Article

Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

Department of Food Science, University of Teramo, Mosciano Sant'Angelo Teramo, Italy.
Frontiers in Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 06/2012; 3(3):188. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00188
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

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    • "It is also known that occurrence of biogenic amines such as putrescine and cadaverine in foodstuff lead to undesirable organoleptic properties. Thus, adversely affect both taste and aroma (Visciano, Schirone, Tofalo, & Suzzi, 2012; Wunderlichov a, Bu nkov a, Koutný, Jan cov a, & Bu nka, 2014). Benner et al. (2003) found putresine to be perceptible at concentrations of only 3 mg/kg. "
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    • "Biogenic amines are biologically active low molecular weight compounds, formed by microbial decarboxylation of proteincontaining material from the corresponding amino acids or by transamination of aldehydes and ketones, catalyzed by amino acid transaminases (EC 2.6.1.21) [1]. Putrescine (1,4- diaminobutane), cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) and spermidine (N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamine), also known as biogenic polyamines, are primarily the products of microbial activity [2] and used to serve as natural biomarkers for the determination of food quality [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Spermidine is one of the several biogenic amines, produced during the microbial decarboxylation of proteins. Individual biogenic amines in the formed mixtures are frequently analyzed with oxygen sensor based biosensors, as their content serves as a good biomarker for the determination of food quality. In these biosensors, diamine oxidase from pea seedlings (PSAO), catalyzing the oxidation of various biogenic amines by dissolved oxygen is commonly used for the bio-recognition of amines. However, in the presence of spermidine and/or its metabolite 1,3-diaminopropane, the activity of PSAO and the sensitivity of PSAO-based biosensors decrease due to inhibition. The inhibition constant of soluble spermidine, acting as an inhibiting substrate toward PSAO, was found to be (40. ±. 15) mM in freshly prepared solution and (0.28. ±. 0.05) mM in solution, incubated 30 days at room temperature. The inhibition constant of 1,3-diaminopropane, acting as a competitive inhibitor, was (0.43. ±. 0.12) mM as determined through the oxidation reaction of cadaverine. The metabolic half-life of soluble spermidine was 7 days at room temperature and 186 days at 4. °C. The kinetic measurements were carried out with an oxygen sensor; the composition of the solution of degraded spermidine was analyzed with MS.
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    • "There are also methods based on ion-exchange chromatography with conductivity [36] or amperometric detection [37] [38]. The BAs had been determined in fermented food as aged cheese [39], wine [20], beer [22] [40], fish [41], meat [42], fermented soya beans and bean curd [43], chocolate [38] and other food samples [2] [3] [6] [9] [11]. "
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