The influence of amphetamine addiction on pregnancy and the newborn infant
Department of Pædiatrics, Karolinska Institutet, St. Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Acta paediatrica
(Impact Factor: 1.77).
02/1978; 67(1):95-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1978.tb16283.x
The influence of amphetamine addiction on pregnancy and the newborn infant has been studied retrospectively in 23 cases. Six of the mothers claimed to have discontinued their abuse in early pregnancy, while the remaining 17 mothers continued throughout. In comparison with the average number of visits by pregnant Swedish women to maternal health centres, the 17 women who continued their abuse made significantly fewer visits, although there was a wide variation. Complications related to pregnancy and delivery were few, however. One child with a myelomeningocele was stillborn. Six children were preterm and three small for gestational age. Two full-term children were extremely drowsy and in need of tube feeding, symptoms that might be due to the maternal abuse. Eight of the ten mothers, who had previous children placed in foster homes by the Social Welfare Department, left the hospital with their newborn infant in their care as well as all the eleven primiparae.
Available from: Marilyn A Huestis
- "For children exposed prenatally to MA, there may be early and ongoing deficits in neurodevelopment. At present the only evidence of the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to any ATS comes from an early study in Sweden that has followed the growth and development of 65 children exposed prenatally to amphetamine (Billing et al., 1980, 1985, 1988, 1994; Cernerud et al., 1996; Eriksson et al., 1978, 1979, 1981, 1994). Results using the Terman Merrill method of developmental screening showed the amphetamine exposed children at age four had lower IQ scores (103 vs 110, respectively) and more " problem children " than an unselected community sample of Swedish children (Billing et al., 1985). "
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Despite the evidence that women world-wide are using methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy little is known about the neurodevelopment of their children.
The controlled, prospective longitudinal New Zealand (NZ) Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study was carried out in Auckland, NZ. Participants were 103 children exposed to MA prenatally and 107 not exposed. The Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II) measured cognitive and motor performance at ages 1, 2 and 3, and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Second Edition (PDMS-II) measured gross and fine motor performance at 1 and 3. Measures of the child’s environment included the Home Observation of Measurement of the Environment and the Maternal Lifestyle Interview. The Substance Use Inventory measured maternal drug use.
After controlling for other drug use and contextual factors, prenatal MA exposure was associated with poorer motor performance at 1 and 2 years on the BSID-II. No differences were observed for cognitive development (MDI). Relative to non-MA exposed children, longitudinal scores on the PDI and the gross motor scale of the PDMS-2 were 4.3 and 3.2 points lower, respectively. Being male and of Maori descent predicted lower cognitive scores (MDI) and being male predicted lower fine motor scores (PDMS-2)
Prenatal exposure to MA was associated with delayed gross motor development over the first 3 years, but not cognitive development. However, being male and of Maori descent were both associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Males in general did more poorly on tasks related to fine motor development.
Available from: umi.com
- "Infants with clefting were found to be exposed to AMP during this time period (Thomas, 1995). In addition, METH increases the risk of premature delivery, low body fat, reduced head circumference and intrauterine growth restriction (Eriksson et al., 1978; Little et al., 1988); however, these effects are most likely due to the vasoconstrictive and/or anorexic effects of METH restricting nutrients to the developing fetus. "
Available from: nih.gov
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