Towards a perfect vehicle(s) for diagnostic patch testing: An overview
University of California San Francisco, Dermatology , 90 Medical Center Way, Box 0989, San Francisco, CA 94143 , USA.Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.12). 06/2012; 32(1). DOI: 10.3109/15569527.2012.684418
The correct selection of vehicles for patch testing is crucial in evaluating suspected allergic contact dermatitis. We reviewed literature by searching Pubmed and Embase for the years 1971-2011 utilizing the subjects "vehicle," "allergic contact dermatitis" and "patch test" for advances in knowledge of vehicles." A universal optimal vehicle more efficient than petrolatum remains undiscovered. Literature provides research supporting alternate vehicles for specific allergens and insights on vehicle characteristics, such as influence on bioavailability of chemicals and subsequent percutaneous absorption or interaction with allergens. These findings should accelerate our ability to define, and thus determine, the optimum vehicle(s).
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ABSTRACT: The second edition of this book is virtually a new book. It is the only comprehensive text on the safety of essential oils, the first review of essential oil/drug interactions, and it provides detailed essential oil constituent data not found in any other text. Much of the existing text has been re-written, and 80% of the text is completely new. There are 400 comprehensive essential oil profiles and almost 4000 references. There are new chapters on the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, the urinary system, the digestive system and the nervous system. For each essential oil there is a full breakdown of constituents, and a clear categorization of hazards and risks, with recommended maximum doses and concentrations. There are also 206 Constituent Profiles. There is considerable discussion of carcinogens, the human relevance of some of the animal data, the validity of treating an essential oil as if it was a single chemical, and the arbitrary nature of uncertainty factors. There is a critique of current regulations.
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ABSTRACT: Background Epicutaneous patch tests are used to reproduce allergy and diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Reliable allergen test preparations are required.Objectives The purpose of the present study was to measure the actual concentrations of nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4), methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde, and glutaraldehyde, and to compare them with the labelled concentrations, in commercial patch test allergen preparations found in dermatology clinics where patch testing is routinely performed.Materials and methodsThe commercial in-date and out-of-date patch test allergen preparations concentrations of NiSO4, methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde from one to three participating clinics were analysed with chromatographic or wet chemical techniques.ResultsNiSO4 and formaldehyde concentrations were at or above the labelled concentrations; however, formaldehyde loss occurred with storage. NiSO4 particulate was uniformly distributed throughout the petrolatum. ‘In-use’ methyl methacrylate reagent syringes all contained ≤ 56% of the 2% label concentration, with no observable relationship with expiration date. Lower methyl methacrylate cocentrations were consistently measured at the syringe tip end, suggesting loss resulting from methyl methacrylate's volatility. The concentrations of glutaraldehyde patch test allergen preparations ranged from 27% to 45% of the labelled (1% in pet.) concentration, independently of expiration date.Conclusions Some false-negative methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde patch test results may be attributable to instability of the test preparations.
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