Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

Department of Food Science, University of Teramo, Mosciano Sant'Angelo Teramo, Italy.
Frontiers in Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 06/2012; 3(3):188. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00188
Source: PubMed


The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

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    • "It is also known that occurrence of biogenic amines such as putrescine and cadaverine in foodstuff lead to undesirable organoleptic properties. Thus, adversely affect both taste and aroma (Visciano, Schirone, Tofalo, & Suzzi, 2012; Wunderlichov a, Bu nkov a, Koutný, Jan cov a, & Bu nka, 2014). Benner et al. (2003) found putresine to be perceptible at concentrations of only 3 mg/kg. "
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    ABSTRACT: Snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) presents a commercial and economical important product with attractive sensory attributes. Today, snow crab is captured in the North Pacific, Arctic and Northwest Atlantic and it is mainly exported to the US, Canada, Japan, South-Korea and Europe as live, cooked and refrigerated or frozen. The aim of this work was to estimate shelf life of leg meat in cooked and raw snow crab clusters (one claw plus 4 legs) using sensory, microbial and chemical analysis when stored at 4 and 0 °C. The results revealed a shelf life of 10 and 14 days for cooked clusters stored at 4 and 0 °C, respectively. Corresponding maximum levels of TVC and pseudomonads at 4 °C were log 5.5 and 3.2 CFU/g, respectively, while complementary levels at 0 °C were log 4.9 and 4.2 CFU/g. Shelf life of raw clusters stored at 0 °C was 6 days. This shelf life corresponds to maximum levels of TVC and pseudomonads of approximately log 2.5 CFU/g showing that pseudomonads is the dominant microflora. For cooked clusters, sensory and microbial analyses were the best shelf life indicators, while sensory analysis was the best shelf life indicator in case of raw clusters.
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    • "Biogenic amines are biologically active low molecular weight compounds, formed by microbial decarboxylation of proteincontaining material from the corresponding amino acids or by transamination of aldehydes and ketones, catalyzed by amino acid transaminases (EC [1]. Putrescine (1,4- diaminobutane), cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) and spermidine (N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamine), also known as biogenic polyamines, are primarily the products of microbial activity [2] and used to serve as natural biomarkers for the determination of food quality [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. "
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    • "There are also methods based on ion-exchange chromatography with conductivity [36] or amperometric detection [37] [38]. The BAs had been determined in fermented food as aged cheese [39], wine [20], beer [22] [40], fish [41], meat [42], fermented soya beans and bean curd [43], chocolate [38] and other food samples [2] [3] [6] [9] [11]. "
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