Polymorphisms in the transcription factor NRF2 and forearm vasodilator responses in humans
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
(Impact Factor: 3.48).
06/2012; 22(8):620-8. DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e32835516e5
Oxidative stress is integral to the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. As NRF2 is a key transcription factor in antioxidant defense, we aimed to determine whether polymorphisms within the promoter region of the gene encoding NRF2 (NFE2L2) would significantly modify vasodilator responses in humans.
Associations between the -653A/G (rs35652124), -651G/A (rs6706649), and -617C/A (rs6721961) polymorphisms within the NFE2L2 promoter and vascular function were evaluated in healthy African-American (n=64) and white (n=184) individuals. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography at baseline and in response to incremental doses of bradykinin or sodium nitroprusside. Forearm vascular resistance (FVR) was calculated as the mean arterial pressure/FBF.
In African Americans, -653G variant allele carriers had significantly lower FBF and higher FVR under basal conditions as well as in response to bradykinin or sodium nitroprusside compared with wild-type individuals (P<0.05 for each comparison). In whites, although no significant associations were observed with the -653A/G genotype, -617A variant allele carriers had significantly higher FVR at baseline and in response to bradykinin or sodium nitroprusside compared with wild-type individuals (P<0.05 for each comparison). The -651G/A polymorphism was not associated with vasodilator responses in either racial group.
Polymorphisms within the NFE2L2 promoter were associated with impaired forearm vasodilator responses in an endothelial-independent manner, suggesting an important role of NRF2 in the regulation of vascular function in humans.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "A recent study demonstrated association between Nrf2 polymorphism and hemodynamic parameters. Polymorphisms (rs35652124 and rs6721961) within the Nrf2 promoter were associated with impaired forearm vasodilator responses in an endothelial-independent manner, suggesting an important role of Nrf2 in the regulation of vascular function in humans 16. These vascular responses have been shown to correlate with vasodilator responses in coronary arteries, and predict the risk of developing cardiovascular disease 22. "
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Nrf2 is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant genes. This study aimed to investigate the association of Nrf2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs35652124 (-653A/G) and rs6721961 (-617C/A), with laboratory data and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 216 HD patients (119 males and 97 females; 60 diabetics and 156 non-diabetics) with mean age of 60.3±13.3 (SD) years, and mean HD duration of 9.10±8.28 years. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP) assay.Results: As for rs35652124, diastolic blood pressure (BP) was significantly high in total AA carriers. β2-microglobulin was significantly low in male AA carriers. Systolic BP, diastolic BP and albumin were significantly high in female AA carriers. As for 6721961, systolic BP and diastolic BP were significantly high in female AA carriers. Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for age, HD duration, diabetes and Kt/V demonstrated that rs35652124 AA carriers showed higher cardiovascular mortality than (GG+GA) carriers.Conclusion:
Nrf2 SNPs were associated with BP in Japanese HD patients. More notably, rs35652124 was associated with cardiovascular mortality in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: Several years have passed since NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was demonstrated to regulate the induction of genes encoding antioxidant proteins and phase 2 detoxifying enzymes. Following a number of studies, it was realized that Nrf2 is a key factor for cytoprotection in various aspects, such as anticarcinogenicity, neuroprotection, antiinflammatory response, and so forth. These widespread functions of Nrf2 spring from the coordinated actions of various categories of target genes. The activation mechanism of Nrf2 has been studied extensively. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 localizes in the cytoplasm where it interacts with the actin binding protein, Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1), and is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Signals from reactive oxygen species or electrophilic insults target the Nrf2-Keap1 complex, dissociating Nrf2 from Keap1. Stabilized Nrf2 then translocates to the nuclei and transactivates its target genes. Interestingly, Keap1 is now assumed to be a substrate-specific adaptor of Cul3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. Direct participation of Keap1 in the ubiquitination and degradation of Nrf2 is plausible. The Nrf2-Keap1 system is present not only in mammals, but in fish, suggesting that its roles in cellular defense are conserved throughout evolution among vertebrates. This review article recounts recent knowledge of the Nrf2-Keap1 system, focusing especially on the molecular mechanism of Nrf2 regulation.
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ABSTRACT: Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes through the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent transcription was initially implicated in chemoprevention against cancer by antioxidants. Recent progress in understanding the biology and mechanism of induction revealed a critical role of induction in cellular defense against electrophilic and oxidative stress. Induction is mediated through a novel signaling pathway via two regulatory proteins, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Nrf2 binds to Keap1 at a two site-binding interface and is ubiquitinated by the Keap1/cullin 3/ring box protein-1-ubiquitin ligase, resulting in a rapid turnover of Nrf2 protein. Electrophiles and oxidants modify critical cysteine thiols of Keap1 and Nrf2 to inhibit Nrf2 ubiquitination, leading to Nrf2 activation and induction. Induction increases stress resistance critical for cell survival, because knockout of Nrf2 in mice increased susceptibility to a variety of toxicity and disease processes. Collateral to diverse functions of Nrf2, genome-wide search has led to the identification of a plethora of ARE-dependent genes regulated by Nrf2 in an inducer-, tissue-, and disease-dependent manner to control drug metabolism, antioxidant defense, stress response, proteasomal degradation, and cell proliferation. The protective nature of Nrf2 could also be hijacked in a number of pathological conditions by means of somatic mutation, epigenetic alteration, and accumulation of disruptor proteins, promoting drug resistance in cancer and pathologic liver features in autophagy deficiency. The repertoire of ARE inducers has expanded enormously; the therapeutic potential of the inducers has been examined beyond cancer prevention. Developing potent and specific ARE inducers and Nrf2 inhibitors holds certain new promise for the prevention and therapy against cancer, chronic disease, and toxicity.
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