the four immeasurables can alter valuing others
welfare. If this is so, the four immeasurables may be a
uniquely powerful method, utilizing focused attentional
resources for coming to cherish otherssubjective experi-
ence of life.
Altruism research has, to date, mainly been concerned
with aversive states such as when perceiving another as in
need. Life is, however, in constant flux, entailing all sorts of
valenced conditions. We, therefore, encourage further inves-
tigation of altruism also in the context of perceiving others
in neutral and appetitive conditions.
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... For others, the word "kindness" assumes an altruistic motivation, that is, a genuine concern for others (Cotney and Banerjee, 2019). Kindness has been described as a "baseline altruism", in other words altruism in all conditions, as opposed to compassion, which is specific to situations of suffering (Wallmark et al., 2013;Gilbert et al., 2019). We chose the term kindness to cover all conditions (i.e., not just situations of suffering), to focus our exploration on other-oriented concern, and to be intelligible to children. ...
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Background This study investigated the effects of the loving-kindness meditation (LKM) on employees’ mindfulness, affect, altruism and knowledge hiding. Methods In total, 100 employees were recruited from a knowledge-based enterprise in China and randomly divided into the LKM training group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The LKM training group underwent LKM training for 8 weeks, while the control group did not. Seven main variables (mindfulness, altruism positive affect, negative affect, playing dumb, rationalized hiding, and evasive hiding) were measured both before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the LKM training intervention. Results The LKM intervention significantly increased participants’ altruism, and significantly reduced negative affect, playing dumb and evasive hiding, but did not significantly improve mindfulness, positive affect, and rationalized hiding. Conclusions LKM significantly improved employees’ altruism, and significantly reduce their negative affect, but did not significantly improve their mindfulness and positive affect. For knowledge hiding, LKM significantly reduced playing dumb and evasive hiding, but had no significant effect on rationalized hiding. These results further elucidate the psychological effects of LKM and suggest the possibility of reducing knowledge hiding in the workplace. Trial registration ChiCTR2200057460. Registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), 13 March 2022—Retrospectively registered.
... Multimodal evidence indicates that within an experimental group or population, compassion meditation interventions lead to both primary (e.g., compassion and altruism) and secondary benefits (e.g., hope and relationship satisfaction) for some people (Pace et al., 2009;Leiberg et al., 2011;Mascaro et al., 2012Mascaro et al., , 2016Mascaro et al., , 2021Wallmark et al., 2013;Bach and Guse, 2015;Roeser and Eccles, 2015;Hildebrandt et al., 2017;Kirby, 2017;Kirby et al., 2017;Matos et al., 2017;Brito-Pons et al., 2018;Luberto et al., 2018;Ash et al., 2020;Austin et al., 2021). However, individual outcomes vary widely, and causal mechanisms remain obscure. ...
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Over the last decade, numerous interventions and techniques that aim to engender, strengthen, and expand compassion have been created, proliferating an evidence base for the benefits of compassion meditation training. However, to date, little research has been conducted to examine individual variation in the learning, beliefs, practices, and subjective experiences of compassion meditation. This mixed-method study examines changes in novice meditators’ knowledge and contemplative experiences before, during, and after taking an intensive course in CBCT® (Cognitively-Based Compassion Training), a contemplative intervention that is increasingly used for both inter- and intrapersonal flourishing. The participants in this study ( n = 40) were Christian healthcare chaplains completing a 1-year residency in Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) who learned CBCT as part of their professional chaplaincy training curriculum. Prior to and upon completion of training, we surveyed participants to assess their beliefs about the malleability of compassion, types of engagement in compassion meditation, and perceptions of the impact of taking CBCT. We also conducted in-depth interviews with a subset of participants to gain a qualitative understanding of their subjective experiences of learning and practicing compassion meditation, a key component of CBCT. We found that participants reported increases in the extent to which they believed compassion to be malleable after studying CBCT. We also found high levels of variability of individual ways of practicing and considered the implications of this for the study of contemplative learning processes. This multi-methodological approach yielded novel insights into how compassion practice and compassion-related outcomes interrelate, insights that can inform the basic scientific understanding of the experience of learning and enacting compassion meditation as a means of strengthening compassion itself.
... Jinpa et al. (2009) propose that people would be able to observe and describe their own suffering and would become aware of their desire to alleviate it, extending it to the suffering of others in a natural way. Also, the capacities of non reactivity and non judging, can be key in the empathic development since they would allow to distance themselves from the strong emotions when not reacting in excess, making possible to understand, to take care of and to respond properly to the other's feelings (Wallmark et al., 2012). In this line, Bishop et al. (2004) raises mindfulness as a metacognitive capacity that orients people not only to their own affective state, but also to contextual stimuli in a non-reactive and acceptance way. ...
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Full Topic Research. Published in: Frontiers in Education, Frontiers in Sociology and Frontiers in Psychology / Ortega-Sánchez, D., Sanz De La Cal, E., Ibáñez Quintana, J., Borghi, B., eds. (2022). Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Education. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88974-506-7
... To be able to consciously and purposively stay in the present moment and to observe and describe our own emotions would also enable us to better decipher others' suffering and their desires on how to alleviate it (Jinpa et al., 2009). Further, being able to approach our own emotions in a non-judgmental and non-reacting fashion, can function as kindling to develop empathy since these capacities would allow us to distance ourselves from strong emotional reactions, making more likely to understand, to take care of and to respond properly to the other people's feelings (Wallmark et al., 2013). ...
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The aim of this study was to explore the role of gender, age, and academic year in shaping dispositional mindfulness (DM) and the association between DM facets and empathy dimensions in a sample of undergraduate nursing students. In a multicenter cross-sectional study design, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and socio-demographic questions were administrated to a convenience sample of Italian nursing students. 622 nursing students (82.2% female) participated in the study (response rate = 86.15%). Females had higher levels of Acting with Awareness ( p < .001, d = .54) and lower levels of Non-reacting ( p < .001, d = .52) facets of DM than males. Older students displayed higher scores on the Observing ( r = .112, p = .005) and on the Non-reacting ( r = .187, p < .001) FFMQ subscales than younger ones. No statistically significant differences in DM levels between the three academic years were found ( p s > .202). After controlling for socio-demographic factors, DM facets were generally positively related to Perspective Taking ( β s from .131 to .208, p s < .007) and Empathic Concern ( β s from −.156 to .189, p s < .001), whereas negatively related to Personal Distress ( β s from −.141 to −.261, p s < .001). Nursing students with higher levels of DM were more able to consider others’ cognitive perspective and to feel compassion, and were less emotionally distressed when facing tense interpersonal situations. Tailored mindfulness interventions might be useful to foster functional empathy within nursing undergraduate programs.
... Future research may wish to investigate whether self-described humility predicts behaviors such as meditation, as styles such as loving-kindness meditation focus on the other (Shonen et al., 2014;Wallmark et al., 2013). Similarly, in the practice of Tonglen meditation, "the practitioner breathes in the bad and breathes out the good, taking on the suffering of other sentient beings" (Chödrön, 2002, par. ...
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As part of the shift to a more positive psychology, researchers have demonstrated a relatively new and intense fascination with humility. Following a discussion of this construct and its correlates, we investigate how humility relates to personality dimensions, anxiety and depression, love of life and happiness, and self-efficacy in two samples—college students and adult Mturk workers. In both studies, we used the Dual Dimension Humility Scale, a measure that does not conflate the construct with honesty. Among students ( N = 399), aspects humility correlated with dimensions of personality (more conscientiousness and openness, and less agreeableness and neuroticism), less depression, more love of life and happiness, and stronger social self-efficacy. Although fewer associations were found, overall, among adults ( N = 509), aspects of humility correlated with dimensions of personality, less anxiety, and some dimensions of psychological well-being. The most unique contributions of this study include linking humility with college students’ love of life and self-efficacy, and with adults’ well-being. We conclude with a discussion of ideas for future research and potential applications to boost humility.
... De plus, des interventions destinées à cultiver l'empathie et l'altruisme (par ex. via la méditation ; Wallmark et al., 2013) pourraient également être mises en place afin de promouvoir la conviction des individus que leur bien-être est lié à celui du monde naturel (Cohen-Scali, 2018 ;Di Fabio & Bucci, 2016). ...
Recently, career counselors were encouraged to help clients make career choices that are both environmentally and socially sustainable. However, to date, the career difficulties associated with such “green guidance” process have not been delineated. Based on career development obstacles identified in the scientific literature, this article proposes a non-exhaustive typology of issues specific to the consideration of ecological and human factors during career counseling. For each category of difficulty, examples are provided, and practical avenues are suggested. The contributions and limitations of this exercise are discussed, especially with regards to the clarification of the particular role of career counselors in promoting sustainability.
... Partant de ce constat, des chercheurs ont commencé à revenir aux écrits bouddhistes afin de développer des programmes plus orientés vers l'éthique bouddhiste, par exemple en remettant l'accent sur la dimension de loving-kindness, de compassion ou d'empathie (p. ex., the Four Immeasurables Program ; Wallmark et al., 2013 ;voir aussi Grossman & van Dam, 2011). La seconde génération des MBIs est aussi en train de se développer, en (ré)intégrant la composante spirituelle, en position l'éthique au centre de la pratique et en proposant plus de techniques méditatives (Van Gordon & Shonin, 2020). ...
La littérature sur la pleine conscience, ou mindfulness, est maintenant foisonnante et indique un certain nombre d’effets bénéfiques de cette pratique sur la santé mentale et le bien-être. La régulation des émotions a été identifiée comme une capacité centrale qui se développe grâce à la pratique de la pleine conscience, celle-ci permettant d’expliquer l’augmentation des émotions positives et une diminution des émotions négatives. De plus, on observe une diminution de l’intensité des réactions et de l’interférence créées par les stimuli positifs et négatifs, une évaluation plus neutre de ceux-ci et une augmentation de la stabilité émotionnelle. Il a été démontré, entre autres via des mesures neurologiques, que la mindfulness entrainait un type de régulation des émotions qui lui était spécifique, où la relation entre l’individu et ses émotions est modifiée profondément et précocement. L’équanimité a alors été proposée comme une explication possible à la spécificité de la régulation des émotions par la pleine conscience. La littérature sur ce thème est pourtant restée très peu abondante, et les études expérimentales existantes n’ont pas testé empiriquement cette hypothèse. L’équanimité, en tant qu’état mental stable, calme et non perturbé par la valence des stimuli, semble pourtant une composante essentielle du vécu émotionnel lié à la mindfulness. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’aborder l’équanimité comme une qualité de régulation des émotions, d’en examiner la présence dans la littérature existante et d’offrir les premières bases à son étude en psychologie expérimentale. Une première partie est consacrée à constituer une définition opérationnalisable de l’équanimité et à valider un questionnaire destiné à mesurer son niveau chez les individus méditants et non méditants. Nous examinons ensuite la relation entre la pratique de la méditation et le niveau d’équanimité. Puis, nous avons utilisé une tâche d’approche et d’évitement afin d’étudier la relation entre l’équanimité et les tendances motivationnelles envers des stimuli positifs et négatifs. Enfin, dans l’optique d’explorer les liens entre l’équanimité et la régulation des comportements de santé, nous nous intéressons à son impact sur l’évaluation de plusieurs types d’aliments. Les résultats de nos études montrent que l’équanimité augmente avec la pratique de la méditation de pleine conscience et qu’elle est reliée à une diminution des biais d’approche et d’évitement face à des mots positifs et négatifs. L’équanimité, en outre, s’accompagne d’une plus grande neutralité dans l’évaluation hédonique des mots et d’évaluations plus saines des aliments. Cette thèse dresse un portrait de l’équanimité qui, nous l’espérons, ouvrira la voie à de nombreuses études théoriques et appliquées sur cette thématique.
The chapter examines the role of practice-related research in the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It will extend existing debates regarding the academic rigour of such methodologies as arts-based research and consider their impact on future research culture, using Zen arts as an example of a subject of study within such a methodological framing. It also discusses complimentary methods used by Zen arts researchers such as ethnography to examine why qualitative techniques are not only useful but imperative in the study of such fields. While practice is the key to Zen arts research, neither of the practice-related method types, practice-led or practice-based, currently defined describes how such practice or the writing function in PhD investigations, where together such components are the subject of investigation as well as the method of research and presentation. The chapter thus suggests an additional category of PRR, “practice-reflexive,” when describing such research whose focus is on the distinction of (or the lack thereof) the written exegesis and the notional artefact.
This research aimed to study the effects of self-compassion on the four immeasurables and happiness among volunteers in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. A total of 441 participants in public and private sector organisations took part in this research by volunteer sampling. The research instruments comprised the Self-Compassion Survey, the Four Immeasurables Survey, and the Happiness Survey. A casual structure was used as the statistical treatment. The research results revealed that the influence model of self-compassion affected the four immeasurables (Buddhist virtues) and the happiness of volunteers. Of these, self-compassion had the highest effect on the happiness of volunteers, with a .58 path coefficient. Additionally, self-compassion, together with the four immeasurables, could predict the happiness variance at 78%, and that the higher the self-compassion level that individuals had, the more physical, psychological and spiritual well-being volunteers also experienced.
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This chapter examines empathy as a construct, with an emphasis on a sense of similarity in feelings experienced by the self and the other. It explains how confusion between self and other can turn empathy into sympathy or even personal distress. It reviews the results of recent social neuroscience research that investigated the behavioral and neural responses of people to the pain of others. These studies show that a person who perceives another individual in pain results in the activation of the former’s neural network involved in the processing of firsthand experience of pain. The chapter also looks at the neural circuits responsible for a person’s ability to perceive the pain of others in the context of the shared-representation theory of social cognition. In addition, it discusses perspective taking and the ability to differentiate the self from the other.
Assessed sympathy and personal distress with facial and physiological indexes (heart rate) as well as self-report indexes and examined the relations of these various indexes to prosocial behavior for children and adults in an easy escape condition. Heart rate deceleration during exposure to the needy others was associated with increased willingness to help. In addition, adults' reports of sympathy, as well as facial sadness and concerned attention, were positively related to their intention to assist. For children, there was some indication that report of positive affect and facial distress were negatively related to prosocial intentions and behavior, whereas facial concern was positively related to the indexes of prosocial behavior. These findings are interpreted as providing additional, convergent support for the notion that sympathy and personal distress are differentially related to prosocial behavior. Over the years, numerous philosophers (e.g., Blum, 1980) and psychologists (e.g., Barnett, 1987; Feshbach, 1978; Hoffman, 1984; Staub, 1978) have argued that empathy and sympathy, denned primarily in affective terms, are important motivators of altruistic behavior. In general, it has been asserted that people who experience emotional reactions consistent with the state of another and who feel other-oriented concern for the other are relatively likely to be motivated to alleviate the other's need or distress.
This book takes a hard-science look at the possibility that we humans have the capacity to care for others for their sakes (altruism) rather than simply for our own (egoism). The look is based not on armchair speculation, dramatic cases, or after-the-fact interviews, but on an extensive series of theory-testing laboratory experiments conducted over the past 35 years. Part I details the theory of altruistic motivation that has been the focus of this experimental research. The theory centers on the empathy-altruism hypothesis, which claims that other-oriented feelings of sympathy and compassion for a person in need (empathic concern) produce motivation with the ultimate goal of having that need removed. Antecedents and consequences of empathy-induced altruistic motivation are specified, making the theory empirically testable. Part II offers a comprehensive summary of the research designed to test the empathy-altruism hypothesis, giving particular attention to recent challenges. Overall, the research provides remarkably strong and consistent support for this hypothesis, forcing a tentative conclusion that empathy-induced altruism is within the human repertoire. Part III considers the theoretical and practical implications of this conclusion, suggesting that empathy-induced altruism is a far more pervasive and powerful force in human affairs than has been recognized. Failure to appreciate its importance has handicapped attempts to understand why we humans act as we do and wherein our happiness lies. This failure has also handicapped efforts to promote better interpersonal relations and create a more caring, humane society.
Publisher Summary It is possible for one person to experience an emotion when he or she perceives that another person is experiencing an emotion. The relationship between action and the sharing of feelings is obviously not a simple or direct one. It is possible to study so subtle and important a phenomenon as empathy in the laboratory and to examine some of the determinants of empathy. The process leading to empathy can be understood in terms of cognitive variables such as the mental set that the person has when he or she observes the other. The form or type of social relationships between one person and another influences the amount of empathy, presumably because the form of the social relationship influences the manner of perceiving the other and thinking about him or her. Individual differences in reactions to social situations, in perceiving the other, and in thinking about him or her must be considered in predicting how much empathizing will occur. These individual differences appear to be determined in part by the birth order of the person.
This article defines the construct of self-compassion and describes the development of the Self-Compassion Scale. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale is presented in a series of studies. Results indicate that self-compassion is significantly correlated with positive mental health outcomes such as less depression and anxiety and greater life satisfaction. Evidence is also provided for the discriminant validity of the scale, including with regard to self-esteem measures.