Conference Paper

An Interactive Documentary Manifesto

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Abstract

In the last few years the word ”documentary” has been loosely used to describe multimedia pieces that incorporate video no matter its nature, technique, language or scope, taking advantage of the fuzzy and fragile boundaries of the documentary definition. The present manifesto aims to give a brief insight on the interactive documentary arena and also to sketch some production remarks for future interactive documentary productions.

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... While the general trend is to make videos shorter (e.g., 15 seconds on TikTok and Instagram's Reels), in some contexts long videos are not an issue and users exhibit bingewatching behaviors even for 1-hour-long shows (Trouleau et al., 2016). In the context of web documentaries, there are no available data regarding the time spent on videos and the "ideal" length depends on the content (Almeida & Alvelos, 2010). However, web documentaries have relatively low and varying average view duration: 5 minutes out of 90 for Moneyocracy (Epstein & Knowlton, 2015), 5.5 minutes out of 3 hours for Hollow (Aufderheide, 2015;Epstein & Knowlton, 2015), 10 minutes out of 20 for Journey to the End of Coal (Aufderheide, 2015), and 60 minutes for 20% of registered users for Prison Valley. ...
... This article presents a study of video viewing behavior from a web documentary iOtok of 13 episodes released over 13 weeks. Video in such documentaries is the core element (Almeida & Alvelos, 2010) discovered by navigating the interactive content. In order to study video viewing behavior, we divided users in: concurrent users that first visited the portal during the first 13 weeks and post-series users who first visited the portal after all the episodes were released (after 13 weeks). ...
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This article explores video-viewing behavior when videos are wrapped in interactive content in the case of iOtok, a 13-episodes web documentary series. The interaction and viewing data were collected over a period of one year, providing a dataset of more than 12,200 total video views by 6000 users. Standard metrics (video views, percentage viewed, number of sessions) show higher active participation for registered users compared to unregistered users. Results also indicate that serialization over multiple weeks is an effective strategy for audience building over a long period of time without negatively affecting video views. In viewing behavior analysis, we focused on three perspectives: (i) regularity (watching on a weekly basis or not), (ii) intensity (number of videos per session), and (iii) order of watching. We performed a perspective based and combined perspectives analysis involving manual coding techniques, rule-based, and k-means clustering algorithms to reveal different user profiles (intermittent, exemplary, detached, enthusiastic users, and nibblers) and highlight further viewing behavior differences (e.g., post-series users binge-watched more than concurrent users during first 13 weeks while the series was weekly released). We discuss how these results can be used to inform the design and promotion of future web documentaries.
... Apart from documentary, journalism is one of the major genres that form a part of this macro-genre we have defined as "non-fiction". authors like Glorianna Davenport, who began experimenting with multimedia narrative films in the 80s at Massachusetts Institute of Technology -and who in 1995 developed the concept of "evolving documentary" [7]-there is some literature on interactive documentary in general or a definition of the domain [8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16]. Although in recent years the amount of literature on the interactive documentary has increased, there are still some gaps to be filled in this field. ...
... Although in recent years the amount of literature on the interactive documentary has increased, there are still some gaps to be filled in this field. Given its complexity, the literature uses this term without defining it precisely [8,10,12,13]. The concept of "interactive documentary" is used as a generic term for a kind of interactive textuality [1]. ...
Conference Paper
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Recommended citation: Gifreu-Castells, Arnau (2014). Mapping Trends in Interactive Non-fiction through the Lenses of Interactive Documentary. In: Mitchell et al. (Eds.): ICIDS 2014, LNCS 8832. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp. 156-163. ISBN: 978-3-319-12336-3. ---------------- ABSTRACT ENG: Interactive digital media have greatly affected the logics of production, exhibition and reception of non-fiction audiovisual works, leading to the emergence of a new area called "interactive non-fiction". One of its key points is that it can deal with factual material in such a way that it influences and transforms the real world around us. The present work gives a brief insight into the interactive non-fiction area and presents some trends/hypotheses obtained from studying one of its main formats: interactive documentary. The aim is to introduce new dynamics, logics and trends that could shape the interactive nonfiction field in forthcoming years.
... In his analysis of the evolution of interactive documentaries, Gifreu-Castells considers that the interactive documentary as a new documentary form has entered the "diversification phase" (Gifreu-Castells, 2017), during which more and more interactive documentaries are produced, and with a large range of techniques, platforms, and means of production. The key factor in the emergence of the interactive documentary as a new digital form was the development of the web, which allowed creators to more easily distribute online videos and to experiment new ways of broadcasting their films (Almeida & Alvelos, 2010). Nowadays, interactive web documentaries offer an interesting alternative to traditional documentaries distributed on TV or on online platforms, as they have the potential to engage viewers thanks to their interactivity and non-linearity. ...
... In addition, whereas linear documentaries only rely on cognitive/mental participation, interactive documentaries also rely on "some type of physical participation," triggered by the navigation and interaction modes of the documentary. Finally, Gifreu-Castells posits that one key difference between traditional and interactive documentaries is their flexibility: while traditional documentaries cannot be changed once distributed, interactive documentaries have the potential to be modified over time, e.g., by integrating user-generated content and/or up-to-date content (Almeida & Alvelos, 2010). Therefore, and as stated by Harvey (Harvey, 2012), three key characteristics of interactive documentary are (i) its "multiple authorship," in the sense that both the documentary filmmaker and the viewer co-create the content; (ii) its non-linearity; and (iii) the active viewing process that creates the documentary experience. ...
Article
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Interactive web documentaries have the potential to engage people with important topics through innovative storytelling approaches. Understanding how users interact with web documentaries and to what extent they consume their content can help documentary filmmakers reach a broader or more engaged audience. In this article, we provide an in-depth and quantitative analysis of an interactive web documentary called iOtok. The 13 episodes of iOtok were launched on an online portal showcasing a variety of features (chat, souvenirs, animated 360 panoramas, etc.), on a weekly basis. Through the analysis of more than 20 000 sessions, newsletter statistics and one online questionnaire, we discuss the impact of serialization and interactivity on audience reception and user engagement. Data show that in the case of iOtok, serialization had a positive impact (large number of sessions over time, long time on site). However, and somehow unexpectedly, every click led to a considerable amount of users dropping off and quitting the web portal before reaching the core videos. This article also addresses other aspects of web documentaries, such as the efficiency of various media to reach and engage users over time and differences in behaviors between registered and unregistered users.
... Interactivity is the third area of overlap. Researchers have not yet come to a consensus as to the name of this third area of overlap (Almeida & Alvelos, 2010). Some describe it vaguely as "an immersive deep dive" (O'Flynn, 2016, p. 72), while others more specifically identify that this area requires a user to "physically 'do something' with the artifact" (Gaudenzi, 2009, p. 31). ...
Thesis
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This study presented an analysis of the use of interactivity in the interactive documentary Bear 71. This study categorizes the documentary's interactive elements into specific forms of interactivity, assesses how those forms affect the holistic user experience, and makes recommendations for future interactive documentary iterations. This study consisted of a content analysis and a 15-participant user experience study. The user experience study used data gathered from observations of user experience sessions, semi-structured discussions, and surveys. The findings suggest that Bear 71 creates an innovative and engaging interactive digital narrative experience through the use of agency, immersion, and aesthetic. However, some dissonance within the experience occurs because of several conflicting interactive elements.
... Por tanto, se puede definir el documental interactivo "como una forma del género de no ficción interactiva caracterizada por la representación de lo real a través de un medio interactivo" (Vázquez-Herrero, Negreira-Rey y Pereira-Fariña, 2017, p. 399). Estos autores efectúan también una recopilación de las diferentes denominaciones que ha recibido este tipo de documental: webdoc o documental web (Nash, 2012), documental multimedia interactivo (Rodríguez y Molpeceres, 2013), documental transmedia (Porto Renó, 2013), I-doc (Aston y Gaudenzi, 2012;Gantier y Labour, 2015), living documentary (Gaudenzi, 2013) o collab docs (Dovey y Rose, 2012) y, finalmente, documental interactivo (Almeida y Alvelos, 2010;Gifreu-Castells, 2013;Miles, 2014;Nash, 2014;Liuzzi, 2015). Asimismo, incluyen en su estudio dos clasificaciones de documental interactivo: una basada en la experiencia del usuario (Gaudenzi, 2013) para construir cuatro modos de interacción -conversacional, hipertextual, participativo y experiencial-. ...
Article
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Este estudio de caso sobre el documental interactivo Metáfora Viva, 30 años de orden y caos pretende analizar la transmedialidad y la interactividad del proyecto profundizando en su proceso creativo y de producción, sus estrategias narrativas y los rasgos que lo unen al al resto de producción documental interactiva realizada en Latinoamérica en la actualidad. Se emplea un enfoque cualitativo basado en el análisis de la pieza audiovisual, la entrevista en profundidad al profesor a cargo del proyecto, Tomás Crowder, y el análisis documental. Los resultados muestran que a través de distintos recursos hipertextuales y el montaje multicapa se logra un producto transmedia interactivo que ofrece un recorrido por los 30 años de historia de la Escuela Internacional de Cine y Televisión de San Antonio de los Baños. Metáfora Viva, a través de distintos menús y contenidos complementarios, ofrece al espectador la oportunidad de configurar una experiencia propia de consumo audiovisual de no ficción.
... Ursu and colleagues in 2007–2009 were particularly active in interactive documentary film, TV, and what they referred to as shape shifting media [Williams et al. 2007] and virtual reality storytelling specifically, production and authoring of genre-independent authoring approaches for interactive narratives and their application to TV [Ursu et al. 2008], finally summarizing the state of the interactive documentary in 2009 in a culminating survey work [Ursu et al. 2009] . Almeida and Alvelos in 2010 subsequently established an interactive documentary manifesto [Almeida and Alvelos 2010]. Frantzis et al. used a school concert case study to produce interactive video stories from the user-generated content in 2012 [Frantzis et al. 2012]. ...
Conference Paper
This is a small research-creation interactive augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) documentary prototype. Its design extends the predecessor AR mobile app component incorporating AR footage previously only available in traditional mobile screen into a VR world. The mobile app prototype runs on iOS and Android and integrates interactive 3D models and objects in the VR world, the previous app did not have in an effort to increase engagement and educational aspects appealing to a wider audience. The focus of this project is to enhance user engagement and create immersion for interactive documentaries by combining Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in order to create virtual worlds where users can enjoy watching, hearing, and reading content. We develop Illimitable Space System v3 as inspired by v1 in early days that used both motion capture and initial lower end augmented reality setup.
... Aunque existen diversas denominaciones que hacen referencia a la plataforma, a la creación colaborativa o el concepto de organismo vivo -webdoc o documental web (Nash, 2012), documental multimedia interactivo (Rodríguez & Molpeceres, 2013), documental transmedia (Porto Renó, 2013), i-doc (Aston & Gaudenzi, 2012;Gantier & Labour, 2015), living documentary (Gaudenzi, 2013) o collab docs (Doey & Rose, 2012)-, optamos por la terminología más abierta y extendida en la investigación y en la producción: documental interactivo (Almeida & Alvelos, 2010;Gifreu, 2013;Miles, 2014;Nash, 2014;Liuzzi, 2015). ...
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[ES] Introducción: El ciberperiodismo encuentra en la no ficción interactiva un lugar adecuado para el desarrollo de los relatos. Los medios adoptan las nuevas formas interactivas e híbridas para enfrentarse al desafío de Internet y dar respuesta a las necesidades de unas audiencias más activas y permanentemente conectadas. Metodología: En este artículo, se presentan los resultados del análisis cualitativo de diez documentales interactivos publicados entre los años 2010 y 2016. Al mismo tiempo, se identifican tendencias en la renovación del periodismo junto a la propuesta de parámetros basados en la caracterización de esta forma narrativa. Resultados y conclusiones: El documental interactivo se encuentra en una fase de diversificación, ya consolidado en países como Francia, Estados Unidos y Canadá. En referencia a las características del género, se percibe un notable desarrollo y un destacado potencial, en contraste con el reto que supone un contexto en cambio. [EN] Introduction: Online journalism finds in interactive nonfiction an appropriate place for the development of stories. The media adopt new interactive and hybrid forms to face the challenge of the Internet and to respond to the needs of more active and permanently connected audiences. Methodology: In this article, the results of the qualitative analysis of ten interactive documentaries published by international media between the years 2010 and 2016 are presented. At the same time, renewal trends in journalism are identified along with the proposal of parameters based on the characterization of this narrative form. Results and conclusions: Interactive documentary is in a diversification phase, already consolidated in countries like France, the United States and Canada. With reference to the features of the genre, a notable development and an outstanding potential have been perceived, in contrast to the challenge that represents a changing context.
... Indeed, either it is not yet stabilized if one considers that serious games emerged from 2002, or it is not precise enough if one considers they first appeared 40 years ago using non-digital material (Djaouti, Alvarez, Jessel, & Rampnoux, 2011;Smith, 2009). Moreover, the theory of documentary filmmaking has been updated over the past ten years with the advent of "interactive documentaries" ("i-docs") (Almeida & Alvelos, 2010;Choi, 2010;Dankert & Wille, 2001;Galloway, McAlpine, & Harris, 2007;Gaudenzi, 2012;Gifreu Castells, 2011) and docu-games ("documentary computer game" or "documentary videogame") (Bogost & Poremba, 2008;Fullerton, 2005;Poremba, 2011;Raessens, 2006). "At face value, the definition of interactive documentary is quite straightforward any documentary that uses interactivity as a core component of its delivery process" (Galloway et al., 2007, p. 330), endeavouring to achieve "facticity or documentarity to expose players to events and places that would remain inaccessible to them otherwise" (Raessens, 2006, p. 215). ...
Article
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This article refers to the historical and socio-cultural development that has accompanied the modernity of documentary cinema in order to highlight the multiple ways for the serious games to convey the real in a learning experience. After specifying the semio-pragmatic approach that makes it possible to connect the two fields, a conceptual model is proposed that describes the interactions of serious games actants in relation to the chain of actants in the documentary. These transpositions will clarify a current trend where serious games are wanting to give learners a direct and transparent access to the real. Thus, the interest of this research comes from underlining the resurgence of well-known communicational issues, in order to adapt and open up them to new perspectives. In doing so, values and models from the documentary approach would promote a reflexive way to interact rather than a referential one, and a focus on human rather than technology.
... Some critics offer recommendations on how to deal with that tension. Interactive documentary producers are commended to achieve a very delicate balance between structure and aesthetics (Almeida and Avelos, 2010), meaning that the interface they build should not only be functional but also add to the aesthetic and expressive intentions of its authors. Also, it is suggested that they remain faithful to the unity of "concept" of their productions, opening the spaces of participation that contribute to such unity, and closing the ones that do not. ...
... As this is a constantly changing and evolving form, the term used most has been 'interactive documentary' (Almeida and Alvelos, 2010;Dovey and Rose, 2013), although other terms are also used interchangeably, like "i-Docs" (Gaudenzi, 2012), "Open docs" (Rose, 2012;MIT Open Documentary Lab, 2013), "Expanded documentary" (Sucari, 2009;Català, 2011) and "New Media Documentary" (Ocak, 2014). ...
Article
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Recommended citation: Gifreu-Castells, A. (2017). Proposed methodology for studying and analysing the new documentary forms. Doc-online, n. especial, pp. 6-42. ---------------- ABSTRACT: This article presents an original methodological proposal for studying and analysing interactive and transmedia documentary. I propose guidelines for teaching three independent modules that present the study object in relation to three structured phases: (1) the precedents and antecedents, appearance of the expression form; (2) emergence and experimentation; and (3) consolidation and possible institutionalisation. ---------------- RESUMO: O artigo apresenta uma metodologia original para estudar e analisar o documentário transmedia e interativo. Proponho diretrizes para o ensino de três módulos independentes que apresentam o objeto de estudo na sua relação com três fases estruturadas: 1) precedentes e antecedentes, aparência da forma de expressão; 2) emergência e experimentação; e 3) consolidação e possível institucionalização. Palavras-chave: documentário; meio digital interativo; documentário interativo; metodologia de ensino. ---------------- RESUMEN: Este artículo presenta una propuesta metodológica original para estudiar y analizar el documental interactivo y transmedia. Propongo directrices para la enseñanza de tres módulos independientes que presentan el objeto de estudio en relación con tres fases estructuradas: (1) los antecedentes y antecedentes, la apariencia de la forma de expresión; (2) emergencia y experimentación; y (3) consolidación y posible institucionalización. Palabras clave: género documental; medio digital interactivo; documental interactivo; metodología de enseñanza.
... If the traditional definition of documentary is blurred and undergoes a continuous process of construction and deconstruction, the definition of interactive documentary is still in an earlier conceptual stage. Although there have been pioneering authors, like Glorianna Davenport (1995), who began experimenting with cinematic multimedia narratives in the mid-80s at MIT and who coined the concept of "evolving documentary" (1995: 1), research into this new hypertextual form of expression has taken off approximately since 2010 (Whitelaw 2002;Dinmore 2008;Renó 2008;Choi 2009;Almeida and Alvelos 2010;Renó and Renó 2011;Dovey and Rose 2012;Gaudenzi 2013;Nash et al. 2014;Uricchio 2015;Aston et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
In recent years the way we produce new media has changed dramatically. Interactive nonfiction narratives have transformed the processes of producing, distributing and showing documentaries, and especially the processes involved in how the viewer relates to the text. One of these new media forms of narrative expression is “interactive documentary”. In this work, first, we explore the evolution of the documentary genre as an expression form, then we analyse the current state of development of the interactive documentary. Second, we analyse five representative projects from different critical perspectives: production, interface, content and modalities of representation. Finally, we outline a set of issues that emerged from the analysis performed that need to be resolved.
... Some critical views argue that as the interactivity gets more enhanced, the producer reduces its power to convince, which increases the risk that the viewer will not be engaged by the storyline [42]. Almeida and Alvelos [43] state that the coherence of the narrative is more important than its interactivity. Indeed, the dynamic producer-audience relation is not always clear and its features may not be exploited. ...
Article
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This paper casts light on cultural heritage storytelling in the context of interactive documentary, a hybrid media genre that employs a full range of multimedia tools to document reality, provide sustainability of the production and successful engagement of the audience. The main research hypotheses are enclosed in the statements: (a) the interactive documentary is considered a valuable tool for the sustainability of cultural heritage and (b) digital approaches to documentary storytelling can provide a sustainable form of viewing during the years. Using the Greek interactive documentary (i-doc) NEW LIFE (2013) as a case study, the users’ engagement is evaluated by analyzing items from a seven-year database of web metrics. Specifically, we explore the adopted ways of the interactive documentary users to engage with the storytelling, the depth to which they were involved along with the most popular sections/traffic sources and finally, the differences between the first launch period and latest years were investigated. We concluded that interactivity affordances of this genre enhance the social dimension of cultural, while the key factors for sustainability are mainly (a) constant promotion with transmedia approach; (b) data-driven evaluation and reform; and (c) a good story that gathers relevant niches, with specific interest to the story.
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Recommended citation: Gifreu-Castells, A. (2016). Jugando en el aula con el documental interactivo y transmedia. En: Contreras Espinosa, R. S.; Eguia, J. L. [Eds.] (2016): Gamificación en las aulas Universitarias. Bellaterra: Institut de la Comunicació, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, pp. 96-109. ISBN 978-84-944171-6-0. ---------------- ABSTRACT ESP: Este capítulo de libro ofrece una metodología original ensayada los años 2014 y 2015 para enseñar sobre nuevas formas documentales en el marco de la asignatura 'Teorías del documental' de la ESCAC (Escuela Superior de Cine y Audiovisuales de Cataluña). La introducción de lógicas y dinámicas ludificadas contribuye al proceso docente y didáctico aportando la involucración y participación de los estudiantes.
Article
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John Grierson’s classic definition of documentary as the “creative treatment of actuality” emphasizes both the genre’s indexical link to reality and the maker’s perspective on this reality. In recent times, a substantial number of so-called “interactive” documentaries has seen the light of day. In this paper, one dimension of such online documentaries, namely the freedom of users to access content via different paths of navigation as well as to skip material, is discussed from the perspective that a documentary, in a necessarily subjective way, attempts to convince the viewer of something. Interactivity limits the maker’s opportunities to do so. Full version of paper available free of charge until 12 January 2018 at https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1W61U7suQFUrcC
Thesis
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This study aims to define the niche of web documentaries, as online interactive applications treating actuality. -Eight different case studies (from two web platforms: ARTE and NFB) are analysed through categories already proposed by other authors (Sandra Gaudenzi, Phd) and with some new categories in order to provide an overview of the features, which characterize this new media format. Especially a focus on non-linear narration, software, production methods and reception is provided.
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Resumo A tecnologia interativa e hipermédia traz consigo uma série de questões ligadas à linguagem e à estética das representações da realidade no género do documentário. Quer na forma de produção e no papel que o autor passa a assumir, quer na forma de consumo e apropriação dos conteúdos apresentados, como também na forma da narrativa resultante. São então apuradas as áreas do documentário com camadas de interatividade na Web. Sendo a Web um meio hipermédia por excelência, as narrativas a ela associada ultrapassam a forma tradicional de “storytelling” linear, dando determinado grau de liberdade ao usuário (via hipertextualidade) de reconstruir a história através da junção de elementos que o autor faculta-lhe para acesso, delegando parte da responsabilidade na construção de sentido sobre ele. Neste sentido, a estética do remix desencadeia éticas e poéticas representativas que devem ser analisadas. Palavras-Chave: Documentário. Interatividade. Hipedrmídia. Abstract Hypermedia and interactive technology walk together with a number of issues related to language and aesthetic representations of reality in the documentary genre. Whether in the production and the role that the author has to assume, whether in the form of consumption and appropriation of the content, as well as the resulting narrative. In this article is determined a new documentary genre with added layers of interactivity, distributed on the Web. Since the Web is par excellence a hypermedia environment, the narratives associated with it go further traditional linear storytelling, offering some degree of freedom to the user (via hypertextuality). He is enabled to reconstruct the story, to combine and access elements that the author previously provided. The author now delegates to the user part of the responsibility in the construction of meaning. Therefore, the aesthetics of remix triggers ethical and poetic associations which must be analyzed. Keywords: Documentary. Interactivity. Hypermedia.
Conference Paper
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Recommended citation: Gifreu-Castells, Arnau; Moreno, Valentina (2014),"Educational multimedia applied to the interactive nonfiction area. Using interactive documentary as a new model for learning". Proceedings of Edulearn14 Conference, 2014, Barcelona, 1306-1315. ISBN: 978-84-617-0557-3 /ISSN: 2340-1117. This paper explores new opportunities for using the interactive and transmedia documentary format and other platforms for educational purposes. After introducing and defining the term "interactive documentary", we focus on specific constructivist and cognitive learning theories and trends in digital media education developed in recent years. Reviewing the state-of-the-art in this area led us to develop our main hypothesis: while the linear documentary only allows the viewer to interpret the images seen on a personal level, the interactive platforms allow more processes and/or behaviours, such as viewing (observer), playing (player), learning (student) and sharing (prosumer). This multiple exchange makes the interactive form very appropriate and beneficial not only for audiovisual and interactive purposes, but also for content dissemination and knowledge transfer. To test our hypothesis we applied the four processes/behaviours of our hypothesis as indicators to analyse a representative sample of case studies: Inside Out My Window ‒ Global Education Lab (2011), Fort McMoney (2013) and interDOC (2013). We conclude that interactive documentary is a beneficial education tool because it offers new ways to approach, understand, play and learn from reality, and therefore, by extension, new ways of gaining knowledge and spreading content.
Article
The most common rendering of interactive documentary film is through the web-based medium, which is not 'tangible' or as immersive as a different form could be. The earlier making of the 'I Still Remember' documentary's memory floating bubbles interactive with audience's participation using ordinary OpenGL was the first non-web-based prototype. We describe a new HCI process and the design of an associated programmer framework for making a passive documentary interactive using currently available tools and preserving the aesthetic and emotional appeal. It is done in a local space as an artistic installation. In this context, we briefly review the proof-of-concept design and implementation of a multimodal interactive system, the Illimitable Space System (ISS). It was designed to supplement digital artists' work for various interactive scenarios and applications. Its design supports non-web-based interactive documentary creation with speech and gesture based interaction (via Kinect), music visualization and green screening for interactive dance visualization, among other things in real-time. The ISS framework provides a unified generalized architecture that supports a configurable setup of installations, as in public places described in earlier work. We also compare advantages and disadvantages of the ISS's based XNA/C# realization to that of the earlier OpenGL prototype for interactive documentary production.
Thesis
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https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/54643 ------------- This thesis is a creative and critical exploration of how transmedia storytelling meshes with political documentary’s nature of representing social realities and goals to educate and promote social change. I explore this notion through Obrero (“worker”), my independently produced transmedia and transjournalistic documentary project that explores the conditions and context of the Filipino rebuild workers who migrated to Christchurch, New Zealand after the earthquake in 2011. While the project should appeal to New Zealanders, it is specifically targeted at an audience from the Philippines. Obrero began as a film festival documentary that co-exists with strategically refashioned Web 2.0 variants, a social network documentary and an interactive documentary (i-doc). Using data derived from the production and circulation of Obrero, I interrogate how the documentary’s variants engage with differing audiences and assess the extent to which this engagement might be effective. This thesis argues that contemporary documentary needs to re-negotiate established film aesthetics and practices to adapt in the current period of shifting technologies and fragmented audiences. Documentary’s migration to new media platforms also creates a demand for filmmakers to work with a transmedia state of mind—that is, the capacity to practise the old canons of documentary making while comfortably adjusting to new media production praxis, ethics, and aesthetics. Then Obrero itself, as the creative component of this thesis, becomes an instance of research through creative practice. It does so in two respects: adding new knowledge about the context, politics, and experiences of the Filipino workers in New Zealand; and offering up a broader model for documentary engagement, which I analyse for its efficacy in the digital age.
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El movimiento incesante de las narrativas, que viaja a través de convergencias, flujos, nuevas tecnologías, experiencias y prácticas, acentúa una complejidad que recientemente se ha convertido en objeto de una mayor reflexión en el campo de los estudios de comunicación. La complejidad narrativa es una parte integral del pensamiento humano, como lo son los nudos neuronales que construyen nuestros sueños. Sin embargo, con el desarrollo de la tecnología digital, se fortalecieron las nuevas estructuras, lo que refleja las prácticas de producción, circulación, consumo y distribución de formatos narrativos.
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El desarrollo actual de las narrativas no lineales multimedia ha propiciado un aumento exponencial de la producción de contenidos documentales interactivos que tratan de explorar las potencialidades expresivas de las herramientas digitales. De entre la avanlacha de proyectos llevados a cabo, con resultados absolutamente divergentes, es necesario reparar en algunos artefactos comunicativos de compleja definición, más conocidos como webdocumentales en los que confluyen elementos procedentes tanto de las narrativas hipertextuales, por un lado, como del cine documental, por otro. La retórica interactiva de estos nuevos productos pretende relatar historias caracterizadas por una creciente y cada vez más desarrollada relación con el usuario, al que asigna un nuevo lugar en la construcción del sentido. La hibridación de formatos y medios inicia el camino para una reflexión metalingüística y política en esta nueva forma audiovisual, que se abre camino muchas veces al margen de la industria, se produce de modo independiente y se dirige a aquellos espectadores dispuestos a emprender una experiencia narrativa activa. Abstract: The current development of multimedia nonlinear narratives has led to an exponential increase in content production interactive documentaries that try to explore the expressive potential of digital tools. Among the projects avanlache conducted with quite divergent results, it is necessary to notice some definition complex communicative artifacts, better known as webdocumentarys or interactive multimedia documentary, which combines elements from both hypertext narratives, on the one hand such as documentary films, on the other. The rhetoric of these new products interactive storytelling intends characterized by a growing and increasingly developed relationship with the user, which assigns a new place in the construction of meaning. Hybridization of formats and media starts the way for a political metalinguistic consideration in this new audiovisual form, which often finds its way outside the industry, is produced independently and is for those viewers willing to undertake a narrative experience active. Palabras clave: Documental; hipertexto; modos de representación; webdocumental; cultura digital. Keywords: Documentary, Hipertext, Representation Modes, Webdocumentary, Digital Culture.
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Recommended citation: Gifreu-Castells, A. (2014). El documental interactiu i transmèdia. aproximació, estat de desenvolupament i anàlisi de casos en l'àmbit espanyol. Comunicació. Revista de Recerca i Análisi. Vol 32, Num 1, pp. 19-45. Societat Catalana de Comunicació. ISSN: 2014-0304. ---------------- ABSTRACT CAT: En aquest treball es presenta una aproximació teòrica al gènere emergent del documental interactiu i transmèdia. Es proposa una definició provisional del terme, es caracteritza l'àmbit i s'estudia el seu estat de desenvolupament actual amb l'objectiu d'analitzar tres projectes significatius dels últims anys en l'àmbit espanyol, Guernica, pintura de guerra (CCRTVI i Haiku Media, 2007), Las voces de la memoria (RTVE, Associació de familiars de l'Alzheimer de València i Barret Films, 2010) i MetamentalDOC (Universitat de Vic, 2011). Guernica, pintura de guerra és un dels documentals interactius pioners produïts a Espanya, Las voces de la memoria és un projecte documental multiplataforma sobre l'Alzheimer i la musicoteràpia articulat per diversos elements, i MetamentalDOC és una plataforma web que conté un documental interactiu sobre el gènere documental. Els projectes analitzats compten amb diferents temàtiques, plataformes, experiència d'usuari i estratègies, el que ofereix indicis per entendre com s'articula el documental transmèdia, el següent estadi de la narrativa documental. ---------------- ABSTRACT ESP: En este trabajo se presenta una aproximación teórica al género emergente del documental interactivo y transmedia. Se propone una definición provisional del término, se caracteriza el ámbito y se estudia su estado de desarrollo actual con el objetivo de analizar tres proyectos significativos de los últimos años en el ámbito español, Guernica, pintura de guerra (CCRTVI y Haiku Media, 2007), Las voces de la memoria (RTVE, Asociación de familiares de Alzheimer de Valencia y Barret Films, 2010) y MetamentalDOC (Universidad de Vic, 2011). Guernica, pintura de guerra es uno de los documentales interactivos pioneros producidos en España, Las voces de la memoria es un proyecto documental multiplataforma sobre el Alzheimer y la musicoterapia articulado por diversos elementos, y MetamentalDOC es una plataforma web que contiene un documental interactivo sobre el género documental. Los proyectos analizados cuentan con diferentes temáticas, plataformas, experiencia de usuario y estrategias, lo que ofrece indicios para entender cómo se articula el documental transmedia, el siguiente estadio de la narrativa documental. ---------------- ABSTRACT ENG: This study introduces a theoretical approach to the emerging genre of the interactive and transmedia documentary. A provisional definition of the term, its characterization and its current state of development are studied in order to analyze three significant projects produced in recent years in the Spanish area: Guernica, pintura de guerra (CCRTV and Haiku Media, 2007), Las voces de la memoria (Barret Films and Asociación de Familiares de Alzheimer de Valencia, 2011) and MetamentalDOC (Blasco et al., 2010). Guernica, pintura de guerra is one of the pioneering interactive documentaries produced in Spain; Las voces de la memoria is a multi-platform documentary project about Alzheimer’s disease and music therapy explored through various elements, and MetamentalDOC is a web platform that contains an interactive documentary about the documentary genre and authored documentary. These projects use different thematics, platforms, user experiences and strategies, offering some clues to how the transmedia documentary, the next stage in the documentary narrative, works.
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La educación tradicional es percibida por muchos estudiantes como algo aburrido y en ocasiones poco eficaz. Aunque los docentes busquen continuamente nuevos métodos de enseñanza, en gran medida las universidades enfrentan un importante reto para motivar a los estudiantes y hacer que desarrollen un compromiso con las asignaturas. Es en este contexto que el uso de juegos como herramientas de aprendizaje parece ser un enfoque prometedor debido a su habilidad para enseñar y reforzar no sólo conocimientos, sino también habilidades como la resolución de problemas, la colaboración o la comunicación. La “Gamificación” sugiere en este sentido, el poder utilizar elementos del juego, y el diseño de juegos, para mejorar el compromiso y la motivación de los participantes. El libro está organizado por investigadores del Observatorio de Comunicación, Videojuegos y Entretenimiento del Instituto de la Comunicación de la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (InCom-UAB) y de la Universidad de Vic-Universidad Central de Cataluña (Uvic- UCC). Los coordinadores hemos considerado necesario mostrar las experiencias que se están desarrollando en nuestras aulas, y junto a otros investigadores en España, así como profesionales, este E- book protende reunir algunas experiencias y las principales ideas generadas por un grupo de expertos en distintas aulas universitarias de Madrid y Barcelona. Descarga en: http://incom.uab.cat/download/eBook_incomuab_gamificacion.pdf
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Como nuevo objeto de los medios de comunicación, el género del documental interactivo desafía los métodos tradicionales de estudio. El análisis requiere de una nueva aproximación metodológica y conceptual que considere los diferentes géneros, formatos y agentes implicados en su totalidad. Este nuevo género, como ámbito poco explorado de la no ficción interactiva y transmedia, extiende el proyecto documental hacia un nuevo espacio en los medios de comunicación. En este artículo se efectúa un análisis del estado actual de desarrollo del nuevo género, necesario para conocer en profundidad cuáles son las tendencias y para construir un modelo de estudio diferenciado del existente en el género del documental tradicional. Esta revisión sobre el estado del desarrollo actual abarca la gran mayoría de trabajo en torno a este nuevo género, pues hablamos de una especie que cuenta con dos décadas de existencia pero que durante la primera década se encontró muy limitado por la tecnología. Este hecho ha comportado que no se haya podido teorizar en profundidad al no haber aún un marco sustancial y diferenciado, y mucho menos elaborar un estado de desarrollo meticuloso de donde partir para investigar. En este articulo se enumeran y se describen los principales eventos y congresos relacionados con la temática, las empresas, productoras, practicantes y actores más destacados, los investigadores principales y algunos programarios específicos para la creación de documentales interactivos. ---------------------- ABSTRACT: As a new object of the media, the interactive documentary genre challenges traditional methods of study. The analysis requires a new conceptual and methodological approach that considers the different genres, formats and agents involved in its entirety. This new genre, as non explored field of interactive and transmedia nonfiction, extends the documentary project into a new space in the media. This article examines the current state of development of the new genre, necessary to know in depth what are the new trends in order to build a logic model of analysis. This review of the current development status covers the vast majority of work on this new genre, listing and describing the major events and conferences related to the subject, companies, producers, practitioners and leading actors, the principal investigators and some specific softwares for creating interactive documentaries.
Chapter
Although iDocs are a newer genre of non-fiction IDNs, there are few studies reporting results on their impact and the user experience. A common goal of iDocs is to engage the pubic in social, economic and environmental issues. This investigation applied the iDoc genre to cultural heritage to create a prototype for user testing titled Sentenced to Transportation: A Virtual Tour of Australia’s Convict Past. The user testing completed in this study analysed three key variables: the level of perceived agency based on the narrative structure, choices provided in the interface design, and ability to persuade further user participation. The results show that users can be persuaded through the narrative design to proceed non-linearly and to engage in further user participation post-interaction.
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El patrimonio cultural, tangible e intangible, narrado desde la perspectiva mediática convergente y con una lógica transmedia es como el libro de arena que narra Borges y al que los museólogos, historiadores, archivistas y coleccionistas quieren perderlo en el bosque de objetos similares, porque cuenta historias diversas, con formatos diferentes, en tonos variados. Al convertir a los museos, bibliotecas, archivos y colecciones en libros de arena, la autoridad administrativa y docta se ve minada por la participación interactiva de los elementos más variados, que configuran una interfaz líquida (Bauman, 2013) bajo narrativas digitales inclusivas de usuarios, en donde la experiencia del visitante y del experto van configurando las historias que nutren al patrimonio como el Libro de Arena: multiexpresivo, convergente e interactivo, con nuevos descubrimientos en cada visita. El resultado es un patrimonio mutante que se adecua al uso de cada uno de los usuarios y que depende de ellos (públicos diversos en gustos, intereses, edades, procedencias). Esta es la vía por la cual los espacios patrimoniales deben contar sus historias (in situ y en la Red) para no anclarse en el tiempo ni hundirse en las arenas del olvido ni del aburrimiento con sus producciones digitales, audiovisuales e impresas, que responden al temor de los administradores, guías, conservadores o mediadores de los espacios con respecto al cambio constante, a la mutación inesperada, no programada ni controlada.
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Recommended citaton: Vázquez-Herrero, J., López-García, X.; Gifreu-Castells, A. (2019). Evolución del documental interactivo: perspectivas y retos para su consolidación. Estudos em Comunicação num 29 (dezembro, 2019), pp. 127-145. DOI: 10.25768/fal.ec.n29.a08. /// RESUMEN: La explosión del vídeo y lo visual en Internet ha creado las condiciones idóneas para la aparición y evolución del documental interactivo como formato de no ficción. Este trabajo se propone analizar una serie de proyectos representativos desarrollados entre 2010 y 2014, aplicando un modelo de análisis creado a tal efecto. Se estudian los documentales interactivos Prison Valley (2010), One Millionth Tower (2011), Bear 71 (2012), Hollow (2013) y V.O.S.E. (2014). A partir de la evolución del género documental y una aproximación al estado actual de desarrollo del documental interactivo, se efectúa un análisis comparado entre los cinco proyectos seleccionados en términos de producción y circulación, relación autor-texto-usuario, estructura, navegación e interacción y representación de la realidad–. Finalmente, se elabora una exploración del desarrollo del documental interactivo en los dos últimos años y se proponen un conjunto de cuestiones a resolver surgidas a partir del análisis efectuado. A modo de conclusión, se presenta esta forma de la no ficción interactiva como una forma contemporánea, marcada por la complejidad y la hibridación, con desafíos y oportunidades hacia su institucionalización y en el encuentro con nuevas tecnologías. /// ABSTRACT: The explosion of video and visual content on the Internet have created the ideal conditions for the emergence and evolution of interactive documentary as a non-fiction format. This paper analyzes a series of representative projects developed between 2010 and 2014, applying an analysis model created for this purpose. Prison Valley (2010), One Millionth Tower (2011), Bear 71 (2012), Hollow (2013) and V.O.S.E. (2014) were considered. Based on the evolution of the documentary genre and an approach to the current state of development of the interactive documentary, a comparative analysis is carried out among the five selected projects –in terms of production and circulation, author-text-user relationship, structure, navigation and interaction and representation of reality–. Finally, an exploration of the development of the interactive documentary in the last two years is elaborated and a set of questions to solve arising from the analysis carried out is proposed. As a conclusion, this form of interactive non-fiction is presented as a contemporary form, marked by complexity and hybridization, with challenges and opportunities for its institutionalization and in convergence with new technologies.
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The present master thesis (in Greek) has a twofold purpose: Studying of the web documentary genre (we-doc) as a new, rapidly evolving trend in the new media market, and, also, producing a Greek interactive documentary.The research has been enriched with interviews of opinion leaders of the webdoc market, in Greece and abroad. The theme of the webdoc relates to the new life after Minor Asia Catastrophe of a group of refugees that left Lapseki in Minor Asia, Turkey to settle in New Lampsakos, Greece. The research involves oral testimonies from residents of both villages in Greece and Turkey and, also, on field observation and documentation of their intangible cultural practices. The theoretical part of the Thesis consists of a literature review about web interactive documentaries (web-docs/ i-docs), and also the cultural heritage research about Lampsakos/Lapseki. The empirical part consists of the step by step presentation of filming and structuring the web-doc New Life which can be watched on http:lampsakos.com. Greek: H παρούσα έρευνα έχει διττό σκοπό: Να εξετάσει το διαδικτυακό ντοκιμαντέρ (webdoc), ως μια νέα, ταχέως εξελισσόμενη τάση στην αγορά των νέων μέσων και παράλληλα σε πρακτικό επίπεδο να δημιουργήσει ένα διαδραστικό ντοκιμαντέρ, από τα πρώτα που έχουν γίνει στην Ελλάδα, εφαρμόζοντας την θεωρία στην πράξη. Η έρευνα εμπλουτίζεται με συνεντεύξεις από άτομα που εμφανίζουν ηγετική πορεία στην αγορά του webdoc, σε Ελλάδα και εξωτερικό. Σε πρακτικό επίπεδο, η έρευνα για την δημιουργία του webdoc βασίζεται σε μαρτυρίες ηλικιωμένων. Οι τελευταίοι είναι εξηγούν την δημιουργία ενός προσφυγικού χωριού, της Ν. Λαμψάκου, μέσα από τα δικά τους μάτια. Η διπλωματική εργασία χωρίζεται σε δυο μέρη: Το γραπτό και το πρακτικό μέρος. Το γραπτό μέρος αποτελείται α) από μια βιβλιογραφική ανασκόπηση, όπου συγκεντρώνονται οι ακαδημαϊκές μελέτες που έχουν δημοσιευθεί αναφορικά με τις διαδραστικές ταινίες τεκμηρίωσης (webdoc) και β) από την παρουσίαση της διαδικασία παραγωγής του webdoc ΝΕΑ ΖΩΗ. Το πρακτικό μέρος αποτελείται το webdoc, δημοσιευμένο στο Διαδίκτυο, στην ιστοσελίδα http: lampsakos.com.
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The webdocumentary positions itself as documentary re-mediated for the internet age. Not only does the name webdocumentary consciously reference film and television documentary but it is possible to trace continuities in representational strategies, purpose and production practices that situate the webdoc within the documentary tradition. In spite of this family resemblance, however, the webdoc challenges current thinking about documentary representation. Interactivity in particular has consequences for theorizing in relation to modes of representation and user engagement. This article considers interactivity as a representational strategy, suggesting three dimensions for assessing its contribution to documentary. Following on from this it is suggested that, like film and television documentary, webdocs exhibit patterns of textual organization. It is suggested that there are at least three interactive structures found in webdocs: the narrative, the categorical and the collaborative. Each can be further divided – indicating the diverse uses of interactive features. A challenge of researching interactive texts is that the whole text is never completely available for analysis. Each viewing has the potential to be different from the last. Although necessarily provisional, this article seeks to demonstrate what might be achieved through close reading of the interactive documentary text.
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The dissertation at hand explores the very grounds, within which the phenomenon of cinema emerges. It is a study of the intrinsic dynamics of cinema author’s mind in the process of creating moving image. Alas, it is not a historical, cultural, or ideological study into the handicraft, the narrative genres, or technological developments of cinema. Instead, it discusses possible foundations of cinema in the human nature, as seems viable in the light of the contemporary biological and psychological constraints. The dissertation is set to define a kind of cinema, which reflects the recent scientific knowledge about neural underpinnings of human activity, and which draws its emotional power from one’s experimental resources of understanding and interacting with others within the everyday world. While attribute of ‘enactive’ carries the explicit sense of pragmatic doing and meaningful acting in the world, it is the embodied simulation of the world, which will provide the cognitive environment for creative enactment. Emotions, in addition to determining unconscious, involuntary understanding about the state of things, also determine all conscious, intentional, and imaginative aspects of cognition. Faithful to the spirit of Eisenstein the dissertation deliberately deviates from other mainstream cinema research: instead of the spectator, the focus here is on the author’s cognitive processes.
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This article is motivated by the opportunity presented by recent advances in information and communication technology—particularly by faster broadband connections and faster digital media processing capabilities—for interactive television to extend and develop interactive storytelling or interactive narratives. This will give viewers the ability to shape and configure the programs they watch, while watching, according to their needs and desires. Rather than consuming a predefined linear narration—represented by the traditional dramatic or factual program—which has to address the potential audience as a whole, individuals or groups of viewers can receive tailored-made personal narratives. Each viewer can thus potentially become an active explorer of a narrative space rather than a receiver of a predefined narration. This article presents the production of A Golden Age, an interactive configurable documentary about the arts of the Renaissance in England, as a comprehensive illustration of the potential offered by interactive narration. At the same time, it is also a successful example of the employment of the recently developed, production- and genre-independent, ShapeShifting Media technology in the realization of a good quality interactive narrative. This article describes the concept of A Golden Age, the content production process, carried out from the outset with the aim of producing an interactive experience, and, finally, its authoring and delivery with the ShapeShifting Media toolkit. The focus of the presentation is on the design and implementation of the computational interactive narrative structures expressed in the Narrative Structure Language (NSL), the declarative representation language underlying ShapeShifting Media. A Golden Age places a distinct emphasis on the quality and style of each emerging individual narration, aiming at levels at least comparable to those of (good quality) linearly compiled documentaries. NSL and the ShapeShifting Media toolkit provided the means to achieve this. A Golden Age is a production realized by Illuminations Television Ltd, London, in collaboration with Goldsmiths, University of London and BT over a period of more or less two years. Approximately 50 hours of rushes were filmed for its production. A Golden Age has already inspired the production of another similar documentary, Films of Fact, soon to be released in the public domain as an installation at the Science Museum, London, and, it is hoped, will continue to serve as inspiration for other interactive documentaries.
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Interactive documentary? So far this is little more than a catchy tag and an open question. Yet it seems to be an increasingly current question: the ABC and the AFC have joined to fund and host a recently launched series of online interactive docos. 1 The DigiDocs event at this year's Adelaide Fringe focused on the relationship between documentary and the "new media." We might speculate about the reasons for this apparent swell of interest. Certainly it occurs in a context where independent documentary production is benefiting from the rise of digital desktop video — and it's a short conceptual leap from the video editor to the web browser. At the same time there is a slowly building momentum around broadband production, which brings with it the question of the forms and languages of broadband media. While the prospects of (meaningfully) interactive fiction seem to have dimmed, documentary might be a more suitable partner for interactivity; true stories may be the crucial "content" that makes for a compelling new media experience. Perhaps this interest also reflects the reality check that has swept the new media world in recent years, or simply the fact that the cultural novelty, and most of the hyperbolic rhetoric, has finally worn off the digital media. Many new media producers have themselves been caught up in a sense of the prospects for those forms, their expansive promises and latent technofutures. New media practice has by necessity been involved with testing possibilities, in form and content. It's as if as new media become unremarkable (and less new), they return to the present, and can be turned more readily to the "reality" of the present. This is an exciting prospect, at least in theory. In practice, of course, the results are mixed. Of the recent flurry of interactive documentaries, many make only a very modest engagement with the potentials of interactive media. Very often they follow the path of remediation, reproducing the language of documentary film: cue music, fade in titles, cue voice of god narrator – all in 16:9 "widescreen." (See for example [producer's name?] Long Journey, Young Lives. 2) The ABC frames these projects explicitly as an encounter between "the Australian documentary filmmaking tradition" and the new "platform" of the net; and indeed in general, the net operates here as little more than a functional platform for delivering bite-size chunks of quite traditional documentary. New media forms pose a fundamental challenge to the principle of narrative coherence, which is at the core of traditional documentary. If we explode and open the structure, how can we be sure that the story is being conveyed? Other stories, or non-stories, may become possible. Many recent interactive documentaries react by ensuring that the content is always overdetermined, that each clip, each chunk of content points back to the unifying narrative. We may surf at will through its facets or aspects, but the "theme" is never more than a click away; the possibilities of other themes, other interpretations, other realities, are closed down.
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Traditionally, documentary has been presented as an objective portrayal of fact: the actualité. Recently, a new breed of ‘dramatic’ documentary that uses coercion; persuasion, and emotional manipulation has emerged to critical and commercial success. Contemporaneously, interactive entertainment has evolved to the point at which near-realism can be portrayed in real time. This, taken alongside the immersive interaction in which the industry specialises, and the dramatic techniques of engagement employed by the latest documentary films suggests that we may be at the brink of a new cultural form: the interactive documentary. In this paper we discuss the form that interactive documentary might take, and the historical and cultural context into which it fits. We conclude by detailing the issues raised by the concept of the interactive documentary, and how the role of documentary maker as auteur is reconciled with the notion of a truly interactive pathway through such a production.
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