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Defense responses of grapevine towards Botrytis cinerea were investigated. The expression of genes coding for proteins involved in defense were studied: (a) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and stilbene synthase (StSy), (b) an acidic chitinase (VCH3) and a basic chitinase (VCHIT1b), and (c) a polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP). Since no PGIP was known in grapevine, a complete cDNA sequence was first characterized by PCR and RACE-PCR amplifications. RNAs isolated from infected leaves and infected berries were analysed by semi-quantitative and real-time RT-PCRs. In infected leaves, the expression of PAL, StSy, PGIP and VCH3 genes occurred 6hours post inoculation (hpi). Increase of VCHIT1b gene expression was delayed (24hpi). Maximum levels of induction of these genes were observed at 48hpi, except for the VCH3 gene (24hpi). Activation of these defense responses was not sufficient to stop B. cinerea spread. In berries, no VCH3 gene expression was detected. Maximum levels of induction were observed in stage 3 (loss of berry colour and abundant production of conidia) for the PAL and PGIP genes, and in stage 4 (shrivelled berry) for the StSy and VCHIT1b genes.
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The grapevine phytoalexin resveratrol, the synthesis of which is achieved by stilbene synthase (STS), displays a wide range of biological effects. Most interest has centred, in recent years, on STS gene transfer experiments from grapevine to the genome of numerous plants. This work presents a comprehensive review on plant molecular engineering with the STS gene. Gene and promoter options are discussed, namely the different promoters used to drive the transgene, as well as the enhancer elements and/or heterologous promoters used to improve transcriptional activity in the transformed lines. Factors modifying transgene expression and epigenetic modifications, for instance transgene copy number, are also presented. Resveratrol synthesis in plants, together with that of its glucoside as a result of STS expression, is described, as is the incidence of these compounds on plant metabolism and development. The ectopic production of resveratrol can lead to broad-spectrum resistance against fungi in transgenic lines, and to the enhancement of the antioxidant activities of several fruits, highlighting the potential role of this compound in health promotion and plant disease control.
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Colonization of roots by selected strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. can trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) against foliar pathogens in a plant species-specific manner. It has been suggested that early responses in cell suspension cultures in response to rhizobacterial elicitors, such as generation of active oxygen species (AOS) and extracellular medium alkalinization (MA), are linked to the development of ISR in whole plants. Perception of flagellin was demonstrated to elicit ISR in Arabidopsis, and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been shown to elicit several defense responses and to act as bacterial determinants of ISR in various plant species. In the present study, the LPS-containing cell walls, the pyoverdine siderophores, and the flagella of Pseudomonas putida WCS358, P. fluorescens WCS374, and P. fluorescens WCS417, which are all known to act as elicitors of ISR in selected plant species, were tested for their effects on the production of AOS, MA, elevation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](cyt)), and defense-related gene expression in tobacco suspension cells. The LPS of all three strains, the siderophore of WCS374, and the flagella of WCS358 induced a single, transient, early burst of AOS, whereas the siderophores of WCS358 and WCS417 and the flagella of WCS374 and WCS417 did not. None of the compounds caused cell death. Once stimulated by the active compounds, the cells became refractory to further stimulation by any of the active elicitors, but not to the elicitor cryptogein from the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea, indicating that signaling upon perception of the different rhizobacterial compounds rapidly converges into a common response pathway. Of all compounds tested, only the siderophores of WCS358 and WCS417 did not induce MA; the flagella of WCS374 and WCS417, although not active as elicitors of AOS, did induce MA. These results were corroborated by using preparations from relevant bacterial mutants. The active rhizobacterial elicitors led to a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)](cyt), peaking at 6 min, whereas the inactive siderophores of WCS358 and WCS417 elicited a single spike at 1 min. Elicitation of the cells by cell-wall LPS of WCS358 or the siderophore of WCS374 induced a weak, transient expression of several defense-related genes, including PAL and GST. The spectrum of early responses of the suspension cells was not matched by the expression of ISR in whole tobacco plants against Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora. Of the live bacterial strains, only WCS358 elicited significant ISR, but application of the LPS or the siderophore of all three strains also elicited ISR. Notably, the absence of elicitation of AOS and MA in suspension-cultured cells but induction of ISR in whole plants by the siderophore of WCS358, which was lost upon treatment with the siderophore-minus mutant of WCS358, indicates that the early responses in suspension cells are not predictive of the ability to induce ISR in whole plants. Possible explanations for these discrepancies are discussed.
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ABSTRACT Chitosan (CHN), a deacetylated derivative of chitin, was shown to be efficient in promoting plant defense reactions. CHN oligomers of different molecular weight (MW) and degree of acetylation (DA) triggered an accumulation of phytoalexins, trans- and cis-resveratrol and their derivatives epsilon-viniferin and piceid, in grapevine leaves. Highest phytoalexin production was achieved within 48 h of incubation with CHN at 200 mug/ml with an MW of 1,500 and a DA of 20% (CHN1.5/20), while oligomers with greater MW were less efficient, indicating that a specific MW threshold could be required for phytoalexin response. Treatment of grapevine leaves by highly active CHN1.5/20 also led to marked induction of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities. CHN1.5/20 applied together with copper sulfate (CuSO(4)) strongly induced phytoalexin accumulation. CuSO(4) alone, especially at low concentrations also elicited a substantial production of phytoalexins in grapevine leaves. Evidence is also provided that CHN1.5/20 significantly reduced the infection of grapevine leaves by Botrytis cinerea and Plasmopara viticola, and in combination with CuSO(4) conferred protection against both pathogens.
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Selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can reduce disease in foliar tissues through the induction of a defense state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). Compared with the large body of information on ISR in dicotyledonous plants, little is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in cereal crops. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r to trigger ISR in rice (Oryza sativa) against the leaf blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Using salicylic acid (SA)-nonaccumulating NahG rice, an ethylene-insensitive OsEIN2 antisense line, and the jasmonate-deficient mutant hebiba, we show that this WCS374r-induced resistance is regulated by an SA-independent but jasmonic acid/ethylene-modulated signal transduction pathway. Bacterial mutant analysis uncovered a pseudobactin-type siderophore as the crucial determinant responsible for ISR elicitation. Root application of WCS374r-derived pseudobactin (Psb374) primed naive leaves for accelerated expression of a pronounced multifaceted defense response, consisting of rapid recruitment of phenolic compounds at sites of pathogen entry, concerted expression of a diverse set of structural defenses, and a timely hyperinduction of hydrogen peroxide formation putatively driving cell wall fortification. Exogenous SA application alleviated this Psb374-modulated defense priming, while Psb374 pretreatment antagonized infection-induced transcription of SA-responsive PR genes, suggesting that the Psb374- and SA-modulated signaling pathways are mutually antagonistic. Interestingly, in sharp contrast to WCS374r-mediated ISR, chemical induction of blast resistance by the SA analog benzothiadiazole was independent of jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling and involved the potentiation of SA-responsive gene expression. Together, these results offer novel insights into the signaling circuitry governing induced resistance against M. oryzae and suggest that rice is endowed with multiple blast-effective resistance pathways.
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Systemic acquired resistance is a pathogen-inducible defense mechanism in plants. The resistant state is dependent on endogenous accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and is characterized by the activation of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Recently, selected nonpathogenic, root-colonizing biocontrol bacteria have been shown to trigger a systemic resistance response as well. To study the molecular basis underlying this type of systemic resistance, we developed an Arabidopsis-based model system using Fusarium oxysporum f sp raphani and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato as challenging pathogens. Colonization of the rhizosphere by the biological control strain WCS417r of P. fluorescens resulted in a plant-mediated resistance response that significantly reduced symptoms elicited by both challenging pathogens. Moreover, growth of P. syringae in infected leaves was strongly inhibited in P. fluorescens WCS417r-treated plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis NahG plants, unable to accumulate SA, and wild-type plants were equally responsive to P. fluorescens WCS417r-mediated induction of resistance. Furthermore, P. fluorescens WCS417r-mediated systemic resistance did not coincide with the accumulation of PR mRNAs before challenge inoculation. These results indicate that P. fluorescens WCS417r induces a pathway different from the one that controls classic systemic acquired resistance and that this pathway leads to a form of systemic resistance independent of SA accumulation and PR gene expression.
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Selected nonpathogenic, root-colonizing bacteria are able to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this type of systemic resistance, an Arabidopsis-based model system was developed in which Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani were used as challenging pathogens. In Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Columbia and Landsberg erecta, colonization of the rhizosphere by P. fluorescens strain WCS417r induced systemic resistance against both pathogens. In contrast, ecotype RLD did not respond to WCS417r treatment, whereas all three ecotypes expressed systemic acquired resistance upon treatment with salicylic acid (SA). P. fluorescens strain WCS374r, previously shown to induce ISR in radish, did not elicit ISR in Arabidopsis. The opposite was found for P. putida strain WCS358r, which induced ISR in Arabidopsis but not in radish. These results demonstrate that rhizosphere pseudomonads are differentially active in eliciting ISR in related plant species. The outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of WCS417r is the main ISR-inducing determinant in radish and carnation, and LPS-containing cell walls also elicit ISR in Arabidopsis. However, mutant WCS417rOA-, lacking the O-antigenic side chain of the LPS, induced levels of protection similar to those induced by wild-type WCS417r. This indicates that ISR-inducing bacteria produce more than a single factor that trigger ISR in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, WCS417r and WCS358r induced protection in both wild-type Arabidopsis and SA-nonaccumulating NahG plants without activating pathogenesis-related gene expression. This suggests that elicitation of an SA-independent signaling pathway is a characteristic feature of ISR-inducing biocontrol bacteria.
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The concept of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) enables a novel approach to crop protection, and particular pathogenesis-related proteins, i.e. an acidic chitinase, have been classified as markers of the SAR response. Basic class I (VCHIT1b) and a class III (VCH3) chitinase cDNAs were cloned from cultured Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir cells and used to probe the induction response of grapevine cells to salicylic acid or yeast elicitor. Furthermore, the cells were treated with the commercial SAR activators 2,6-dichloroiso-nicotinic acid or benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester. Elicitor or salicylic acid induced both VCHIT1b and VCH3 transcript abundances, whereas 2,6-dichloroiso-nicotinic acid or benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester enhanced exclusively the expression of VCH3. To assess the systemic sensation of chitinase expression, single leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir or Vitis rupestris plants were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola spore suspensions, and the VCH3 and VCHIT1b mRNA amounts in the infected versus the adjacent, healthy leaf were monitored. Two VCH3 mRNA maxima were observed 2 and 6 d postinoculation in the infected, susceptible V. vinifera tissue, whereas in the healthy leaf the transcript increased from low levels d 2 postinoculation to prominent levels d 6 to 8 postinoculation. The level of VCH3 mRNA increased also over 4 d in the inoculated, resistant V. rupestris tissue. However, necrotic spots rapidly limited the infection, and the VCH3 transcript was undetectable in the upper-stage, healthy leaf. The expression of VCHIT1b remained negligible under either experimental condition. Overall, the results suggest that the selective expression of VCH3 might be a reliable indicator of the SAR response in V. vinifera L.
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Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin in grapevine but its synthesis in response to phytopathogen attack decreases with grape berry ripening. A chimeric gene combining an alfalfa PR 10 promoter and Vst1 (Vitis stilbene synthase 1) gene was introduced into the genome of 41B rootstock. Transgenic plants were analysed for resveratrol production in leaves infected with Botrytis using an in vitro test. Among the 50 transgenic lines analysed, some exhibited a production lower than the non‐transgenic control, but others accumulated resveratrol from 5–100‐fold. Moreover, in the latter clones, symptoms were highly reduced in response to infection. These results were a good indication that the combination of a pathogen‐inducible promoter and a defence gene may increase tolerance against fungi in grapevine. The efficacy of this approach should be further tested by experiments conducted in the vineyard.
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Salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) are each involved in the regulation of basal resistance against different pathogens. These three signals play important roles in induced resistance as well. SA is a key regulator of pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR), whereas JA and ET are required for rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR). Both types of induced resistance are effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. In this study, we compared the spectrum of effectiveness of SAR and ISR using an oomycete, a fungal, a bacterial, and a viral pathogen. In noninduced Arabidopsis plants, these pathogens are primarily resisted through either SA-dependent basal resistance (Peronospora parasitica and Turnip crinkle virus [TCV]), JA/ET-dependent basal resistance responses (Alternaria brassicicola), or a combination of SA-, JA-, and ET-dependent defenses (Xanthomonas campestris pv. armoraciae). Activation of ISR resulted in a significant level of protection against A. brassicicola, whereas SAR was ineffective against this pathogen. Conversely, activation of SAR resulted in a high level of protection against P. parasitica and TCV, whereas ISR conferred only weak and no protection against P. parasitica and TCV, respectively. Induction of SAR and ISR was equally effective against X. campestris pv. armoraciae. These results indicate that SAR is effective against pathogens that in noninduced plants are resisted through SA-dependent defenses, whereas ISR is effective against pathogens that in noninduced plants are resisted through JA/ET-dependent defenses. This suggests that SAR and ISR constitute a reinforcement of extant SA- or JA/ET-dependent basal defense responses, respectively.
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The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 produces secondary metabolites such as pyochelin (Pch), its precursor salicylic acid (SA), and the phenazine compound pyocyanin. Both 7NSK2 and mutant KMPCH (Pch-negative, SA-positive) induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in wild-type but not in transgenic NahG tomato. SA-negative mutants of both strains lost the capacity to induce resistance. On tomato roots, KMPCH produced SA and induced phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, while this was not the case for 7NSK2. In 7NSK2, SA is probably very efficiently converted to Pch. However, Pch alone appeared not to be sufficient to induce resistance. In mammalian cells, Fe-Pch and pyocyanin can act synergistically to generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals that cause cell damage. Reactive oxygen species are known to play an important role in plant defense. To study the role of pyocyanin in induced resistance, a pyocyanin-negative mutant of 7NSK2, PHZ1, was generated. PHZ1 is mutated in the phzM gene encoding an O-methyltransferase. PHZ1 was unable to induce resistance to B. cinerea, whereas complementation for pyocyanin production or co-inoculation with mutant 7NSK2-562 (Pch-negative, SA-negative, pyocyanin-positive) restored induced resistance. These results suggest that pyocyanin and Pch, rather than SA, are the determinants for induced resistance in wild-type P. aeruginosa 7NSK2.
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Root inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r partially protected leaves from the oomycete Peronospora parasitica. The molecular determinants of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r for this induced systemic resistance (ISR) were investigated, using mutants derived from strain CHA0: CHA400 (pyoverdine deficient), CHA805 (exoprotease deficient), CHA77 (HCN deficient), CHA660 (pyoluteorin deficient), CHA631 (2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol [DAPG] deficient), and CHA89 (HCN, DAPG- and pyoluteorin deficient). Only mutations interfering with DAPG production led to a significant decrease in ISR to Peronospora parasitica. Thus, DAPG production in Pseudomonas fluorescens is required for the induction of ISR to Peronospora parasitica. DAPG is known for its antibiotic activity; however, our data indicate that one action of DAPG could be due to an effect on the physiology of the plant. DAPG at 10 to 100 microM applied to roots of Arabidopsis mimicked the ISR effect. CHA0r-mediated ISR was also tested in various Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants: NahG (transgenic line degrading salicylic acid [SA]), sid2-1 (nonproducing SA), npr1-1 (non-expressing NPR1 protein), jar1-1 (insensitive to jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonic acid), ein2-1 (insensitive to ethylene), etr1-1 (insensitive to ethylene), eir1-1 (insensitive to ethylene in roots), and pad2-1 (phytoalexin deficient). Only jar1-1, eir1-1, and npr1-1 mutants were unable to undergo ISR. Sensitivity to jasmonic acid and functional NPR1 and EIR1 proteins were required for full expression of CHA0r-mediated ISR. The requirements for ISR observed in this study in Peronospora parasitica induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r only partially overlap with those published so far for Peronospora parasitica, indicating a great degree of flexibility in the molecular processes leading to ISR.
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Grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) is vulnerable to a variety of pathogenic fungi, among them Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould, is responsible for worldwide yield losses that would be even more important without a successful control that relies mainly on fungicides. In the present work we investigated an alternative way of using oligogalacturonides (OGA) to induce defense responses in grapevine and protection against B. cinerea. Kinetic experiments with grapevine cells showed that OGA induced a rapid and transient generation of H(2)O(2), followed by differential expression of nine defense-related genes and stimulation of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities. Inhibition of OGA-induced oxidative burst by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, lowered induction levels of six genes and chitinase activity. Interestingly, the induction of three other genes and beta-1,3-glucanase activity were inhibited by K252a, a protein kinase inhibitor, but not by DPI. Treatment of grapevine leaves with OGA also reduced infection by B. cinerea by about 55-65%. Accordingly, DPI or K252a with or without OGA increased the susceptibility of grapevine leaves to B. cinerea. We suggest that treatment of grapevine with OGA elicits different signalling pathways, which might act in tandem with the oxidative burst to increase grapevine defense responses required for protection against B. cinerea.
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Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is susceptible to many pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea, Plasmopara viticola, Uncinula necator, and Eutypa lata. Phytochemicals are used intensively in vineyards to limit pathogen infections, but the appearance of pesticide-resistant pathogen strains and a desire to protect the environment require that alternative strategies be found. In the present study, the beta-1,3-glucan laminarin derived from the brown algae Laminaria digitata was shown both to be an efficient elicitor of defense responses in grapevine cells and plants and to effectively reduce B. cinerea and P. viticola development on infected grapevine plants. Defense reactions elicited by laminarin in grapevine cells include calcium influx, alkalinization of the extracellular medium, an oxidative burst, activation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases, expression of 10 defense-related genes with different kinetics and intensities, increases in chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities, and the production of two phytoalexins (resveratrol and epsilon-viniferin). Several of these effects were checked and confirmed in whole plants. Laminarin did not induce cell death. When applied to grapevine plants, laminarin reduced infection by B. cinerea and P. viticola by approximately 55 and 75%, respectively. Our data describing a large set of defense reactions in grapevine indicate that the activation of defense responses using elicitors could be a valuable strategy to protect plants against pathogens.
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Plants develop an enhanced defensive capacity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens after colonization of the roots by selected strains of nonpathogenic, fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) functions independently of salicylic acid but requires responsiveness to the plant hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene. In contrast to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance, rhizobacteria-mediated ISR is not associated with changes in the expression of genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. To identify ISR-related genes, we surveyed the transcriptional response of over 8,000 Arabidopsis genes during rhizobacteria-mediated ISR. Locally in the roots, ISR-inducing Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria elicited a substantial change in the expression of 97 genes. However, systemically in the leaves, none of the approximately 8,000 genes tested showed a consistent change in expression in response to effective colonization of the roots by WCS417r, indicating that the onset of ISR in the leaves is not associated with detectable changes in gene expression. After challenge inoculation of WCS417r-induced plants with the bacterial leaf pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, 81 genes showed an augmented expression pattern in ISR-expressing leaves, suggesting that these genes were primed to respond faster or more strongly upon pathogen attack. The majority of the primed genes was predicted to be regulated by jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling. Priming of pathogen-induced genes allows the plant to react more effectively to the invader encountered, which might explain the broad-spectrum action of rhizobacteria-mediated ISR.
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Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream.
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We have already reported the identification of the endopolygalacturonase 1 (BcPG1) from Botrytis cinerea as a potent elicitor of defense responses in grapevine, independently of its enzymatic activity. The aim of the present study is the analysis of the signaling pathways triggered by BcPG1 in grapevine cells. Our data indicate that BcPG1 induces a Ca2+ entry from the apoplasm, which triggers a phosphorylation-dependent nitric oxide (NO) production via an enzyme probably related to a NO synthase. Then NO is involved in (i) cytosolic calcium homeostasis, by activating Ca2+ release from internal stores and regulating Ca2+ fluxes across the plasma membrane, (ii) plasma membrane potential variation, (iii) the activation of active oxygen species (AOS) production, and (iv) defense gene expression, including phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase, which encode enzymes responsible for phytoalexin biosynthesis. Interestingly enough, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is independent of this regulation pathway that closely connects Ca2+, NO, and AOS.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 induces resistance in dicots through a synergistic interaction of the phenazine pyocyanin and the salicylic acid-derivative pyochelin. Root inoculation of the monocot model rice with 7NSK2 partially protected leaves against blast disease (Magnaporthe grisea) but failed to consistently reduce sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani). Only mutations interfering with pyocyanin production led to a significant decrease in induced systemic resistance (ISR) to M. grisea, and in trans complementation for pyocyanin production restored the ability to elicit ISR. Intriguingly, pyocyanin-deficient mutants, unlike the wild type, triggered ISR against R. solani. Hence, bacterial pyocyanin plays a differential role in 7NSK2-mediated ISR in rice. Application of purified pyocyanin to hydroponically grown rice seedlings increased H202 levels locally on the root surface as well as a biphasic H202 generation pattern in distal leaves. Co-application of pyocyanin and the antioxidant sodium ascorbate alleviated the opposite effects of pyocyanin on rice blast and sheath blight development, suggesting that the differential effectiveness of pyocyanin with respect to 7NSK2-triggered ISR is mediated by transiently elevated H202 levels in planta. The cumulative results suggest that reactive oxygen species act as a double-edged sword in the interaction of rice with the hemibiotroph M. grisea and the necrotroph R. solani.
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Cellodextrins (CD), water-soluble derivatives of cellulose composed of β-1,4 glucoside residues, have been shown to induce a variety of defence responses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cells. The larger oligomers of CD rapidly induced transient generation of H2O2 and elevation in free cytosolic calcium, followed by a differential expression of genes encoding key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins as well as stimulation of chitinase and β-1,3 glucanase activities. Most of these defence reactions were also induced by linear β-1,3 glucans (βGlu) and α-1,4 oligogalacturonides (OGA) of different degree of polymerization (DP), but the intensity of some reactions induced by CD was different when compared with βGlu and OGA effects. Moreover, desensitization assays using H2O2 production showed that cells treated with CD remained fully responsive to a second application of OGA, suggesting a different mode of perception of these oligosaccharides by grape cells. None of CD, βGlu, or OGA induced HSR gene expression nor did they induce cell death. In accordance with elicitor activity in grapevine cells, CD-incubated leaves challenged with Botrytis cinerea also resulted in a significant reduction of the disease. Data suggest that CD could operate via other distinct reaction pathways than βGlu and OGA. They also highlight the requirement of a specific DP for each oligosaccharide to induce the defence response.
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Pseudomonas strains have shown promising results in biological control of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. However, the mechanism(s) and metabolites involved are in many cases poorly understood. Here, the role of the cyclic lipopeptide massetolide A of Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 in biocontrol of tomato late blight was examined. Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 was effective in preventing infection of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves by P. infestans and significantly reduced the expansion of existing late blight lesions. Massetolide A was an important component of the activity of P. fluorescens SS101, since the massA-mutant was significantly less effective in biocontrol, and purified massetolide A provided significant control of P. infestans, both locally and systemically via induced resistance. Assays with nahG transgenic plants indicated that the systemic resistance response induced by SS101 or massetolide A was independent of salicylic acid signalling. Strain SS101 colonized the roots of tomato seedlings significantly better than its massA-mutant, indicating that massetolide A was an important trait in plant colonization. This study shows that the cyclic lipopeptide surfactant massetolide A is a metabolite with versatile functions in the ecology of P. fluorescens SS101 and in interactions with tomato plants and the late blight pathogen P. infestans.
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In order to study the involvement of chitinases in the interactions between grape berries and fungi, three genomic sequences encoding chitinases were isolated by PCR walking on Vitis vinifera DNA. Two of these belong to class I chitinases with a putative vacuolar (Vvchit1a) and extracellular (Vvchit1b) localization whilst the third sequence belongs to class III (VvchitIII). Transcripts of class III chitinases were shown to accumulate in unripe berries infected with Plasmopara viticola but not at later developmental stages of berries infected with Uncinula necator or Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, class I transcripts were never detected in grape berries. Specificity of chitinase expression in response to pathogens was investigated in leaves infected with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, a bacterium leading to an incompatible interaction. Expression of the Vvchit1a gene was induced in leaves upon both infections. In contrast, accumulation of class III transcripts was observed in response to P. syringae but not to B. cinerea infection, whereas Vvchit1b transcripts were detected in leaves only in the latter case. Our data indicate that, in V.vinifera, induction of chitinase genes depends on the infecting pathogen.
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Previous studies demonstrated the role of the O-antigenic side chain of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS417r in its ability to induce resistance against fusarium wilt disease. The present study compared the colonization of tomato roots (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) by P. fluorescens strain WCS417r with that of a mutant of this strain, lacking the O-antigenic side chain of its outer membrane lipopolysaccharides (OA −). Special attention was paid to colonization within root tissues and changes of the root ultrastructure induced by the bacterial strains. Experiments were performed with tomato plants rooted in rock wool and tomato seedlings grown on agar. Numeration of colony-forming units showed that wild-type strain WCS417r colonized the root interior of tomato grown in rock wool to a higher extent than its OA− mutant B4, whereas colonization of the rhizoplane did not differ between the two. Light microscopy observations of cross sections of roots grown on agar showed that (i) colonization of the root interior by both wild-type and OA− mutant was inter- and intracellular, (ii) colonization of the internal root tissues mainly occurred if the Pseudomonas strains were inoculated at sites of lateral root emergence, (iii) the wild type colonized the root interior more frequently than did its OA− mutant. Thickening of the cortical cell walls, in reaction to the bacterial colonization of epidermal or hypodermal cells, or cortical intercellular spaces, suggested that local defence reactions of the plant occurred. Altogether, these results indicate the involvement of the O-antigenic side chain of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharides in the endophytic colonization of the tomato root by P. fluorescens, WCS417r, and lead us to hypothesize that induction of disease resistance by strain WCS417r might be related to the extent of colonization of the internal root tissues.
Article
The addition of sugars or amino acids to the soil gave rise to the development of different groups of microorganisms. The increase in the number of different groups of microorganisms in the soil had an influence on the microbiota in the rhizoplane and endorhizosphere of maize and barley grown in that soil. Furthermore, growth of maize and barley decreased with increasing microbial activity and density in soil. This effect could be counteracted effectively by the rhizopseudomonad strain 7NSK2. The beneficial effect of the strain 7NSK2 correlated inversely with the microbial activity, as measured by soil respiration, in the bulk-pretreated soil. The effect of seed inoculation with the rhizopseudomonad strain 7NSK2 on the root microbiota of maize and barley was evaluated. The strain 7NSK2 was capable of colonizing the rhizoplane and endorhizosphere of the maize cultivar Beaupré and barley cultivar Than very effectively and of considerably altering their composition. The number of total bacteria, fungi, pseudomonads and coliform bacteria in the rhizoplane and endorhizosphere of both plants was strongly reduced by inoculating the seeds with the strain 7NSK2.
Article
Root colonization by rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to systemic acquired resistance induced by a localized pathogen infection. We used the tobacco–tobacco mosaic virus model to investigate whether the systemic resistance induced by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 is mediated by the systemic acquired resistance signal transduction pathway. Experiments with nahG-transformed tobacco revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2-induced resistance depended on in planta salicylic acid accumulation for its expression but not for its induction and is, in this respect, similar to systemic acquired resistance. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2-induced resistance was, unlike systemic acquired resistance, not associated with PR1a expression at the time of challenge with tobacco mosaic virus. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 treatment would only potentiate defense gene expression in systemic tissue, which would also explain why its level of resistance is lower than in case of systemic acquired resistance. Because we demonstrated that induced resistance by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 exclusively depends on the production of salicylic acid by this strain our conclusions might also account for other salicylic acid-producing and resistance-inducing rhizobacteria.
Article
The grapevine, Vitis vinifera, produces the stress metabolites resveratrol, ε-viniferin, α-viniferin and pterostilbene in response to infection. The latter 3 compounds are fungitoxic. The same stress metabolites are also produced by Vitis riparia. The relationship between the production of these stress metabolites and the resistance of V. riparia to the grapevine pathogens Botrytis cinerea (grey mould) and Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew) has been examined as -well as the age-related resistance of V. vinifera to B. cinerea. Attempts to determine the times, local sites and concentration at which these stress metabolites accumulate in relation to growth of the pathogen suggest that these stress metabolites are responsible for inhibiting growth of the pathogens in resistant interactions. In the resistance of V. riparia, ε-viniferin was generally the predominant component although α-viniferin was produced in appreciable quantities. In the age-related resistance of V. vinifera to B. cinerea, α-viniferin predominated. Despite the relatively high antifungal activity of pterostilbene, this compound appeared to play no role in the resistance of either species.
Article
A collection of 282 bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere and different organs of healthy field-grown grapevine plants was obtained and screened for their ability to protect grapevine leaves against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold. Twenty-six strains effectively controlled B. cinerea infections on leaves. After phenotypic and molecular analysis, seven strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-268 and PTA-CT2, Bacillus subtilis PTA-271, Pantoea agglomerans PTA-AF1 and PTA-AF2, and Acinetobacter lwoffii PTA-113 and PTA-152. In vitro antifungal experiments showed that from these seven strains, only PTA-AF1 and PTA-CT2 exhibited a direct antagonism against B. cinerea. Furthermore, the biocontrol activity of the seven bacteria was associated with differential induction of defense-related responses lipoxygenase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chitinase in grapevine leaves. Our results show that the selected bacteria can efficiently protect grapevine leaves against gray mold disease through an induction of plant resistance and in some cases by an additional antagonistic activity.
Article
Root and crown rot of cucumber caused by Pythium aphanidermatum can be suppressed by various rhizobacteria or PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria). When cucumber roots were treated with Pseudomonas corrugata 13 or Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63–28, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was stimulated in root tissues in 2 days and this activated accumulation lasted for 16 days after bacterization. Peroxidase (PO) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were increased in roots 2–5 days after bacterization with P. corrugata strain 13. After bacterized cucumber roots were challenged with P. aphanidermatum, the enzyme activities of PAL, PO and PPO increased as the disease developed on the roots. These accumulations peaked 4–6 days after pathogen inoculation. A split root system demonstrated that the three enzymes could be systemically induced by the Pseudomonas strains 63–28 and 13, as well as P. aphanidermatum. Furthermore, isoperoxidase native PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) analysis indicated that the peroxidase isomer forms in cucumber roots induced by rhizobacteria were different from that in roots infected with P. aphanidermatum. These results suggest that the plant defense enzymes could be stimulated in cucumber roots which have been colonized by non-pathogenic rhizobacteria or in a compatible interaction between cucumber and P. aphanidermatum. The mechanisms of PO activation by the rhizobacteria may be different from those of pathogen infection.
Article
ABSTRACT Selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is effective against various pathogens. In an assay with bean plants, we investigated which determinants of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 are important for induction of resistance to Botrytis cinerea. By varying the iron nutritional state of the bacterium at inoculation, it was demonstrated that induced resistance by P. aeruginosa 7NSK2 was iron-regulated. As P. aeruginosa 7NSK2 produces three siderophores under iron limitation, pyoverdin, pyochelin, and salicylic acid, we investigated the involvement of these iron-regulated metabolites in induced resistance by using mutants deficient in one or more siderophores. Results demonstrated that salicylic acid production was essential for induction of resistance to B. cinerea by P. aeruginosa 7NSK2 in bean and did not exclude a role for pyochelin. A role for pyoverdin, however, could not be demonstrated. Transcriptional activity of salicylic acid and pyochelin biosynthetic genes was detected during P. aeruginosa 7NSK2 colonization of bean. Moreover, the iron nutritional state at inoculation influenced the transcriptional activity of salicylic acid and pyochelin biosynthetic genes in the same way as it influenced induction of systemic resistance to B. cinerea.
Article
Microbial elicitors or attempted infection with an avirulent pathogen strain causes the rapid production of reactive oxygen intermediates. We report here that H2O2 from this oxidative burst not only drives the cross-linking of cell wall structural proteins, but also functions as a local trigger of programmed death in challenged cells and as a diffusible signal for the induction in adjacent cells of genes encoding cellular protectants such as glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. Thus, H2O2 from the oxidative burst plays a key role in the orchestration of a localized hypersensitive response during the expression of plant disease resistance.
Article
Zinc concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mM only slightly reduced maximal growth of wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 in iron-limiting casamino acid medium, but had a clear negative effect on the growth of mutant MPFM1 (pyoverdin negative) and especially mutant KMPCH (pyoverdin and pyochelin negative). Production of pyoverdin by wild-type strain 7NSK2 was significantly increased in the presence of 0.5 mM zinc and could not be repressed by iron even at a concentration of 100 microM. Siderophore detection via isoelectrofocusing revealed that mutant KMPCH did not produce any siderophores, while mutant MPFM1 overproduced a siderophore with an acidic isoelectric point, most likely pyochelin. Pyochelin production by MPFM1 was stimulated by the presence of zinc in a similar way as pyoverdin for the wild-type. Analysis of outer membrane proteins revealed that three iron regulated outer membrane proteins (IROMPs) (90, 85 and 75 kDa) were induced by iron deficiency in the wild-type, while mutants were found to have altered IROMP profiles. Zinc specifically enhanced the production of a 85 kDa IROMP in 7NSK2, a 75 kDa IROMP in MPFM1 and a 90 kDa IROMP in KMPCH.
Article
Resistance of plants to infection by phytopathogenic microorganisms is the result of multiple defense reactions comprising both constitutive and inducible barriers. In grapevine, the most frequently observed and best characterized defense mechanisms are the accumulation of phytoalexins and the synthesis of PR-proteins. Particular attention has been given here to stilbene phytoalexins produced by Vitaceae, specifically, their pathway of biosynthesis (including stilbene phytoalexin gene transfer experiments to other plants) and their biological activity together with fungal metabolism.
Article
Plants can acquire enhanced resistance to pathogens after treatment with necrotizing attackers, nonpathogenic root-colonizing pseudomonads, salicylic acid, beta-aminobutyric acid and many other natural or synthetic compounds. The induced resistance is often associated with an enhanced capacity to mobilize infection-induced cellular defence responses - a process called 'priming'. Although the phenomenon has been known for years, most progress in our understanding of priming has been made only recently. These studies show that priming often depends on the induced disease resistance key regulator NPR1 (also known as NIM1 or SAI1) and that priming has a major effect on the regulation of cellular plant defence responses.
Article
beta-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) was used to induce resistance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). This led to a strong reduction of mycelial growth and sporulation in the susceptible cv. Chasselas. Comparing different inducers, the best protection was achieved with BABA followed by jasmonic acid (JA), whereas benzo (1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothionic acid-S-methyl ester (a salicylic acid [SA] analog) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment did not increase the resistance significantly. Marker genes for the SA and JA pathways showed potentiated expression patterns in BABA-treated plants following infection. The callose synthesis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose partially suppressed BABA- and JA-induced resistance against P viticola in Chasselas. Application of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid and the lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor 5, 8, 11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) also led to a reduction of BABA-induced resistance (BABA-IR), suggesting that callose deposition as well as defense mechanisms depending on phenylpropanoids and the JA pathways all contribute to BABA-IR. The similar phenotype of BABA- and JA-induced resistance, the potentiated expression pattern of JA-regulated genes (LOX-9 and PR-4) following BABA treatment, and the suppression of BABA-IR with ETYA suggest an involvement of the JA pathway in BABA-IR of grapevine leading to a primed deposition of callose and lignin around the infection sites.
Article
Multiple strains of Bacillus spp. were demonstrated to stimulate plant defence responses. However, very little is known about the nature of molecular determinants secreted by these Gram-positive bacteria that are responsible for the elicitation of the induced systemic resistance (ISR) phenomenon. This study shows that the lipopeptides surfactins and fengycins may be involved in this elicitation process. In bean, pure fengycins and surfactins provided a significant ISR-mediated protective effect on bean plants, similar to the one induced by living cells of the producing strain S499. Moreover, experiments conducted on bean and tomato plants showed that overexpression of both surfactin and fengycin biosynthetic genes in the naturally poor producer Bacillus subtilis strain 168 was associated with a significant increase in the potential of the derivatives to induce resistance. In tomato cells, key enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway appeared to be activated in resistant plants following induction by lipopeptide overproducers. To our knowledge, such lipopeptides constitute a novel class of compounds from non-pathogenic bacteria that can be perceived by plant cells as signals to initiate defence mechanisms.
Article
A method is presented by which hundreds of haploid plants of various species of Nicotiana can be raised from pollen grains. Stamens should be excised when pollen grains have been individualized, but are still uninucleate and free of starch. When grown in vitro on a relatively simple medium, some pollen grains proliferate into embryo-liké, structures which develop in stages similar to those of zygotic embryos. The plantlets mature and flower profusely, but do not set seed.