In vivo cartilage repair using adipose-derived stem cell-loaded decellularized cartilage ECM scaffolds
We have previously reported a natural, human cartilage ECM (extracellular matrix)-derived three-dimensional (3D) porous acellular scaffold for in vivo cartilage tissue engineering in nude mice. However, the in vivo repair effects of this scaffold are still unknown. The aim of this study was to further explore the feasibility of application of cell-loaded scaffolds, using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), for cartilage defect repair in rabbits. A defect 4 mm in diameter was created on the patellar groove of the femur in both knees, and was repaired with the chondrogenically induced ADSC-scaffold constructs (group A) or the scaffold alone (group B); defects without treatment were used as controls (group C). The results showed that in group A all defects were fully filled with repair tissue and at 6 months post-surgery most of the repair site was filled with hyaline cartilage. In contrast, in group B all defects were partially filled with repair tissue, but only half of the repair tissue was hyaline cartilage. Defects were only filled with fibrotic tissue in group C. Indeed, histological grading score analysis revealed that an average score in group A was higher than in groups B and C. GAG and type II collagen content and biomechanical property detection showed that the group A levels approached those of normal cartilage. In conclusion, ADSC-loaded cartilage ECM scaffolds induced cartilage repair tissue comparable to native cartilage in terms of mechanical properties and biochemical components. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "In a previous study , we developed a novel articular cartilage ECM (ACECM)-derived scaffold using decellularised human joint cartilage. This scaffold could support cell attachment, proliferation, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and was used in vivo for cartilage tissue engineering [16,17]. Because cartilage-specific ECM components play an important role in chondrogenesis, as well as in supporting the chondrogenic phenotype [18,19], other biomimetic scaffolds with oriented structures were fabricated using temperature gradient-guided thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS) followed by freeze-drying to mimic the biochemical composition and natural structure of native articular cartilage [20,21]. "
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Osteochondral interface regeneration is challenging for functional and integrated cartilage repair. Various layered scaffolds have been used to reconstruct the complex interface, yet the influence of the permeability of the layered structure on cartilage defect healing remains largely unknown.
We designed and fabricated a novel bilayered scaffold using articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ACECM) and hydroxyapatite (HAp), involving a porous, oriented upper layer and a dense, mineralised lower layer. By optimising the HAp/ACECM ratio, differing pore sizes and porosities were obtained simultaneously in the two layers. To evaluate the effects of permeability on cell behaviour, rabbit chondrocytes were seeded.
Morphological observations demonstrated that a gradual interfacial region was formed with pore sizes varying from 128.2 ± 20.3 to 21.2 ± 3.1 μm. The permeability of the bilayered scaffold decreased with increasing compressive strain and HAp content. Mechanical tests indicated that the interface was stable to bearing compressive and shear loads. Accordingly, the optimum HAp/ACECM ratio (7 w/v%) in the layer to mimic native calcified cartilage was found. Chondrocytes could not penetrate the interface and resided only in the upper layer, where they showed high cellularity and abundant matrix deposition.
Our findings suggest that a bilayered scaffold with low permeability, rather than complete isolation, represents a promising candidate for osteochondral interface tissue engineering.
Available from: Matteo Moretti
- "Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as an alternative to terminally differentiated cells to develop novel treatments for bone and cartilage defects, since they can be easily harvested from several adult tissues and are able to differentiate towards the osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages (Johnstone et al., 1998; Pittenger et al., 1999). Beside bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs), more recently adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells have been successfully used for bone and cartilage applications (Rada et al., 2009; Jung et al., 2010; Rhee et al., 2011; Kang et al., 2012; Choi et al., 2014). In particular, MSCs resident in the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP-MSCs) and knee subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs) can be considered appealing alternative cell sources for articular cell-based therapies, thanks to their differentiative potential and ease of harvesting during knee surgery, which causes minimal additional morbidity to patients. "
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ABSTRACT: Cell-based therapies have recently been proposed for the treatment of degenerative articular pathologies, such as early osteoarthritis, with an emphasis on autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as an alternative to terminally differentiated cells. In this study, we performed a donor-matched comparison between infrapatellar fat pad MSCs (IFP-MSCs) and knee subcutaneous adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs), as appealing candidates for cell-based therapies that are easily accessible during surgery. IFP-MSCs and ASCs were obtained from 25 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total knee replacement and compared for their immunophenotype and differentiative potential. Undifferentiated IFP-MSCs and ASCs displayed the same immunophenotype, typical of MSCs (CD13+/CD29+/CD44+/CD73+/CD90+/CD105+/CD166+/CD31-/CD45-). IFP-MSCs and ASCs showed similar adipogenic potential, though undifferentiated ASCs had higher LEP expression compared to IFP-MSCs (p < 0.01). Higher levels of calcified matrix (p < 0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05) in ASCs highlighted their superior osteogenic commitment compared to IFP-MSCs. Conversely, IFP-MSCs pellets showed greater amounts of glycosaminoglycans (p < 0.01) and superior expression of ACAN (p < 0.001), SOX9, COMP (p < 0.001) and COL2A1 (p < 0.05) compared to ASCs pellets, revealing a superior chondrogenic potential. This was also supported by lower COL10A1 (p < 0.05) and COL1A1 (p < 0.01) expression and lower alkaline phosphatase release (p < 0.05) by IFP-MSCs compared to ASCs. The observed dissimilarities between IFP-MSCs and ASCs show that, despite expressing similar surface markers, MSCs deriving from different fat depots in the same surgical site possess specific features. Furthermore, the in vitro peculiar commitment of IFP-MSCs and ASCs from osteoarthritic donors towards the chondrogenic or osteogenic lineage may suggest a preferential use for cartilage and bone cell-based treatments, respectively.
Available from: Bruce S Gardiner
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ABSTRACT: We propose a new non-linear poroelastic model that is suited to the analysis of soft tissues. In this paper the model is tailored to the analysis of cartilage and the engineering design of cartilage constructs. The proposed continuum formulation of the governing equations enables the strain of the individual material components within the extracellular matrix (ECM) to be followed over time, as the individual material components are synthesized, assembled and incorporated within the ECM or lost through passive transport or degradation. The material component analysis developed here naturally captures the effect of time-dependent changes of ECM composition on the deformation and internal stress states of the ECM. For example, it is shown that increased synthesis of aggrecan by chondrocytes embedded within a decellularized cartilage matrix initially devoid of aggrecan results in osmotic expansion of the newly synthesized proteoglycan matrix and tension within the structural collagen network. Specifically, we predict that the collagen network experiences a tensile strain, with a maximum of ~2% at the fixed base of the cartilage. The analysis of an example problem demonstrates the temporal and spatial evolution of the stresses and strains in each component of a self-equilibrating composite tissue construct, and the role played by the flux of water through the tissue. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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