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Abstract

This chapter sets out to create a novel understanding of identity dynamics in the family business context. Focusing on Hjalmar Bergman’s The Head of the Firm (1924), a fiction novel, our purpose is to describe and interpret how the personal identity of an entrepreneur is challenged and changed in relation to demanding and overlapping family, business, and societal norms and expectations. In our case, ­particularly events related to succession of management and ownership in a family business form dynamic and emotional plots that propel the story forward.

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... While the use of narratives and narrative analysis (cf. Dawson & Hjorth, 2012;Hamilton, 2006;Hamilton et al., 2017) has found a place in family business studies, these efforts do not explore fiction or literature (for exceptions, see Hjorth & Dawson, 2016;Kjellander et al., 2012). And, while narrative analysis in organizational studies draws from similar intellectual resources, for example, Jacques Derrida, Stanley Fish, Michel Foucault, Clifford Geertz, Claude Levi Straus, Kate Millett, Paul Ricouer, Elaine Showalter, and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (apologies if your favorite literary philosopher or critic is not listed), the approaches used in the study of literature in the field of literary studies offer a broader array of methods and formats than those utilized in literary studies in organizational and management scholarship. ...
... It is appropriate to draw on the literature that views identity as a fluid, social construct, rather than an unproblematic given. Leitch and Harrison (2016) highlight a European tradition of interpretivist studies of entrepreneurial identity taking a social constructivist perspective (Cohen & Musson, 2000;Down & Reveley, 2004;Mills & Pawson, 2006;Jones et al., 2008;Boje & Smith, 2010;Down, 2006;Berglund, 2006;Reveley & Down, 2009;Watson, 2009;Kjellander et al., 2012;Williams, 2015;Lewis, 2015). In this tradition, Down (2006) proposes identity is a mutable achievement in time and space, built through relationships with others, and also in relation to the surrounding social context (Leitch and Harrison, 2016). ...
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Indigenous entrepreneurs represent a growing segment of the business community in many countries, but face sometimes stark challenges in starting and running enterprises. The success of indigenous entrepreneurs matters because they draw upon their indigeneity as sources of inspiration and innovation, contribute to the collective wellbeing of indigenous peoples, and some represent world class exemplars of sustainable ways of doing business. While enterprise assistance for entrepreneurs is widely accepted as a worthwhile use of public funds few guidelines exist to help policy makers and providers understand the needs of indigenous entrepreneurs and how best to respond. In this paper, we use the theoretical lens of entrepreneurial identity to provide insight into this challenging context. Taking an identity perspective may enable us to tease out how identifying as a Māori entrepreneur can enable and also hinder change in this community context. In doing so we lay foundations for future empirical work.
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As the breadth and empirical diversity of entrepreneurship research have increased rapidly during the last decade, the quest to find a "one-size-fits-all" general theory of entrepreneurship has given way to a growing appreciation for the importance of contexts. This promises to improve both the practical relevance and the theoretical rigor of research in this field. Entrepreneurship means different things to different people at different times and in different places and both its causes and its consequences likewise vary. For example, for some people entrepreneurship can be a glorious path to emancipation, while for others it can represent the yoke tethering them to the burdens of overwork and drudgery. For some communities it can drive renaissance and vibrancy while for others it allows only bare survival. In this book, we assess and attempt to push forward contemporary conceptualizations of contexts that matter for entrepreneurship, pointing in particular to opportunities generating new insights by attending to contexts in novel or underexplored ways. This book shows that the ongoing contextualization of entrepreneurship research should not simply generate a proliferation of unique theories – one for every context – but can instead result in better theory construction, testing and understanding of boundary conditions, thereby leading us to richer and more profound understanding of entrepreneurship across its many forms. Contextualizing Entrepreneurship Theory will critically review the current debate and existing literature on contexts and entrepreneurship and use this to synthesize new theoretical and methodological frameworks that point to important directions for future research. Open Access Link: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/contextualizing-entrepreneurship-theory-ted-baker-friederike-welter/10.4324/9781351110631
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This paper reviews the current status of research into entrepreneurial identity. Identities – individual and organizational – can potentially serve as powerful elements that both drive and are shaped by entrepreneurial actions. Identity is, of course, a complex construct with multidisciplinary roots and consequentially a range of conceptual meanings and theoretical roles associated with it. Building on a framework for identifying schools of thought in the social sciences, we highlight the need for more critical studies of entrepreneurial identity that recognize, first, that entrepreneurial identity is a dynamic and fluid rather than (relatively) fixed and unchanging feature, and second, that research attention should shift from the analysis of identity per se (the identity-as-entity position) to the identity work processes through which entrepreneurial identities are shaped and formed (the identity-as-process position). Following a summary of the key contributions of the five papers included in this Special Issue, we conclude with some pointers for future research.
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Organizational members are often faced with tremendous demands on their individual identities that affect their performance at work and their well-being as individuals.Previous research has been limited, however, by typically studying identity at either the individual or the organizational level. We therefore introduce a boundary approach that simultaneously examines identities across levels in order to better understand these identity demands. Specifically, we examine boundary dynamics that are negotiated at the interface of individual and organizational identities. We introduce the identity boundary dynamics of identity intrusion, distance and balance as different manifestations of identity boundary (in)congruence, both within and between individuals and organizations. Finally, we outline propositions that suggest boundary dynamics as a source of identity change.
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This paper focuses on the negotiation of identity in case studies of four women undergoing career change in the UK. The triple nexus between identity as a reflexive journey, entrepreneurship as a social process and communities of practice is established and provides a powerful means of exploring the dynamics of the entrepreneurial transition. The paper examines how identity is constructed and reconstructed during their trajectory from one mode of work to another, as they acknowledged, and were acknowledged by, shifting communities of practice. The central argument of the paper is that the women were at times constituted as entrepreneurs by a powerful discourse, but that their first priority was to be recognized and legitimized as professionals as they engaged with particular communities of practice. Further, they rework these discourses with an impact not just at the level of their own individual experience, but also at network level through interaction with their community of practice. The study uses narrative analysis to provide insights into the processes and practices that have constituted their experience. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to an understanding of the early stages of entrepreneurial activity; this may be of benefit to policy makers, support services and educators, as well as the academic community. Theoretically, it is demonstrated that the notion of the community of practice has value in developing a processual understanding of the entrepreneurial transition.
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Although ‘doing gender’ has been recently defined as an accomplishment, an element of social practice, this understanding of the concept needs to be extended to coercive action such as subtle workplace discrimination. Even though great effort has been invested in revealing the dynamic of such social practices, the researcher's task is not easy for a variety of reasons. This type of study is difficult to conduct by following traditional research design and many alternative approaches have been tried. This article presents the possibility of using fiction as one possible and relatively unexploited venue of research.
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In this paper we develop a particular way of understanding literature and organization with the aim of drawing on and extending the relationship between the two. Hence our subtitle: exploring the seam. Although the use of literary concepts and theories within our discipline is now well established, the way in which such ideas are taken up often neglects debate and contestation by treating 'literature' as a relatively homogeneous field. By following some of the ardent debates relating to issues of representation, the relation between text and extra-textual reality, and literature's disclosure of its status as fiction, we find a discussion of (social) organization at the heart of contemporary literary theory. It is the oscillation between literature and organization that structures this paper and gives us our argument: that 'organization' and 'literature' are mutually co-articulating and interdependent concepts and fields of enquiry.
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We define cultural entrepreneurship as the process of storytelling that mediates between extant stocks of entrepreneurial resources and subsequent capital acquisition and wealth creation. We propose a framework that focuses on how entrepreneurial stories facilitate the crafting of a new venture identity that serves as a touchstone upon which legitimacy may be conferred by investors, competitors, and consumers, opening up access to new capital and market opportunities. Stories help create competitive advantage for entrepreneurs through focal content shaped by two key forms of entrepreneurial capital: firm-specific resource capital and industry-level institutional capital. We illustrate our ideas with anecdotal entrepreneurial stories that range from contemporary high-technology accounts to the evolution of the mutual fund industry. Propositions are offered to guide future empirical research based on our framework. Theoretically, we aim to extend recent efforts to synthesize strategic and institutional perspectives by incorporating insights from contemporary approaches to culture and organizational identity. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This book presents a respectful, often playful approach to serious problems, with groundbreaking theory as a backdrop. The authors start with the assumption that people experience problems when the stories of their lives, as they or others have invented them, do not sufficiently represent their lived experience. In this way narrative comes to play a central role in therapy.
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In this article, I argue for the benefits of encouraging the use of novels, short stories, plays, songs, poems, and films as legitimate approaches to the study of management and organization. In particular, I argue that these forms of narrative fiction provide a useful addition to our ways of thinking about organizations and an indispensable approach to strengthening the connection between organizational analysis as an academic discipline and the subjective experience of organizational membership. I begin by arguing that the division between narrative fiction and traditional forms of organizational analysis is overdrawn - that organizational researchers and writers of fiction share important interests and use complementary methods in investigating social phenomena. In the latter portion of the article I suggest some specific applications of the techniques and products of narrative fiction including narrative fiction as a teaching tool, as a source of data, as a method for exploring the applicability of theoretical perspectives, and as a resource useful in embellishing papers and presentations.
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This article introduces work/family border theory - a new theory about work/family balance. According to the theory, people are daily border-crossers between the domains of work and family. The theory addresses how domain integration and segmentation, border creation and management, border-crosser participation, and relationships between border-crossers and others at work and home influence work/family balance. Propositions are given to guide future research.
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Elaboration dialectique de la definition du soi de la narrativite developpee par P. Ricoeur, tel qu'il echappe au debat entre le concept moderne de soi souverain et l'idee postmoderne de deconstruction du sujet. L'A. montre que la narrativite est intrinseque a notre propre existence inscrite dans notre comprehension de soi
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Reports on conflicts typical of persons involved in family businesses, including differing expectations, communication problems, confusion of roles, and inability to shift roles. Suggestions for therapeutic treatment include clarifying the lines of communication and the philosophy of corporate culture, developing techniques of handling tensions and decisions, and working out strategies of succession. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
There are three principal sections to this book. This first section is an introduction that provides the theoretical and political frame for the material presented in the other two sections. In this first section, I have presented an overview of some of the more recent developments in social theory that David and I have found of compelling interest, and some of what we believe to be the implications of those ideas for therapy. The discussion of theory includes some of Michel Foucault's thought on power and knowledge. It is our hope that the material that we have included in this book adequately reflects our exploration of practices of the literate tradition in a therapy that is situated in the text analogy and in Foucault's thought, and fairly represents the experience of these practices on behalf of those persons who have sought therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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For more information, go to editor's website : http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?recid=25615 Excerpts available on Google Books.
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Based on a review of 217 refereed articles on family business studies, the literature is organized according to its focus on individual, interpersonal or group, organizational, and societal levels of analyses. An assessment of the status of our current understanding at each level is provided and directions for future research are suggested. A discussion of definitional issues, bases of distinctiveness, and family firm performance is used to help understand the domain or scope of the field. Methodological issues and strategies aimed to enhance the pace at which the field achieves a distinctive legitimate place in organizational studies are presented.
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As research on family business continues to grow, six key trends have become evident. These trends include a continuing pursuit of a few research topics such as succession, a strong preference for practice-oriented research methods, a tendency to borrow heavily from other disciplines without giving back to these fields, and a strong preference to talk to other researchers conducting research on family firms—failing to communicate with scholars from other disciplines. Therefore, we suggest strategies to expedite the growth of family business research toward better understanding the paradoxes faced by family business managers, deepen insights into the problems they encounter, improve rigor in reported research, find ways to promote a dialog with scholars in sister disciplines, and give back to the disciplines from which we borrow heavily.
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Families and businesses have often been treated as naturally separate institutions, whereas we argue that they are inextricably intertwined. Long-term changes in family composition and in the roles and relations of family members have produced families in North America that are growing smaller and losing many of their previous role relationships. Such transformations in the institution of the family have implications for the emergence of new business opportunities, opportunity recognition, business start-up decisions, and the resource mobilization process. We suggest that entrepreneurship scholars would benefit from a family embeddedness perspective on new venture creation.
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This paper seeks to explore and to reflect upon the iniplications of how to conceive entrepreneurship when considered its it societal rather than an economic phenomenon. To conceive and reclaim the space in which entrepreneurship is seen at work in society, we point at the geographical, discursive and social dimensions from where we develop three crucial and connected questions that can reconstruct the future research agendas of entrepreneurship studies and that can guide us towards a geopolitics of everyday entrepreneurship: what spaces/discourses/stakeholders have we privileged in the study of entrepreneurship and what other spaces/discourses/stakeholders could we consider?
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The study is a case study of managerial identity work, based on an in-depth case of a senior manager and the organizational context in which she works. The paper addresses the interplay between organizational discourses, role expectations, narrative self-identity and identity work. Identity is conceptualized in processual terms as identity work and struggle. The paper illuminates fragmentation as well as integration in the interplay between organizational discourses and identity. It aims to contribute to a processual oriented identity theory and to the methodology of identity studies through showing the advantage of a multi-level intensive study.
The Head of the Firm Identity, Economy and Morality in " The Rise of Silas Lapham Good Novels, Better Management: Reading Organizational Realities in Fiction Rites of Institution
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Narrative and Identity: Studies in Autobiography, Self and Culture Reading for the Plot: Design and Intention in Narrative Life as Narrative
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Identity Lost or Identity Found? Celebration and Lamentation over the Postmodern View of Identity in Social Science and Fiction
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Czarniawska, B. (2000). Identity Lost or Identity Found? Celebration and Lamentation over the Postmodern View of Identity in Social Science and Fiction. In M. Schultz, M.J. Hatch, &
The concept of identity and its relevance for entrepreneurship research
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Hytti, U. (2000) The concept of identity and its relevance for entrepreneurship research. Proceedings of the RENT XIV Conference, 23-24 November, Prague.
The Head of the Firm
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Identity, Economy and Morality in “The Rise of Silas Lapham
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Boland Jnr, R.J. (1994). Identity, Economy and Morality in "The Rise of Silas Lapham". In B. Czarniawska-Joerges, & P. Guillet de Monthoux (Eds.), Good Novels, Better Management: Reading Organizational Realities in Fiction (pp. 115-137). Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers.
The invention of self: autobiography and its forms
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Bruner, J., & Weisser, S. (1991). The invention of self: autobiography and its forms. In D. R.
Rites of Institution
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Bourdieu, P. (1992). Rites of Institution. In Language and Symbolic Power (pp. 117-126). Cambridge: Polity Press,.
Time and Narrative Volume 1 K. McLaughlin and D. Pellauer (trans.). The University of
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Role Transitions in Organizational Life: An Identity-Based Perspective
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The Head of the Firm. London: George Allen and Unwin
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Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends
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American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Present Era
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