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Dual Coding Theory and Education

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Dual coding theory (DCT) explains human behavior and experience in terms of dynamic associative processes that operate on a rich network of modality-specific verbal and nonverbal (or imagery) representations. We first describe the underlying premises of the theory and then show how the basic DCT mechanisms can be used to model diverse educational phenomena. The research demonstrates that concreteness, imagery, and verbal associative processes play major roles in various educational domains: the representation and comprehension of knowledge, learning and memory of school material, effective instruction, individual differences, achievement motivation and test anxiety, and the learning of motor skills. DCT also has important implications for the science and practice of educational psychology — specifically, for educational research and teacher education. We show not only that DCT provides a unified explanation for diverse topics in education, but also that its mechanistic framework accommodates theories cast in terms of strategies and other high-level psychological processes. Although much additional research needs to be done, the concrete models that DCT offers for the behavior and experience of students, teachers, and educational psychologists further our understanding of educational phenomena and strengthen related pedagogical practices.
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... The notion of MRs is the delivery of a concept using at least two different representation types (Ainsworth, 2006;Arifah, 2020). The advantage of learning mathematics with MRs are explained from the perspectives of information processing theory ( dual coding) (Clark & Paivio, 1991) , and pedagogical functions (complement , constrain and construct (Ainsworth, 2006) In the process of designing an appropriate multi-representational learning environment to support students' learning, the rhythm must be based on the pedagogical functions that MRs provides along with design parameters and cognitive tasks (Ainsworth, 2006). ...
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