Risk of development of acute pancreatitis with pre-existing diabetes: A meta-analysis
It is well established that acute pancreatitis (AP) often causes diabetes mellitus. However, whether pre-existing diabetes is associated with the development of AP remains unknown. To clarify the association of pre-existing diabetes and the development of AP, we carried out a meta-analysis of observational studies. A computerized literature search was performed in MEDLINE (from 1 January 1966) and EMBASE (from 1 January 1974), through 31 January 2012. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Summary relative risks with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic and the I 2. A total of seven articles (10 523 incident cases of AP) were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of seven studies indicated that, compared with nondiabetic individuals, diabetic individuals had a 92% increased risk of development of AP (95% CI 1.50-2.47). There was significant evidence of heterogeneity among these studies (P heterogeneity<0.001, I 2=93.0%). These increased risks were independent of alcohol use, gallstones, and hyperlipidemia. Although the current evidence supports a positive link between pre-existing diabetes and an increased risk of development of AP, additional studies, with a perfect design, are required before definitive conclusions can be drawn.