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The Effects of Scraping Therapy on Local Temperature and Blood Perfusion Volume in Healthy Subjects

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Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after scraping using Laser Doppler imager and infrared thermograph. Results. Significant increase was noted in the blood perfusion volume in the scraping area within 90 minutes compared to the baseline level and non-scraping area (P < 0.001). Compared with non-scraping area, an increase of body temperature with an average of 1°C was observed after scraping stimulation (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Scraping can significantly improve the blood perfusion volume and increase the temperature in the scraping area, promoting the local blood circulation and energy metabolism.
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Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 490292, 6 pages
doi:10.1155/2012/490292
Research Article
The Effects of Scraping Therapy on Local Temperature and
Blood Perfusion Volume in Healthy Subjects
Qin-Yan Xu, Jin-Sheng Yang, Bing Zhu, Li Yang, Ying-Ying Wang, and Xin-Yan Gao
Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Jin-Sheng Yang, zml@ibucm.com and Bing Zhu, zhubing@mail.cintcm.ac.cn
Received 11 February 2012; Revised 8 March 2012; Accepted 8 March 2012
Academic Editor: Litscher Gerhard
Copyright © 2012 Qin-Yan Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons At tribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the or iginal work is properly cited.
Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic eects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion
volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of
microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion
volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after scraping
using Laser Doppler imager and infrared thermograph. Results. Significant increase was noted in the blood perfusion volume in the
scraping area within 90 minutes compared to the baseline level and non-scraping area (P<0.001). Compared with non-scraping
area, an increase of body temperature with an average of 1
C was observed after s craping stimulation (P<0.01). Conclusion.
Scraping can sig nificantly improve the blood perfusion volume and increase the temperature in the scraping area, promoting the
local blood circulation and energy metabolism.
1. Introduction
Scraping, called Gua Sha in Tr aditional Chinese medicine
(TCM), is one of the unique non-medicinal external thera-
pies of TCM under the guidance of the theory of meridians
and acupoints. It involves using a smooth-edged instrument
for surface frictioning to intentionally raise transitory pete-
chiae and ecchymosis [1, 2]. To date, scraping has shown
pain-relieving eects on myalgia and chronic pain [25], and
can improve blood stasis and inflammation [6]. Although
several reports indicated the eects of scraping therapy in
clinical and experimental practices, the mechanism is still not
clear. Recently, Tian et al. reported blood perfusion volume
increased immediately after skin scraping in rabbits using
laser Doppler imager [7]. In this study, we aim to determine
the changes of the local blood perfusion volume and skin
temperature after scraping in healthy subjects.
2. Methods and Materials
2.1. Laser Doppler Imager. PeriScan PIM II Laser Doppler
Perfusion Imager (LDPI; Perimed AB, Jarfalla, Sweden) was
used to measure skin perfusion volume. A low power 670 nm
wavelength was applied. A medium scanning pattern was
used. The image primitive was set as 0.75 mm
× 0.75 mm.
The image size was set at 40 mm
× 40 mm. The apparatus
was connected to a PC computer to obtain the blood flow
images of the body surface. The laser blood flow image and
visual image of the detected areas were measured via LDPI
2.5 Image Software. The blood flow of the body surface was
measured by Doppler frequency shifts which is proportional
to a blood flow-related var iable and is expressed in arbitrary
perfusion unit (PU) [8]. The blood perfusion volume and
the body position at dierent time points were analyzed after
comparing the laser blood flow images and direct images
demonstrated by the Laser Doppler Perfusion Imager.
2.2. Infrared Thermograph. WP-1 type of infrared thermo-
graph with a temperature resolution of 0.08
C was applied
for thermal images in our study. Based on the infrared ra-
diation photography, the apparatus was connected to a PC
computer to convert thermo energy into temperature. The
distributions and changes of body temperature were displa-
yedascolorfulimages.A3.41versionimageprocessing
software was used to analyze the data obtained from the
images.
2 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Table 1: Blood perfusion volume at dierent time points in scraping area and non-scraping area (PU) , (n = 23, x ± SD).
PU Scraping area (right) Non scraping area (left) P values
Before scraping 0.469 ± 0.103 0.453 ± 0.105 P>0.05
immediately 0.966
± 0.203 0.465 ± 0.089 P<0.001
15 min 0.685
± 0.158 0.483 ± 0.076 P<0.001
30 min 0.586
± 0.075 0.510 ± 0.080 P<0.001
60 min 0.553
± 0.064 0.504 ± 0.061 P<0.001
90 min 0.558
± 0.066 0.514 ± 0.052 P<0.001
2.3. Scraping Stimulation. Scraping stimulation was per-
formed by trained therapists using a bualo horn scraper
and a skin lubricant (Jinlongkang, Beijing Jinlong Kang Er
Fu Scraping Cupping Research Institute, Beijing, China) to
decrease friction. Scraping was conducted on the erector
spinal muscle above the back spine (from C7-T10) along the
bladder meridian of the right side. The scraping areas is 6-
7 cm in width and 20 cm in length. Infrared thermal images
were collected at scraping area from C7 to T7. Laser Doppler
images were collected in two areas at the scanning centers
of bilateral sides of the back spine (scraping area and non-
scraping area at the opposite side) respectively. The areas
were 4.5 cm lateral to the spinous process of the 4th thoracic
vertebra.
2.4. Subjects. Twenty-three healthy subjects (12 males, 11 fe-
males) aged from 20 to 40 years old were enrolled after phy-
sical examination. Laboratory room temperature were main-
tained at 24
C27
C without direct sunlight, infrared ra-
diation, and indoor/outdoor ventilation.
2.5. Experimental Procedure. Thesubjectswereseatedina
square stool in the laboratory with their back exposed. Before
collecting the infrared temperature images, the subjects were
needed to stay calm for 15 min to adapt to the room tem-
perature. Infrared temperature images were collected at a sit-
ting position. Then laser Doppler images of both sides of the
selected areas at a prone position. After scraping for 5 min,
both infrared temperature images and the laser Doppler
images of the above a reas mentioned were collected imme-
diately after scraping (0 min), 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, and
90 min after scraping respectively.
2.6. Data Collection. For infrared thermal images, the subject
sat erectly at a distance of 1.5 m to the infrared thermograph.
Then the detected area was determined and fixed with a ca-
libration circle. The thermographic imaging system was in-
put into a PC computer to save the infrared images and ther-
mal images. For laser Doppler imaging, the blood perfusion
volume of the selected scraping area on the right back and sy-
mmetrical non-scraping area on the left side were collected
by laser Doppler imager. The images were processed by LDPI
2.5 imaging software for oine analysis.
2.7. Statistical Analysis. Data were all presented as mean
±
SD. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 Soft-
ware. A Student’s t test was performed for the analysis of
changes of temperature and blood perfusion volume between
pre- and post-scraping, and scraping and non-scraping at
dierent time points. P<0.05 was considered as statistical
significance.
3. Results
After scraping, all the 23 subjec ts (100%) reported obviously
warm accompanied by slight pain at the scraping area. They
all felt relax and comfort after scraping. It was observed that
the skin became slightly red, and then subcutaneous hyper-
aemia and subcutaneous bloody spots were found in the local
scraping area.
3.1. Changes of Blood Perfusion Volume before and after Scrap-
ing. Significant increase of blood volume was observed in the
scraping area compared with the baseline level. PU values
were 1.0-fold higher compared with the baseline level
(0.966
± 0.203 versus 0.469 ± 0.103, Tab le 1). Significant dif-
ference was noted in the blood perfusion volume within 90
minutes after scraping compared with the non-scraping area.
(P<0.001; Figures 1 and 2, Table 1).
3.2. Changes of the Local Skin Temperature before and after
Scrapin. As is shown by infrared thermograph, the skin tem-
perature of the scraping area increased significantly with the
average temperature increased more than 1
C. Compared
with the skin temperature obtained in the opposite non-
scraping area and the scraping area before stimulation, sig-
nificant increase of skin temperature was observed within 90
minutes after scraping, respectively (P<0.05, Figures 3,and
4, Tabl e 2 ).
3.3. Correlation of Changes of Temperature and Blood Perfu-
sion Volume in the Scraping Area. With regard to the skin
temperature and local blood volume obtained within 90
minutes after scraping, a close correlation was noted between
skin temperature and the local blood volume in the scraping
area (r
= 0.383, P<0.01, Figure 5). Both temperature and
blood flow perfusion values were still higher 90 min after
scraping compared with the baseline level (Tables 1,and2).
4. Discussion
Scraping, called Gua Sha in TCM, is one of the physical stim-
ulating therapies. Previous reports indicated that physical
therapies such as acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, scrap-
ing and cupping basically shared similarities in their func-
tions and mechanisms as they all developed from external
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3
Table 2: infrared temperature at dierent time points in the scraping area and non-scraping area (n = 23, x ± SD),
∗∗
P<0.01.
(
C) Scraping area (right) Non scraping area (left) P values
Before scraping 33.057 ± 1.116 32.989 ± 1.137 P>0.05
Immediately 34.837
± 0.743 33.233 ± 0.851 P<0.001
15 min 34.703
± 0.614 33.633 ± 0.673 P<0.001
30 min 34.343
± 0.855 33.640 ± 0.733 P<0.001
60 min 34.123
± 0.769 33.688 ± 0.674 P<0.001
90 min 34.065
± 0.838 33.771 ± 0.69 P<0.01
The left, control side;
The right, scraping area
a: control; b–f: immediate
moment, 15, 30, 60, and 90 min after
scraping, respectively
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Figure 1: Visual image (middle) taken at 5 min after scraping showed that the skin of the scraping area turned apparently red. Laser Doppler
images (left, non-scraping side; right, scraping side) showed the blood perfusion volume. Images (a)–(f) were taken at 5 min before scraping,
0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after scraping stimulation, respectively.
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Control 0 15 30 60 90
(min)
(PU)
Scraping area
Nonscraping area
Figure 2: Changes of blood perfusion volume in scraping area and
non-scraping area.
∗∗∗
P<0.001, compared with non-scraping area
at the same time point.
stimulating therapies [9]. In the 56th Chapter of Plain Ques-
tions, an ancient works in TCM, it mentioned that the 12
meridians and collaterals distributed in their relevant cut-
aneous regions”. Zeng (1999) reported that the scraping per-
formed by stimulating the collaterals on the surface of the
body was ecient for the treatment of certain diseases.
Therefore, the author speculated that the eciency of scrap-
ing therapy is closely related with the function of collaterals
[10]. Though se veral studies reported the eects of scraping
therapy in clinical practices [25], its mechanism is still not
well defined. In this study, Laser Doppler imager and infrared
thermograph were used to detect the eects of scraping ther-
apy on local temperature and blood perfusion volume of hu-
man body surface. Macroscopic observations and infrared
images showed apparent changes of the local skin color and
temperature before and after scraping. Furthermore, quan-
titative analysis indicated scr aping could increase the local
microcirculation and metabolism of subcutaneous t issues.
Skin, covering the body surface, contains abundant capi-
llaries functioned as the major organ for temperature regula-
tion and body defense. Under normal conditions, the blood
4 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
37.3
C
24.5
C
37.3
C
24.5
C
(a)
(b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
Figure 3: The infrared thermograph images showed the skin temperature of the right body side (scraping) increased significantly after
stimulation. Skin temperature increased in the scraping area and extended onto the opposite side and the neck 15 min after scraping. The
local temperature increase lasted about 1 hour. (a)–(f): image otabined at 5 min before scraping, 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90 min after scraping.
32
33
34
35
(
C)
Control
0 15306090
(min)
Scraping area
Nonscraping area
Figure 4: Changes of temperature in the scraping area and non-
scraping area.
∗∗
P<0.01,
∗∗∗
P<0.001, compared with non-
scraping area at the same time point.
volume of microcirculation is in accordance with the meta-
bolism level of the tissues and organs to keep a dynamic
balance. The capacity and rate of substance exchange of ex-
ternal and internal capillary mainly depended on the open
volume and permeability of the true capillar y. The present
study showed that the the blood flow volume in the scr ap-
ing area significantly increased, especially immediately after
scraping. The values of the blood flow increased 1.0-fold
higher in the scraping area than those of the non-scraping
area (Table 1). Our study is in accordance with the previous
report which indicated that Gua Sha caused a 4.0-fold
1.5
1
0.5
0
30 31 32 3 34 35 36 37
(PU)
(
C)
Figure 5: Correlation analysis between temperature and blood
perfusion volume in the scraping area.
increase in microcirculation PUs at the scraping area for the
first 7.5 minutes together with a significant increase in
surface microcirculation during the entire 25 minutes of the
study period following scraping stimulation (P<0.001) [2].
The obvious increase of blood perfusion volume indicated
that scraping stimulation could reflexively regulate the sym-
pathetic vasodilator nerves to relax the precapillar y sphincter,
increase the local volume of blood flow and the amount of
the opening capillaries directly, and promote local blood cir-
culation. Scraping stimulation was possible to cause partial
subcutaneous bleeding of the capillaries, resulted in hyper-
aemia or blood stasis [7], which can otherwise promote the
metabolism of the tissues and improve local microcirculation
[1114]. According to the infrared thermograph images, a
significant increase was noted in the scraping area. As is
shown in Ta ble 2,anaverageof1
C was noted after scra ping
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5
stimulation. Under normal conditions, temperatures a t both
sides of the body back are nearly the same and sy mmetrical
[15]. Our results also indicated that scraping could lead to a
long-lasting (60 min) increase of temperature in the adjacent
tissues and even further (Figure 3). It could aect these func-
tions of the surrounding tissues. The eects of scraping to an
extended area lies in that it causes more vessel dilation and
increase of blood flow volume in the adjacent tissues as the
cutaneous arteries trunk on the back are interconnected with
each other to form a vessel network [16].
Generally, the blood circulations in human body surface
were stable. Once the pressure and muscle relaxation of
scraping extruded subcutaneous capillary, capillary network
reconstruction and expansion was induced, which resulted
in changes of cutaneous blood volume and skin temperature
[12, 17]. This phenomenon indicated that scraping could
change the subcutaneous micro-vascular pressure, leading to
vascular dilation and increase of local temperature and the
volume of blood flow of the scraping area. Previous study
showed that heat could increase the temperature of the tis-
sues, dilate the capillaries, increase local blood circulation,
promote blood and oxygen supply, and strengthen the me-
tabolism of the local tissues [13]. Based on our results, a strict
correlation was detected between the blood perfusion vol-
ume and skin temperature (r
= 0.383, P<0.01, Figure 5)
Scraping is performed according to the location of acup-
uncture points along meridians [18]. According to the pre-
vious report, thermal conductivity along meridians and be-
neath tissues was more remarkable than other parts of the
body [19]. In addition, a positive correlation between the
therapeutic eects and microcirculatory changes of the suf-
fered areas or relevant points was found [20]. Moreover, a
remarkable increase was noted in microcirculation and blood
perfusion volume after scraping stimulation in the meridian
and points [21]. Our study indicated that the responsive
areas of scraping extended to the bladder meridian on both
sides of the back spine. embodied by mainly by capillary dil-
ation, obvious temperature change and expanded blood per-
fusion volume of the scraping areas. Generally, scraping of a
tolerable intensity is a p ositive stimulation on the skin, and
can helps to increase the metabolism of the local and adj-
acent t issues as well as activate physiological functions of the
body. The increased temperature and microcirculation could
reversely remove the microcirculatory obstruction, especially
for arteriole angiectasis and spasm [ 22 ]. Scraping, stain
stimulation mode, could change the skin color of the local
scraped area and produce warming or even slightly pain.
A v ariety of scraping stimulation performed on body surface
would help to relieve the muscular spasm and improve the
local metabolism of tissues, reduce the tension of blood ves-
sels and nerves, and eliminate or reduce the negative impact
of somatic disorders on visceral functions [23]. Therefore, it
is an eective way for removing the microcirculatory ob-
struction.
In our study, Laser Doppler and infrared thermal imag-
ing techniques were used for the first time for the detection of
the skin temperature and blood volume in healthy subjects.
The eect of scraping therapy was analyzed to clarify the
mechanism of scraping from microcirculation and energ y
metabolism. Our study provided theoretical and clinical
guidances on the research of meridians and collaterals for
further studies. Further s tudies about the eects of the dif-
ferent scraping techniques on pressure changes of subcu-
taneous microcirculatory system, and the influences of scrap-
ing stimulation on meridians and collaterals should be per-
formed in the near future.
Acknowledgments
The scientific investigations were supported by funds from
national program of the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan from the
Ministr y of Science and Technology (2008BAI53B063) to
J.-S. Yang. Of the two corresponding authors, B. Zhu de-
signed the experiment and J.-S. Yang has founding support to
conduct the study. Q.-Y. Xu performed the experiment, Q.-
Y. Xu and X.-Y. Gao constructed the manuscript and L. Yang
and Y.-Y. Wang do data analysis and figure managing.
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... In all trials, cointervention of Gua Sha therapy and HRT was compared, using a control of HRT alone. Moreover, except for one RCT [36], the duration of the interventions was 4 weeks. The number of sessions per week varied from 1 to 7, resulting in a total of 4e28 sessions. ...
... The Cochrane risk-of-bias is presented in Figs. 2 and 3. Two of the included trials [34,36] reported appropriate sequencegeneration methods for randomization, whereas in the remaining trials [35,37e39] the methods of sequence generation were not described. One of the included trials [36] conducted concealment of allocation by sealed envelopes, while three RCTs [37e39] used inappropriate methods. ...
... The Cochrane risk-of-bias is presented in Figs. 2 and 3. Two of the included trials [34,36] reported appropriate sequencegeneration methods for randomization, whereas in the remaining trials [35,37e39] the methods of sequence generation were not described. One of the included trials [36] conducted concealment of allocation by sealed envelopes, while three RCTs [37e39] used inappropriate methods. In the remaining trials [34,35], the methods of sequence generation were not described. ...
Article
Objective In East Asia, Gua Sha therapy is widely used in patients with perimenopausal syndrome. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Gua Sha therapy for the treatment of patients with perimenopausal syndrome. Methods Databases searched from inception until June 2017 included: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and four Chinese databases [WanFang Med Database, Chinese BioMedical Database, Chinese WeiPu Database, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)]. Only the RCTs related to the effects of Gua Sha therapy on perimenopausal syndrome were included in this systematic review. A quantitative analysis of RCTs was employed using RevMan 5.3 software. Study selection, data extraction, and validation were performed by two independent reviewers. Cochrane criteria for risk-of-bias were used to evaluate the methodological quality of the trials. Results A total of 6 RCTs met the inclusion criteria, and most were of low methodological quality. When compared with Western medicine therapy alone, meta-analysis of 5 RCTs indicated favorable statistically significant effects of Gua Sha therapy plus Western medicine on the Kupperman Menopausal Index (KMI) Score [mean difference (MD) = -4.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) (−5.37, −3.77), p < 0.01; heterogeneity: Chi² = 29.57 p < 0.01, I² = 86%]. Moreover, study participants who received Gua Sha therapy plus Western medicine therapy showed significantly greater improvements in serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) [MD = −5.00, 95% CI (−9.60, −0.40), p = 0.03], luteinizing hormone (LH) [MD = −4.00, 95% CI (−7.67, −0.33), p = 0.03], and E2 [MD = −6.60, 95% CI (−12.32, −0.88), p = 0.02] compared to participants in the Western medicine therapy group, with a low heterogeneity (Chi² = 0.12, p = 0.94, I² = 0% in FSH; Chi² = 0.19 p = 0.91, I² = 0% in LH; Chi² = 0.93, p = 0.63, I² = 0% in E2). In addition, the pooled results displayed favorable significant effects of Gua Sha therapy plus the Western medicine therapy on the MENQOL scale when compared with the Western medicine therapy alone [MD = −5.13, 95% CI (−7.45, −2.81), p < 0.01] with low heterogeneity (Chi² = 0.66, p = 0.42, I² = 0%). Conclusion Preliminary evidence supported the hypothesis that Gua Sha therapy effectively improved the treatment efficacy in patients with perimenopausal syndrome. Additional studies will be required to elucidate optimal frequency and dosage of Gua Sha.
... 263 Gua sha increases circulation and temporarily increases temperature in the treated area. 264,265 One study found gua sha increases superficial blood flow by 400% for over seven minutes, which then slowly tapers for over 25 minutes. 264 This increase in circulation could help remove inflammation such as lumbar subcutaneous edema that is often found in those with discogenic radiculopathy and LSS. ...
Chapter
• The treatment of sciatica differs according to its cause • Most cases warrant a trial of conservative treatment • Integrated programs including manual therapies and exercise may be superior to any single therapy • Surgery is indicated in the presence of red flags and/or a lack of response to conservative treatment
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This study was aimed to investigate the effects of the EMS (Electrical Muscle Stimulation) at-home beauty device on the facial skin improvement. The EMS beauty device massages the skin surface and the muscle layer in the skin through a combination of medium frequency electrical stimulation and physical stimulation that are known to effective in skin rejuvenation. In this study, the EMS beauty device reproducing Petrissage massage method and functional cosmetic containing adenosine were used. For four weeks of study period, the EMS beauty device and the functional cosmetic were applied together to the test group with 11 women, whereas only the functional cosmetic was applied to the control group with 11 women. The EMS beauty device was applied for 10 minutes every night after cleansing face to the test group only, and the functional cosmetic was applied every morning and night after cleansing face to both groups. The skin improvements were evaluated after two and four weeks from the first visit (baseline) by mechanical measurements. As the evaluation results, significant (p<.05) improvements of skin elasticity (R2 and Mean CoR), skin sagging, and double chin lifting showed in the test group compared with the baseline, and compared with the control group. Therefore, the EMS beauty device is considered to be effective to improve skin features related to skin aging. And this study may expect to be useful data for global advancement and enforcement of market competitiveness of K-beauty industry and to be a foundation for further in-depth study.
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The sinew channels are a tendon and muscle network, and their description is based on the observation presented on the Huangdi Neijing Ling Shu. However, the myofascial system is an uninterrupted series of connective tissue that is comprised of layers that run in different directions. The similarities on these pathways are compared, such as a brief description on the myofascial pain syndrome and its similitude with the Impediment disorder from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Furthermore, we discuss the treatment of these conditions from a Traditional Chinese Medicine perspective.
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p>Traditional medicine has always been inherent in society. most pass it on to their children and grandchildren, in the hope of not dying replaced by modern medicine. Scrapings are the most popular alternative medicine. This study was conducted to find out how scrapings are carried out from the perspective of society and science, involving 50 respondents. The research method was carried out with a qualitative approach by describing the acquisition of data obtained from in-depth interviews through questionnaires supported by a literature review. The results showed that 64% of people had done scrapings and chose it because it was not only cheap but also had many benefits. In addition, from a scientific point of view, scrapings can increase tissue temperature, dilate capillaries, improve local blood circulation, increase blood and oxygen supply and strengthen local tissue metabolism. In addition, the red rash due to scraping is inflammation as a form of the body's response that does not cause skin damage. Keywords: scrapings, culture, traditional medicine, science, medical
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Objective: To evaluate the effect of Gua Sha therapy on weightlifting training. Methods: The sample size was calculated by conducting a pilot study. A total of 44 male weightlifters were randomly assigned to either the Gua Sha group (n = 15), sham scraping group (n = 14), or control group (n = 14). The participants in the Gua Sha group and sham scraping group received 16 sessions of Gua Sha therapy during normal weightlifting training for 8 weeks. No treatment was applied to participants in the control group. The effectiveness of Gua Sha therapy was evaluated by measuring weightlifting ability, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of snatch and clean and jerk (85% of 1 repetition maximum), and creatinine kinase (CK), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and immunoglobulin A levels. Results: Gua Sha therapy treatment significantly increased weightlifting ability in participants in the Gua Sha group (P < 0.01). The RPE values of snatch and clean and jerk were significantly lower in the Gua Sha group and sham scraping groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). CK levels were lower and immunoglobulin A levels were significantly higher in the Gua Sha group compared with sham scraping group and control group (both P < 0.05). BUN levels tended to be reduced only in the Gua Sha group. A close correlation between CK levels and the RPE was found in the Gua Sha group. Conclusion: Gua Sha therapy can facilitate weightlifting ability, reduce the RPE, and inhibit muscle injury by promoting recovery from fatigue caused by normal weightlifting training. Gua Sha therapy could be an effective treatment to complement normal weightlifting training.
Book
This book describes the history, methods, and techniques of cupping therapy and provides practical guidelines for cupping therapy home use and professional practice. It provides a new classification of cupping therapy types, cupping therapy sets, and a classification of cupping therapy adverse events. It looks closely at issues of mechanism of action, side effects, treatment programs, and safety. It contains many clear illustrations and provides a practical guideline for treating many common diseases. It includes new scientific research and clinical examples. This book can serve as a useful reference for complementary and alternative medicine therapists, medical physicians, medical students, healthcare professionals, researchers, and people interested in natural health, integrative medicine, self-care, and treatment.
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of Guasha therapy on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale score, and heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS A randomized controlled trial of Guasha (skin scraping) was compared with a sham scraping group and control group. Sixteen sessions within an 8-week period were completed. Sixty-five male weightlifters who had undergone normal weightlifting training for a mean of 5 years before study commencement were recruited. The RPE scale score of “snatch”, “clean and jerk” maneuvers (85% of one-repetition maximum), and HRV were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS The RPE scale score for snatch, clean and jerk were reduced significantly after intervention in the Guasha group and sham group. However, there was a significant difference in the low frequency (LF) domain and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio (P < 0.05): the LF domain decreased, and the LF/HF ratio decreased. CONCLUSION Guasha could be used to reduce the RPE scale score, and increase the response to HRV. Guasha could be considered as an alternative to some types of recovery from sports training.
Article
Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Gua sha therapy on perimenopausal symptoms, quality of life, and serum female hormones in participants with perimenopausal syndrome. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine in China. Eighty women with perimenopausal syndrome were recruited and randomized into an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received 15-minute Gua sha treatment sessions once a week plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks, whereas participants in the control group received conventional treatment alone. The primary outcome was the change in perimenopausal symptoms and quality of life as obtained through the modified Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life. The secondary outcome was the change of serum female hormones including estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Results: Seventy-five out of 80 participants (93.8%) completed the study-38 in the intervention group and 37 in the control group. The baseline levels of demographic and outcome measurements were comparable between the two groups. After eight sessions of intervention, the reduction in the total modified KI score was, however, 16.32 ± 4.38 in the intervention group and 11.46 ± 5.96 in the control group, with a difference of 4.86 ± 6.15 (P < 0.01) between the two groups. Also the reductions of hot flash/sweating, paresthesia, insomnia, nervousness, melancholia, fatigue, and headache were greater in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The reduction in the total Menopause-Specific Quality of Life score was 17.87 ± 3.84 in the intervention group and 13.62 ± 7.40 in the control group, with a difference of 4.46 ± 7.52 (P < 0.01) between the two groups. And the scores for vasomotor, psychosocial, and physical domains in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in serum estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that Gua sha therapy was effective and safe in relieving perimenopausal symptoms and improving the quality of life in participants with perimenopausal syndrome. The therapy may serve as a promising, effective, nondrug treatment for perimenopausal syndrome in clinical work. Additional research is needed to better understand its effectiveness and examine its mechanism for treating perimenopausal syndrome.
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Guasha is a therapeutic method for pain management using tools to scrape or rub the surface of the body to relieve blood stagnation. This study aims to systematically review the controlled clinical trials on the effectiveness of using Guasha to treat musculoskeletal pain. We searched 11 databases (without language restrictions): MEDLINE, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Korean Studies Information (KSI), DBPIA, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), KoreaMed, Research Information Service System (RISS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the Cochrane Library. The search strategy was Guasha (OR scraping) AND pain. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane criteria (i.e. sequence generation, blinding, incomplete outcome measures and allocation concealment). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were included in the present study. Two RCTs compared Guasha with acupuncture in terms of effectiveness, while the other trials compared Guasha with no treatment (1 trial), acupuncture (4 trials), herbal injection (1 trial) and massage or electric current therapy (1 trial). While two RCTs suggested favorable effects of Guasha on pain reduction and response rate, the quality of these RCTs was poor. One CCT reported beneficial effects of Guasha on musculoskeletal pain but had low methodological quality. Current evidence is insufficient to show that Guasha is effective in pain management. Further RCTs are warranted and methodological quality should be improved.
Article
Gua Sha is a therapeutic method of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) widely used in Asia, particulary in the treatment of chronic pain. By use of the surface-frictioning technique (called 'Gua') petechiae and a skin rash similar to millet-seed (called 'Sha') are induced. As first observations on the application of that method have been promising, we present the case of a 72-year-old woman. The patient who suffered from chronic headaches, highly profited from Gua Sha during her 14- day inpatient multimodal treatment. This case provides first evidence that Gua Sha is effective in the treatment of headaches. Further research and clinical trials are required to corroborate that evidence.
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Computerized literature searches are performed for articles of the mechanism of cupping therapy in the past 10 years. The mechanism of action of local negative pressure applied to human body is studied in terms of specific changes in local tissue structure, stretch to the nerve and muscle, increasing blood circulation and causing autohemolysis. This paper aims to explain the mechanism of cupping therapy according to modern science.
Article
Gua sha is a traditional East Asian healing technique where the body surface is press-stroked with a smooth-edged instrument to intentionally raise therapeutic petechiae. A traditional indication of Gua sha is neck pain; no data from controlled trials exist to support this claim. The researchers aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Gua sha in the symptomatic treatment of chronic neck pain. The study was designed as an open randomized controlled clinical trial. The study was set in Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University Duisburg-Essen, Germany. Forty-eight outpatients (58.5±8.0 years; 41 female) with chronic mechanical neck pain were the subjects of the study. Patients were randomized into Gua sha (N=24) or control groups (N=24) and followed up for 7 days. Gua sha patients were treated once with Gua sha, while control patients were treated with a local thermal heat pad. Primary outcome was change of neck pain severity after 1 week as assessed by visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes included pain at motion, the neck disability index (NDI) and quality-of-life (Short-Form [36] Health Survey). Neck pain severity after 1 week improved significantly better in the Gua sha group compared with the control group (group difference -29.9 mm, 95% confidence interval: -43.3; -16.6 mm; P<0.001). Significant treatment effects were also found for pain at motion, scores on the NDI, and dimensions of quality-of-life. The treatment was safe and well tolerated. Gua sha has beneficial short-term effects on pain and functional status in patients with chronic neck pain. The value of Gua sha in the long-term management of neck pain and related mechanisms remains to be clarified.