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Field work and data from herbaria collections (2686 records) representing 283 taxa (265 species and 18 infraspecific taxa) of Bromeliaceae occurring at Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed in order to obtain distribution and diversity information, and to determine IUCN (The World Conservation Union) conservation status for each taxon. A map containing 1°×1° grid cells was used to identify priority areas for new research collections, areas of high species diversity, and Bromeliaceae conservation status. A clear decrease in Bromeliaceae diversity is observed between the eastern and the western portions of Minas Gerais, and low floristic similarities were found between neighboring grid cells. The rocky mountains of Cadeia do Espinhaço are considered the most important area for Bromeliaceae endemics. From the 283 taxa of Bromeliaceae that occur at Minas Gerais, 118 (42%) are considered threatened, and 124 taxa (44% of the total) do not occur inside any protected area. The region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in the southern portion of the Cadeia do Espinhaço is the most threatened, and urgent strategies for conservation of this rich Bromeliaceae flora are needed. Northeastern Minas Gerais, particularly the rocky outcrops or inselbergs located in the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri rivers drainage basins need additional collection efforts and conservation actions focused on these saxicolous taxa.
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Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
DOI 10.1007/s10531-007-9157-7
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Bromeliaceae diversity and conservation in Minas
Gerais state, Brazil
Leonardo M. Versieux · Tânia Wendt
Received: 29 May 2006 / Accepted: 30 January 2007 / Published online: 7 March 2007
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007
Abstract Field work and data from herbaria collections (2686 records) representing
283 taxa (265 species and 18 infraspeciWc taxa) of Bromeliaceae occurring at Minas
Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed in order to obtain distribution and
diversity information, and to determine IUCN (The World Conservation Union)
conservation status for each taxon. A map containing 1° £1° grid cells was used to
identify priority areas for new research collections, areas of high species diversity,
and Bromeliaceae conservation status. A clear decrease in Bromeliaceae diversity is
observed between the eastern and the western portions of Minas Gerais, and low
Xoristic similarities were found between neighboring grid cells. The rocky mountains
of Cadeia do Espinhaço are considered the most important area for Bromeliaceae
endemics. From the 283 taxa of Bromeliaceae that occur at Minas Gerais, 118 (42%)
are considered threatened, and 124 taxa (44% of the total) do not occur inside any
protected area. The region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in the southern portion
of the Cadeia do Espinhaço is the most threatened, and urgent strategies for
conservation of this rich Bromeliaceae Xora are needed. Northeastern Minas Gerais,
particularly the rocky outcrops or inselbergs located in the Jequitinhonha and
Mucuri rivers drainage basins need additional collection eVorts and conservation
actions focused on these saxicolous taxa.
Keywords Brazil · Bromeliaceae · Conservation · Cadeia do Espinhaço ·
Endemism · Epiphytes · Minas Gerais · Serra da Mantiqueira · Species richness
L. M. Versieux (&) · T. Wendt
Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, IB,
Sala A1-92, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590, Brazil
T. Wendt
2990 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
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The monocot family Bromeliaceae Juss. is among the most characteristic of the Neo-
tropical region. It is wholly American except for a single species of west tropical
Africa, and contains about 56 genera and 3000 species of generally herbaceous and
rhizomatozous plants, with lanceolate leaves that are often spirally arranged with
tightly overlapping basal sheathes that form free-water tanks, or phytotelma, and
both blades and sheathes often bear scale-like water-absorbing trichomes (Dahlgren
et al. 1985; Luther 2004). The distinct adaptations for a wide variety of terrestrial
and epiphytic life forms have enabled Bromeliaceae to colonize and diversify within
the Neotropics, and the family constitutes a noteworthy case of adaptive radiation
(Benzing 2000; Givnish et al. 2004). Being widely distributed and frequent in
Neotropical habitats, bromeliads act as an important ecological element in many
communities, contributing to structural complexity of the environment, which is
directly reXected on richness and diversity of associate fauna and Xora (Benzing 2000).
Bromeliaceae is also world renowned for its horticultural value. Over the last two
decades, the family has become more popular in Brazil, as home and garden orna-
mental plants, and this has promoted increased collecting pressures on natural popu-
lations. Although it is broadly accepted that Brazil is the richest country for
Bromeliaceae species, a precise and updated inventory for use in conservation
eVorts and to drive environmental agency decisions and actions, is lacking. The pres-
ent work is the Wrst to employ grid cell analysis with respect to diversity and conser-
vation data on Minas Gerais (MG) Bromeliaceae species. One degree grid cells have
been employed in research addressing phytogeography, species richness, and ende-
mism analyses for conservationist purposes (e.g. Kress et al. 1998; Serrato et al.
2004). Benzing (2000) notes that studies of Bromeliaceae phytogeography are rare,
usually restricted to areas continental in scale (e.g. Smith 1934), and that important
information on Bromeliaceae evolution would arise from analyses combining taxo-
nomic, Xoristic and life-form data.
Due to the great ecological importance and horticultural interest in the family,
versus the current, alarming status of human interference in natural bromeliad habi-
tats in MG, we present this work, which aims (1) to determine current knowledge on
Bromeliaceae distribution and their habitats within MG; (2) analyze the diversity
and collection eVorts for the family within 1° £1 ° grid cells; (3) establish the conser-
vation status of each taxon, and list those that are not protected; (4) indicate areas
where more scientiWc collections, or special conservation are needed.
Study sites
The state of MG is located in the southeastern region of Brazil (Fig. 1) contains
586,528 km2 of area, 853 municipalities, and a rich Bromeliaceae Xora, characterized
by high numbers of genera and species, and elevated levels of endemism (Versieux
and Wendt 2006). Unfortunately, the history of MG is rich with massive deforesta-
tion due to expansions of agricultural, cattle rising and urban areas, and also by min-
ing activities. Minas Gerais is characterized by a hilly relief with elevation ranging
from 79 to 2,890 m (Drummond et al. 2005). The state has a complex vegetation that
ranges from xerophytic dry forest to tropical evergreen forests, that can generally be
divided into three diVerent biomes: Atlantic Forest in the eastern and southern
Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009 2991
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portions of the state; cerrado (savanna) in the central-western and northwestern
areas; and caatinga (low drought-decidous forest) in the extreme north of MG
(Drummond et al. 2005).
The highlands region formed by the Cadeia do Espinhaço and the Serra da
Mantiqueira have great importance as habitat for endemic Xora and fauna (Fig. 1).
The Cadeia do Espinhaço extends for ca. 1,100 km from MG (Ouro Preto munici-
pality) to Chapada Diamantina in Bahia state, its northernmost limit (Harley 1995).
A particular vegetation type known as campo rupestre (rocky Weld) is characteristic
of the more elevated areas along the Cadeia do Espinhaço. This grassland vegeta-
tion usually appears above 800 m where soils are shallow, and sandstones and
quartzite outcrops are very frequent, providing diVerent habitats for saxicolous
plants (Giulietti et al. 1987; Harley 1995). Robust vegetation with twisted low trees
appears wherever the soil is deeper and gallery forest and forest patches known as
capões occur along watercourses, ravines and hillsides, or even on hill tops (Pirani
et al. 1994). The extreme southern part of Cadeia do Espinhaço is called ‘Quadrilá-
tero Ferrífero’ and diVers from most of the remaining mountain range, due to
exposed iron oxide deposits which are known as ‘canga’ and provide habitat for
many saxicolous species (Rizzini 1997). Lying close to boundaries of Rio de Janeiro
and São Paulo states is another important mountain range, Serra da Mantiqueira. In
this range the forest resembles the most exuberant and rich vegetation that is found
along the southeastern Brazilian coast, called Atlantic Forest sensu stricto. As the
altitude increases, small areas of Araucaria forest, also called cloud forest, appear
and high humidity within the forest supports abundant epiphytic vegetation. Above
Fig. 1 Map of Minas Gerais showing the main mountain ranges and the biomes
2992 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
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1,200 m in Serra da Mantiqueira, the forest gives way to campo de altitude, or high
altitude grassland. This open habitat provides only a thin soil layer and vegetation is
scattered in small islands and adapted to high levels of humidity, winds, solar
exposure, and low winter temperatures (< 12°C) (Martinelli 1989; SaVord 1999).
Data were obtained from Weld work carried out from 2002–2005 and from collec-
tions located at 14 herbaria that were examined between years 2002–2004 (BHCB,
according to Holmgren et al. (1990) except BHZB = Fundação Zoobotânica de Belo
Horizonte). All herbarium specimens from MG were photographed and databased
using Brahms software (Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System,
version 5.55, Oxford University). The recent checklist of Minas Gerais Bromelia-
ceae (Versieux and Wendt 2006) was used as the main taxonomic framework. Data
on the type of vegetation in which Bromeliaceae taxa occurred were mostly taken
from specimen labels, but for some cases a vegetation map was consulted (Drum-
mond et al., 2005). Municipalities were grouped inside 74 grid cells of 1 per 1° and
those that were not totally conWned within a single grid cell were assigned as belong-
ing to the cell that hosts their administration center. The presence or absence of each
taxon of Bromeliaceae in each cell was recorded. The Jaccard’s measure of similarity
and the UPGMA clustering method were employed in order to identify Xoristic sim-
ilarities among grid cells, using BiodiversityPro software (ver. 2/1997). The IUCN
(2001) methodology was used to establish conservation status of each taxon, except
for the genus Encholirium that was previously deWned by Forzza et al. (2003). Bro-
meliaceae taxa occurrence within parks or natural reserves were veriWed with the list
of protected areas of MG (Camargos 2001).
Results and discussion
Phytogeographical analysis
Species richness and endemism
Bromeliaceae is represented within MG by 27 genera, 265 species, and 18 infraspe-
ciWc taxa (Fig. 2). The areas with highest species richness are concentrated along the
southern Cadeia do Espinhaço and in southeastern MG, and generally correspond
to well-known and historical collection localities (e.g. Diamantina, Serra da Piedade,
Ouro Preto, Serra de Ibitipoca). Some grid cells with numerous bromeliad taxa are
also important because they are among the Xoristically richest areas for other plant
groups. For example, cell F8 is the richest cell for Bromeliaceae and corresponds to a
very rich area for Xyridaceae and Mimosa (Wanderley 1992; Simon and Proença
2000). High generic-level diversity is related to the geographic position occupied by
MG, where many diVerent climatic types exist, allowing the development of distinct
vegetation forms and, consequently, distinct taxa of Bromeliaceae. Bromeliaceae
species diversity within MG is high, corresponding to almost 9% of the total number
of species for the entire family. Once again, this is related to unique sets of habitat
Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009 2993
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attributes, local climates, and to the biogeographical aYnities among eastern
Brazilian areas, where Bromeliaceae has profoundly diversiWed (Versieux and
Wendt 2006). One genus (Andrea) and 98 species (37% of total) are endemic to MG.
Sixty two percent of all the endemic taxa are restricted to the Espinhaço, while 12%
are only known to occur in the Mantiqueira. Only one percent of Bromeliaceae
endemic species have general, broad distributions within MG.
The importance of the campo rupestre habitat of the Cadeia do Espinhaço for
Xora diversity and endemism has been observed by many authors while working
with diVerent plant families and is conWrmed here for MG Bromeliaceae (Fig. 2). As
observed by Pirani et al. (1994), many species from the Cadeia do Espinhaço rocky
Welds probably aroused in situ in response to speciWc environmental conditions due
to the isolation from nearby mountains. Morton (1972) explained the higher levels
of endemism in montane habitats of west African mountains by a rapid speciation
following extinctions of many grassland species resulting from repeated climatic
oscillations (i.e. either temperature and rain fall increase or decrease) that promoted
advances of the forest during climatic optima, when many of the savanna habitats
were reduced or eliminated. However, open habitat species rested conWned to suit-
able refuge such as cliVs and rock outcrops where hybridization provided a suYcient
genetic variation for the evolution of new species during the next expansion of grass-
lands (Morton 1972). Similar processes could have occurred in elevated areas of
MG, such as the Cadeia do Espinhaço and the Serra da Mantiqueira, allowing their
notable Xoristic diversity and endemism. Even endemic genera inhabit these moun-
tains, as the monotypic Andrea, from the Espinhaço. Considering only dispersal
capacity, higher endemism rates for the Bromeliaceae of the Espinhaço campo
Fig. 2 Species richness within 1° £1° grid cells for Bromeliaceae of Minas Gerais, Brazil
2994 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
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rupestre may be attributed to lower dispersal ability for many saxicolous taxa (e.g.
Dyckia, Encholirium) and perhaps to an eYcient isolation from nearby mountains
by lower elevated forested valleys, where similar rock outcrops, or other environ-
mental factors required for seed germination and seedling growth are unavailable.
Collection eVorts
The most collected grid cell are located along the Cadeia do Espinhaço, particularly
in its southernmost portion, i.e. grid cells E8, F8, and G8 (Fig. 3) and three are in the
southeastern portion of MG (G9, H7, H8). Almost 26% of the Bromeliaceae listed
for MG are represented in herbaria by a single specimen (Table 1). Spiny and succu-
lent leaves, the large dimensions of many of its species, and their occurrence in loca-
tions diYcult to access seem to be the cause of these low numbers. A clear decrease
in collection numbers is observed toward the central-western and northwestern
portions of the 45° meridian. The 45° of longitude roughly corresponds to the west-
ern border of the Espinhaço, limiting the campo rupestre and the Atlantic forest to
the east, and the savanna and part of the caatinga at the western and northern
portions of MG, respectively. Thus this mountain chain seems to act as barrier for
the inland distribution of many Bromeliaceae species of the Atlantic domain, inXu-
encing diversity and sampling. Sampling also decreases toward northeastern (e.g.
B10, B11, C10, C11, D9, D11, E9, E10, F10) and the extreme southern (e.g. H6, I5,
I6) portions. Seventeen grid cells did not presented any voucher of Bromeliaceae.
Those undercollected areas should be considered priorities in future collections and
Weld work research.
Fig. 3 Total number of Bromeliaceae taxa collections within 1° £1° grid cells, in Minas Gerais,
Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009 2995
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st o
aceae o
s state,
y tota
er o
occurrence within protected areas, and IUCN conservation status
Taxon No. of
records Occurrence
within parks IUCN Category
1. Acanthostachys strobilacea (Schult. &
Schult. f.) Klotzsch 44 y Least Concern (LC)
2. Aechmea alba Mez 3 n Vulnerable (VU)
3. A. alopecurus Mez 1 n Endangered (EN)
4. A. bambusoides L.B. Sm. & Reitz 6 n Vulnerable (VU)
5.1. A. bromeliifolia (Rudge) Baker var.
bromeliifolia 104 y Least Concern (LC)
5.2. A. bromeliifolia var. albobracteata
Philcox 1 y Least Concern (LC)
6. A. brueggeri Leme 5 n Critically Endangered (CR)
7. A. burle-marxii E. Pereira 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
8.1. A. distichantha Lem. var. distichanta 22 y Least Concern (LC)
8.2. A. distichantha var. glaziovii (Baker)
L.B. Sm. 3 n Least Concern (LC)
8.3. A. distichantha var. schlumbergeri
E. Morren ex Mez 7 y Least Concern (LC)
9. A. gamosepala Wittm. 1 n Not Evaluated (NE)
10. A. lamarchei Mez 40 y Least Concern (LC)
11. A. maculata L.B. Sm. 3 y Vulnerable (VU)
12.1. A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb. var. nudicaulis 59 y Least Concern (LC)
12.2. A. nudicaulis var. aureorosea
(Antoine) L.B. Sm. 13 y Least Concern (LC)
12.3. A. nudicaulis var. cuspidata Baker 9 y Least Concern (LC)
13. A. organensis Wawra 3 y Least Concern (LC)
14. A. phanerophlebia Baker 42 y Least Concern (LC)
15. A. pineliana (Brongn. ex Planch.) Baker 4 y Least Concern (LC)
16. A. purpureorosea (Hook. f.) Wawra 1 n Endangered (EN)
17. A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. 22 y Least Concern (LC)
18. A. vanhoutteana (Van Houtte) Mez 4 y Least Concern (LC)
19. A. weilbachii Didr. 1 y* Vulnerable (VU)
20. Alcantarea burle-marxii(Leme)
J.R. Grant 3 n Endangered (EN)
21. A. duarteana (L.B. Sm.) J.R. Grant 9 n Endangered (EN)
22. A. extensa (L.B. Sm.) J.R. Grant 8 y Least Concern (LC)
23. A. hatschbachii (L.B. Sm. & Read) Leme 2 n Critically Endangered (CR)
24. A. imperialis (Carrière) Harms 6 y Vulnerable (VU)
25. A. odorata (Leme) J.R. Grant 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
26. A. turgida Versieux & Wand. 2 y Not Evaluated (NE)
27. A. sp. 1. 2 n Not Evaluated (NE)
28. Ananas ananassoides (Baker) L.B. Sm. 46 y Least Concern (LC)
29. A. bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult. & Schult. f. 5 y Least Concern (LC)
30. A. comosus (L.) Merr. 1 y Least Concern (LC)
31. A. nanus (L.B. Sm.) L.B. Sm. 2 y Vulnerable (VU)
32. Andrea selloana Baker 11 y Endangered (EN)
33.1. Billbergia amoena (G. Lodd.)
Lindl. var. amoena 46 y Least Concern (LC)
33.2. B. amoena var. carnea E. Pereira 3 n Vulnerable (VU)
33.3. B. amoena var. minor
(Antoine & Beer) L.B. Sm. 4 y* Endangered (EN)
34. B. distachia (Vell.) Mez 26 y Least Concern (LC)
35. B. elegans Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. 54 y Least Concern (LC)
2996 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
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Taxon No. of
records Occurrence
within parks IUCN Category
36. B. euphemiae E. Morren 15 y Least Concern (LC)
37. B. horrida Regel 13 y Least Concern (LC)
38. B. iridifolia (Nees & Mart.) Lindl. 12 y Least Concern (LC)
39. B. leptopoda L.B. Sm. 5 y* Endangered (EN)
40. B. lymanii E. Pereira & Leme 7 y Least Concern (LC)
41. B. macrocalyx Hook. f. 1 n Not Evaluated (NE)
42. B. meyeri Mez 3 n Vulnerable (VU)
43. B. minarum L.B. Sm. 3 y Not Evaluated (NE)
44. B. nutans H. Wendl. ex Regel 3 y Least Concern (LC)
45. B. pohliana Mez 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
46. B. porteana Brongn. ex Beer 9 y Least Concern (LC)
47. B. reichardtii Wawra 4 n Endangered (EN)
48. B. sanderiana E. Morren 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
49. B. saundersii W. Bull 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
50. B. tweedieana Baker 3 n Vulnerable (VU)
51. B. vittata Brongn. 50 y Least Concern (LC)
52. B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl. 18 y Least Concern (LC)
53. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. 4 y Least Concern (LC)
54. B. balansae Mez 20 y Least Concern (LC)
55. B. glaziovii Mez 2 y Vulnerable (VU)
56. B. interior L.B. Sm. 4 n Least Concern (LC)
57. B. regnellii Mez 3 y Least Concern (LC)
58. B. serra Griseb. 5 n Vulnerable (VU)
59. B. villosa Mez 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
60. Canistrum auratum Leme 1 n Vulnerable (VU)
61. Cryptanthus. caracensis
Leme & E. Gross 9 y* Critically Endangered (CR)
62. C. glaziovii Mez 4 y* Critically Endangered (CR)
63. C. leopoldo-horstii Rauh 6 n Critically Endangered (CR)
64. C. minarum L.B. Sm. 2 n Critically Endangered (CR)
65. C. schwackeanus Mez 47 y Vulnerable (VU)
66. C. warasii E. Pereira 1 n Critically Endangered (CR)
67. Dyckia argentea Mez 2 n Vulnerable (VU)
68. D. brachyphylla L.B. Sm. 14 n Vulnerable (VU)
69. D. bracteata (Wittm.) Mez 21 y Vulnerable (VU)
70. D. brevifolia Baker 2 n Not Evaluated (NE)
71. D. cinerea Mez 12 y Vulnerable (VU)
72. D. consimilis Mez 8 n Endangered (EN)
73. D. densiXora Schult. & Schult. f. 4 y Vulnerable (VU)
74. D. dissitiXora Schult. & Schult. f. 5 n Least Concern (LC)
75. D. elata Mez 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
76. D. glandulosa L.B. Sm. & Reitz 1 y Data DeWcient (DD)
77. D. goehringii Rauh 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
78. D. granmogulensis Rauh 2 n Data DeWcient (DD)
79. D. lagoensis Mez 11 y Least Concern (LC)
80. D. leptostachya Baker 3 n Least Concern (LC)
81. D. linearifolia Baker 2 n Data DeWcient (DD)
82. D. macedoi L.B. Sm. 14 y Vulnerable (VU)
83. D. macropoda L.B. Sm. 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
84. D. marnier-lapostollei L.B. Sm. 2 n Critically Endangered (CR)
85. D. mello-barretoi L.B. Sm. 3 y Vulnerable (VU)
86. D. minarum Mez 27 y Least Concern (LC)
Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009 2997
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Taxon No. of
records Occurrence
within parks IUCN Category
87. D. monticola L.B. Sm. & Reitz 1 n Not Evaluated (NE)
88. D. orobanchoides Mez 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
89. D. pectinata L.B. Sm. & Reitz 2 n Critically Endangered (CR)
90. D. princeps Lem. 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
91. D. rariXora Schultes f. 9 y Vulnerable (VU)
92. D. remotiXora Otto & A. Dietr. 3 n Vulnerable (VU)
93. D. saxatilis Mez 52 y Least Concern (LC)
94. D. schwackeana Mez 3 n Endangered (EN)
95. D. simulans L.B. Sm. 4 y Endangered (EN)
96. D. sordida Baker 28 y Endangered (EN)
97. D. sp. 1. 17 n Not Evaluated (NE)
98. D. sp. 2. 2 y Not Evaluated (NE)
99. D. sp. 3. 2 y Not Evaluated (NE)
100. D. sp. 4. 1 n Not Evaluated (NE)
101. D. sp. 5. 29 n Not Evaluated (NE)
102. D. spinulosa L.B. Sm. & Reitz 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
103. D. tenebrosa Leme & H. Luther 2 n Data DeWcient (DD)
104. D. trichostachya Baker 5 y Endangered (EN)
105. D. tuberosa (Vell.) Beer 4 n Not Evaluated (NE)
106. D. ursina L.B. Sm. 13 y Critically Endangered (CR)
107. D. warmingii Mez 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
108. D. weddelliana Baker 2 n Data DeWcient (DD)
109. Edmundoa lindenii var. rosea
(E. Morren) Leme
2 n Vulnerable (VU)
110. Encholirium belemii L.B. Sm. &Read 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
111. E. biXorum (Mez) Forzza 4 n Endangered (EN)
112. E. bradeanum L.B. Sm. 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
113. E. gracile L.B. Sm. 1 n Critically Endangered (CR)
114. E. heloisae (L.B. Sm.) Forzza & Wand. 39 y Vulnerable (VU)
115. E. horridum L.B. Sm. 1 n Critically Endangered (CR)
116. E. irwinii L.B. Sm. 10 y Vulnerable (VU)
117. E. longiXorum Leme 2 n Critically Endangered (CR)
118. E. luxor L.B. Sm. & Read 8 n Critically Endangered (CR)
119. E. magalhaesii L.B. Sm. 25 y Vulnerable (VU)
120. E. pedicellatum (Mez) Rauh 4 n Critically Endangered (CR)
121. E. reXexum Forzza & Wand. 4 n Vulnerable (VU)
122. E. scrutor (L.B. Sm.) Rauh 7 n Endangered (EN)
123. E. subsecundum (Baker) Mez 69 y Vulnerable (VU)
124. E. vogelii Rauh 5 y Vulnerable (VU)
125. Fernseea itatiaiae (Wawra) Baker 4 y Critically Endangered (CR)
126. Hohenbergia augusta (Vell.) E. Morren 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
127. H. catingae Ule 2 n Vulnerable (VU)
128. H. pabstii L.B. Sm. & Read 1 n Vulnerable (VU)
129. H. ramageana Mez 2 n Vulnerable (VU)
130. Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez 16 y Least Concern (LC)
131. Neoregelia bahiana (Ule) L.B. Sm. 40 y Least Concern (LC)
132. N. brigadeirensis Paula & Leme 2 y* Vulnerable (VU)
133. N. brownii Leme 4 y Vulnerable (VU)
134. N. chlorosticta (Baker) L.B. Sm. 1 y Data DeWcient (DD)
135. N. cyanea (Beer) L.B. Sm. 2 n Data DeWcient (DD)
136. N. farinosa (Ule) L.B. Sm. 1 y Data DeWcient (DD)
137. N. ibitipocensis (Leme) Leme 3 y Vulnerable (VU)
138. N. leprosa L.B. Sm. 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
139. N. lymaniana R. Braga & Sucre 4 y Vulnerable (VU)
2998 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
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Table 1 cont
Taxon No. of
records Occurrence
within parks IUCN Category
140. N. oligantha L.B. Sm. 1 y* Data DeWcient (DD)
141. N. sarmentosa (Regel) L.B. Sm. 5 y Least Concern (LC)
142. N. simulans L.B. Sm. 1 y Vulnerable (VU)
143. Nidularium antoineanum Wawra 8 y Least Concern (LC)
144. N. azureum (L.B. Sm.) Leme 2 n Critically Endangered (CR)
145. N. bicolor (E. Pereira) Leme 9 y Vulnerable (VU)
146. N. ferdinando-coburgii Wawra 4 y Vulnerable (VU)
147. N. linehamii Leme 1 y Critically Endangered (CR)
148. N. longiXorum Ule 3 y Vulnerable (VU)
149. N. marigoi Leme 9 y Least Concern (LC)
150. N. purpureum Beer 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
151. N. meeanum Leme 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
152. N. rutilans E. Morren 2 y Endangered (EN)
153. Orthophytum benzingii
Leme & H. Luther
1 n Endangered (EN)
154. O. compactum L.B. Sm. 4 n Vulnerable (VU)
155.1. O. disjunctum L.B. Sm. var. disjunctum 3 n Not Evaluated (NE)
155.2. O. disjunctum var.
angustobracteatum Rauh 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
155.3. O. disjunctum var. variegatum Rauh 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
155.4. O. disjunctum var. viridiXorum Rauh 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
156. O. duartei L.B. Sm. 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
157. O. eddie-estevesii Leme 1 n Endangered (EN)
158. O. estevesii (Rauh) Leme 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
159. O. foliosum L.B. Sm. 1 n Vulnerable (VU)
160. O. glabrum (Mez) Mez 7 n Vulnerable (VU)
161. O. grossiorum Leme & Paula 1 n Vulnerable (VU)
162. O. gurkenii Hutchison 1 n Critically Endangered (CR)
163. O. horridum Leme 1 n Endangered (EN)
164. O. humile L.B. Sm. 3 y Vulnerable (VU)
165. O. itambense Versieux & Leme 1 y Critically Endangered (CR)
166. O. leprosum (Mez) Mez 10 n Vulnerable (VU)
167. O. lucidum Leme & H. Luther 2 n Endangered (EN)
168. O. magalhaesii L.B. Sm. 4 n Vulnerable (VU)
169. O. maracasense L.B. Sm. 3 n Vulnerable (VU)
170. O. mello-barretoi L.B. Sm. 32 y Vulnerable (VU)
171. O. supthutii E. Gross & Barthlott 3 n Critically Endangered (CR)
172. Pepinia bradei (Markgr.) G.S. Varad.
& Gilmartin 3 y Vulnerable (VU)
173. Pitcairnia carinataMez 9 y Least Concern (LC)
174. P. curvidens L.B. Sm. & Read 5 y Vulnerable (VU)
175. P. decidua L.B. Sm. 9 y Vulnerable (VU)
176.1. P. Xammea Lindl. var. Xammea 25 y Least Concern (LC)
176.2. P. Xammea var. Xoccosa L. B. Sm. 6 y Least Concern (LC)
176.3. P. Xammea var. glabrior L.B. Sm. 4 y Least Concern (LC)
176.4. P. Xammea var. macropoda L.B. Sm.
& Reitz 4 n Endangered (EN)
177. P. lanuginosa Ruiz & Pav. 13 y Least Concern (LC)
178.1. Portea petropolitana (Wawra)
Mez var.petropolitana 7 y Least Concern (LC)
178.2. P. petropolitana var. noettigii
(Wawra) L.B. Sm. 4 y Vulnerable (VU)
179. P. silveirae Mez 8 y Least Concern (LC)
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Table 1 cont
Taxon No. of
records Occurrence
within parks IUCN Category
180. Pseudananas sagenarius (Arruda)
Camargo 13 y Least Concern (LC)
181. Quesnelia arvensis (Vell.) Mez 1 y Data DeWcient (DD)
182. Q. augusto-coburgii Wawra 4 y Vulnerable (VU)
183. Q. indecora Mez 18 y Least Concern (LC)
184. Q. kautskyi C.M. Vieira 7 y Vulnerable (VU)
185. Q. liboniana (De Jonghe) Mez 3 y Least Concern (LC)
186. Q. quesneliana (Brongn.) L.B. Sm. 3 n Not Evaluated (NE)
187. Q. strobilispica Wawra 7 y Least Concern (LC)
188. Racinaea aerisincola (Mez) M.A.
Spencer & L.B. Sm. 6 y Least Concern (LC)
189. Tillandsia arhiza Mez 1 y Least Concern (LC)
190. T. chapeuensis Rauh 1 y Not Evaluated (NE)
191. T. copynii Gouda 2 n Data DeWcient (DD)
192. T. gardneri Lindl. 46 y Least Concern (LC)
193. T. geminiXora Brongn. 42 y Least Concern (LC)
194. T. globosa Wawra 6 n Least Concern (LC)
195. T. graomogolensis Silveira 7 y Least Concern (LC)
196. T. horstii Rauh 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
197. T. leonamiana E. Pereira 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
198. T. loliacea Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. 20 y Least Concern (LC)
199. T. mallemontii Glaziou ex Mez 1 n Least Concern (LC)
200. T. parvispica Baker 5 y Least Concern (LC)
201. T. pohliana Mez 19 y Least Concern (LC)
202. T. polystachia (L.) L. 12 n Least Concern (LC)
203. T. pruinosa Sw. 3 n Data DeWcient (DD)
204. T. recurvata (L.) L. 82 y Least Concern (LC)
205. T. sp. 1. 1 n Not Evaluated (NE)
206. T. aV. sprengeliana Klotzsch ex Mez 1 n Not Evaluated (NE)
207. T. streptocarpa Baker 45 y Least Concern (LC)
208. T. stricta Sol. 115 y Least Concern (LC)
209.1. T. tenuifolia L. var. tenuifolia 38 y Least Concern (LC)
209.2. T. tenuifolia var. surinamensis
(Mez) L.B. Sm.
7 y Least Concern (LC)
209.3. T. tenuifolia var. vaginata (Wawra)
L. B. Sm. 18 y Least Concern (LC)
210. T. tricholepis Baker 8 y Least Concern (LC)
211. T. usneoides (L.) L. 31 y Least Concern (LC)
212. Vriesea arachnoidea And. Costa 2 y Endangered (EN)
213. V. atropurpurea Silveira 4 y Critically Endangered (CR)
214. V. billbergioides E. Morren ex Mez 6 y Least Concern (LC)
215. V. bituminosa Wawra 8 y Least Concern (LC)
216. V. cacuminis L.B. Sm. 6 y* Vulnerable (VU)
217. V. carinata Wawra 3 y Least Concern (LC)
218. V. clausseniana (Baker) Mez 21 y Vulnerable (VU)
219. V. crassa Mez 14 y Vulnerable (VU)
220. V. densiXora Mez 3 y Endangered (EN)
221. V. diamantinensis Leme 6 n Vulnerable (VU)
222. V. ensiformis (Vell.) Beer 14 y Least Concern (LC)
223.1. V. friburgensis Mez var. friburgensis 22 y Least Concern (LC)
223.2. V. friburgensis var. tucumanensis
(Mez) L.B. Sm. 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
224. V. gigantea Gaudich. 1 y Vulnerable (VU)
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Floristic inventories concentrated in small areas have produced signiWcant contri-
butions to the knowledge of the Brazilian Xora (Prance 2001; Giulietti et al. 2005).
We observed that the existence of protected areas or reserves raise many grid cell
collection totals, and these numbers are higher if such areas have undergoing
detailed Xoristic work (e.g. Flora da Serra do Cipó, grid cell F8). Decreased
Table 1 cont
DiVerent genera are separated by bold face. y = occur in protected area(s), y* = restricted and only
known to occur in one protected area, n = do not occur in any protected area
Taxon No. of
records Occurrence
within parks IUCN Category
225. V. gradata (Baker) Mez 9 y Least Concern (LC)
226. V. guttata Linden & André 6 y Least Concern (LC)
227. V. heterostachys (Baker) L.B. Sm. 11 y Least Concern (LC)
228. V. aV. hieroglyphica (Carrière)
E. Morren 1 n Not Evaluated (NE)
229. V. hoehneana L.B. Sm. 2 y Data DeWcient (DD)
230. V. itatiaiae Wawra 1 n Endangered (EN)
231. V. jonghei (K. Koch) E. Morren 1 n Not Evaluated (NE)
232. V. longicaulis (Baker) Mez 12 y Least Concern (LC)
233. V. longistaminea Paula & Leme 2 n Vulnerable (VU)
234. V. lubbersii (Baker) E. Morren ex Mez 2 y Least Concern (LC)
235. V. minarum L.B. Smith 36 y Endangered (EN)
236. V. minor (L.B. Sm.) Leme 25 y Least Concern (LC)
237. V. modesta Mez 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
238. V. monacorum L.B. Sm. 4 y Endangered (EN)
239. V. morrenii Wawra 2 y Endangered (EN)
240. V. nanuzae Leme 1 n Endangered (EN)
241. V. neoglutinosa Mez 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
242. V. oligantha (Baker) Mez 55 y Least Concern (LC)
243.1. V. paraibica Wawra var. paraibica 3 n Data DeWcient (DD)
243.2. V. paraibica var. interrogatoria
(L.B. Sm.) And. Costa 3 n Vulnerable (VU)
244. V. pauperrima E. Pereira 3 y Least Concern (LC)
245. V. pardalina Mez 6 y Least Concern (LC)
246. V. penduliXora L.B. Sm. 1 y Vulnerable (VU)
247. V. procera (Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f.)
Wittm. 5 y Least Concern (LC)
248. V. racinae L.B. Sm. 1 y Data DeWcient (DD)
249. V. rafaelii Leme 2 n Critically Endangered (CR)
250. V. regnellii Mez 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
251. V. ruschii subsp. leonii Leme 6 y Least Concern (LC)
252. V. sazimae Leme 1 n Data DeWcient (DD)
253. V. saxicola L.B. Sm. 3 n Endangered (EN)
254. V. scalaris E. Morren 3 y Least Concern (LC)
255. V. sceptrum Mez 5 n Least Concern (LC)
256. V. schwackeana Mez 4 y Vulnerable (VU)
257. V. segadas-viannae L.B. Sm. 2 n Data DeWcient (DD)
258. V. simulans Leme 1 n Vulnerable (VU)
259. V. sp. 1. 3 y Not Evaluated (NE)
260. V. stricta L.B. Sm. 11 y Vulnerable (VU)
261. V. vagans (L.B. Sm.) L.B. Sm. 5 y Least Concern (LC)
262. Wittrockia cyathiformis (Vell.) Leme 4 n Least Concern (LC)
263. W. gigantea (Baker) Leme 10 y Least Concern (LC)
264. W. tenuisepala (Leme) Leme 2 n Data DeWcient (DD)
265. W. sp. 1. 1 y Not Evaluated (NE)
Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009 3001
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collections toward northeastern MG (e.g. cells E9, E10, B10, B11), may be related to
the lower number of protected areas, or to the highly fragmented original vegetation
(cf. IEF-MG 1994), rather than to unsuitable natural environmental conditions for
Bromeliaceae occurrence. Greater collecting eVorts within parks/reserves were also
observed by Calvente et al. 2005 while working with the Cactaceae of Rio de Janeiro.
Thus we conclude that Brazilian botanists are becoming more highly dependent on
oYcially protected areas due to the lack of original vegetation outside of these areas,
or due to poor access to private lands. Greater eVorts are needed to establish more
preserved areas, and to develop a more eYcient system of permitting to allow for
needed scientiWc collecting and study in these parks and reserves.
Uneven sampling can bias or inXuence Xoristic analyses, but the data presented
here and our personal observations indicate that within the savanna and caatinga the
Bromeliaceae tend to be rarer and have lower species diversity than in the Atlantic
forest. Rizzini (1997) observed that the epiphytic life form is uncommon for plants in
the savanna, and that is certainly reXected in Bromeliaceae diversity in western MG.
The greater richness of epiphytic Bromeliaceae in eastern MG Atlantic forest is con-
cordant with Gentry and Dodson (1987) observation that epiphytes are most diverse
in wet, middle elevation, rich-soil, tropical American forests. Reitz (1983) observed
in Santa Catarina state a drastic decrease in the total number of Bromeliaceae spe-
cies while going from east to west and attributed this pattern to the decreasing inland
temperature. Lower temperatures, particularly frost, were also recognized as a fac-
tor inXuencing Bromeliaceae species richness in Bolivia (Kessler 2002). In MG other
climatic factors, such as the distribution of rain fall, seems to be more important than
temperature in inXuencing Bromeliaceae taxa occurrence in the eastern and western
sides of the state, and also toward the north portion of the Espinhaço range. As
shown by Harley (1995) rainfall regime changes in the Espinhaço, becoming pro-
gressively sparser, the dry season is longer, and temperatures are generally greater
northward. Bromeliaceae diversity is known to peak in humid montane forests
(Ibisch 1996 apud Kessler 2002). In MG, reduced humidity could aVect Bromelia-
ceae distribution patterns since in the cerrado and caatinga few genera, usually ter-
restrial, are observed (e.g. Aechmea, Ananas, Bromelia, Dyckia, Neoglaziovia and
We identify as priorities for future scientiWc research the southern portion of the
state, as well as the Jequitinhonha, Mucuri, and Doce rivers drainage basin (e.g. B10,
B11, C11, D9, D11, E9, E10, F10) all being under collected areas that should poten-
tially present much higher Bromeliaceae diversity. The northwestern portion
(A5, B4, B5, B6, C4, C5, C6, C7, D4, D5, D6) and the Triângulo Mineiro region
(E1, E2, E3, F1, F2, F3) are also relevant for future Xoristic surveys with the family.
Bromeliaceae habitat and life form
Of the total number (283) of Bromeliaceae species known from MG, 97 (34%) are
exclusive of the Atlantic forest, 65 (23%) of the campo rupestre, and 32 (11%) can
be found in these both habitats. Thirteen taxa (4.6%) are exclusive of the cerrado,
and twelve (4.2%) inhabit both cerrado and campo rupestre (Fig. 4). Habitats
combinations involving the caatinga, Atlantic forest, cerrado, high altitude grass-
lands, and campo rupestre are less frequent and vary from one to Wve taxa (Fig. 4).
The more representative occurrence of Bromeliaceae in the Atlantic forest is con-
cordant with the extensive diversiWcation of the family in eastern Brazil, especially
3002 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
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for subfamily Bromelioideae (Smith 1934; Smith and Downs 1974). Many genera are
endemic of this biome (Benzing 2000) and will occur in eastern MG reXecting the
biogeographycal continuity. In fact, 19 of the 27 genera occurring in MG belong to
subfamily Bromelioideae. Although seemingly contradictory, the Atlantic forest
shares taxa with caatinga (e.g. Alcantarea, Orthophytum), but these are lithophytic
taxa, that even while growing inside the Atlantic forest domain are exposed to
totally diVerent edaphic and microclimatic conditions.
Traditionally, the campo rupestre vegetation has been closely associated with the
cerrado domain. However the data presented here shows that a greater number of
Bromeliaceae taxa are shared between Atlantic forest and campo rupestre than
between campo rupestre and cerrado (Fig. 4). It should be emphasized, however,
that an usual view of the campo rupestre vegetation of the Espinhaço includes, as
part of this habitat, the gallery forests and forest “islands” known as capões, which
occur scattered among the grassland, and this seems to be the key to the Xoristic con-
nection between the Bromeliaceae Xora of the Atlantic forest and campo rupestre of
the southern portion of the Espinhaço.
Most of the taxa (55%) in MG exhibit terrestrial and/or saxicolous life form. Next
are those that are either ephyphytic, saxicolous and/or terrestrial (22%), followed by
obligatory epiphytic (20%). The remaining 3% have unknown life forms. The pre-
dominant terrestrial/saxicolous life form reXects the existence of entire genera in
each of the three subfamilies that grow only in these circumstances (e.g. Dyckia,
Alcantarea, Orthophytum). It is notable that the open areas, characteristic of campo
rupestre and cerrado are probably more conducive for the establishment of
Fig. 4 Total number of Minas Gerais Bromeliaceae taxa in diVerent habitats
1200 20 40 60 80 100
Atlantic forest
campo rup estre
Atlantic forest, campo rup estre
Atlantic forest, campo rup estre, cerrado
campo rupestre, cerrado
Atlantic forest, caatinga
Atlantic forest, high altitude grassl ands
caatinga, cerrado
high altitude grasslands, campo rupestre
Atlantic forest, caatinga, campo rupes tre, cerrado
Atlantic forest, cerrado
caatinga, campo rup estre, cerrado
high altitude grasslands
No. of Taxa
Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009 3003
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terrestrial/saxicolous bromeliad species due to the high degree of outcropping.
However, even within the Atlantic forest domain there are genera (i.e. Cryptanthus,
Orthophytum) totally restricted to rock outcrops or to the understory soils.
Grid cells clustering
To reduce uneven sampling, we used only those grid cells that presented at least 10
Bromeliaceae vouchers. Figure 5 presents a dendrogram based on 254 Bromeliaceae
taxa, distributed among 28 of the 74 grid cells. The dendrogram allowed us to iden-
tify two sets of areas, subdivided into seven smaller subsets. The Wrst set is the larg-
est, and is subdivided into Wve subsets, characterizing an area of similar climatic and
ecological features mainly composed by grid cells located along Atlantic forest,
campo rupestre, and cerrado. The second subset includes areas of the northern por-
tion of MG and includes subsets number six and seven, mainly covered by caatinga,
campo rupestre and cerrado. We observed that the Bromeliaceae Xora of the Cadeia
do Espinhaço (partially represented within subset 3) is more related to the Xora of
southeastern MG (subset 2), which is covered by Atlantic forest. The southernmost
area of the Espinhaço also corresponds to the inland western distribution limit for
many characteristically Atlantic forest taxa (e.g. Aechmea lamarchei, Quesnelia
strobilispica, Vriesea pardalina), that usually use the gallery forests as corridors for
dispersion, enabling them to reach isolated forested areas inside the campo rupestre.
On the other hand, the northernmost portion of the Espinhaço (subsets 5, 6, 7) is
more closely related to cerrado or caatinga areas. Climatic factor seems to be the
key to understand those connections, and increased sampling would likely reveal
important, new information regarding this. Cell C10 appears isolated from subsets
number 6 and 7. Indeed C10 presents a strong vegetation transition, hosting a pecu-
liar mix of taxa of Atlantic forest, caatinga, and cerrado biomes. Our results show a
low similarity among all the grid cells, which varied from 2 to 40%. Probably the
high number of endemic species and those with very narrow ranges contribute to
these low values. Simon and Proença (2000) obtained similar results while studying
the genus Mimosa (Leguminosae). They observed that grid cells with higher number
of collections were frequently close to each other, as neighbors, and occurred in
mountainous areas, where endemic and narrowly distributed species were frequent,
generating a low similarity among areas, regardless of their geographical proximity.
This pattern repeats here for the Bromeliaceae. As an example, a similarity of only
31% was found between cells F8 and E8, in Cadeia do Espinhaço.
Conservation of Minas Gerais Bromeliaceae taxa
Of the 283 taxa of Bromeliaceae that occur in MG, 118 are considered threatened
(critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable). One hundred taxa have a conser-
vation status of least concern, 44 lack suYcient data, and 21 were not evaluated due
to their doubtful taxonomic status (Table 2). Taxa that were only recently recorded
for MG, with probably partially known geographic distribution or represented by
few specimens from relatively under collected areas, are among those 44 taxa with
deWcient data (Table 2).
Half of the threatened taxa (59) belong to the subfamily Bromelioideae (12 criti-
cally endangered, 11 endangered, 36 vulnerable). Bromelioideae was followed by
3004 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
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Pitcairnioideae subfamily, with 34 taxa threatened, and by Tillandsioideae with 25
threatened taxa (Table 2). In Bromelioideae, the genusOrthophytum has nine
vulnerable species, most of them endemic of inselbergs in northeastern MG.
Fig. 5 Floristic similarities (Jaccard) among 28 grid cells based on Bromeliaceae taxa
Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009 3005
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A similar situation is observed for many Aechmea, Hohenbergia, and Neoregelia
species characteristic of the Atlantic forest, with taxa occurring within few forest frag-
ments or, in some cases, restricted to only one protected area. The situation for Cryp-
tanthus species is the most critical with Wve of its six species critically endangered,
mainly because they form very small populations with reduced ranges in rocky Weld.
For example, Cryptanthus warasii is only known from the type collection, whereas
C. leopoldo-horstii, only from two populations, both at road side localities.
The subfamily Pitcairnioideae has eight taxa critically endangered, eight endan-
gered, and 18 vulnerable (Table 2). Many Pitcairnioideae species presents small
appendaged seeds, unable to disperse long distances, thus favoring narrowly
endemic species (Holst 1994). The genus Dyckia deserves special attention because
of the elevate number of species, many of them poorly known, and usually with
overlapping diagnostic features, and frequently represented in herbaria by only a
single leaf and part of the inXorescence. In addition, species from the Quadrilátero
Ferrífero (e.g. Dyckia densiXora, D. elata, D. schwackeana, D. simulans) have very
restricted distributions that are currently exposed to habitat destruction by gold and
iron ore mining.
The subfamily Tillandsioideae contains three critically endangered, 10 endan-
gered, 12 vulnerable taxa. This subfamily holds the fewest critically endangered spe-
cies, and the highest percentage of least concern taxa (Table 2). Plumose appendaged
seeds allow a broader dispersion for many species of Vriesea. However, some species
like Alcantarea hatschbachii and Vriesea segadas-viannae, both endemic to the Espi-
nhaço and only known from two collections, exemplify that even inside well collected
areas there are overlooked species that deserve attention regarding conservation.
Special attention should be given to those species that form large/colorful rosettes,
such as Vriesea atropurpurea, V. bituminosa, V. crassa, V. minor and Alcantarea spp.,
because these are the ones preferred by landscape designers for use in private gar-
dens and are frequently extracted from the wild for this type of commercial use. Dry
inXorescences and fruits of Vriesea diamantinensis, V. nanuzae and V. simulans are
also locally sold in dry Xowers bouquets, compromising seed production, and thus
dispersion. Study is needed to evaluate the eVects of this kind of extractive activity on
population structure. For Tillandsia species the conservation statuses are less critical,
because many of its species have a broad distribution within the state and, in many
cases, are indigenous to other Neotropical countries.
The published red list for the Xora of MG (Mendonça and Lins 2000) lists 27
threatened Bromeliaceae species (19 endangered and 8 vulnerable). The numbers
reported in this study are greater due to the current, better knowledge about Brome-
liaceae distribution. However, as more data are generated, especially for poorly
Table 2 IUCN categor
es tota
s for M
nas Gera
s Brome
aceae taxa
n eac
Subfamily Threatened Least
Concern Data
DeWcient Not
Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
Bromelioideae 12 11 36 51 16 5
Pitcairnioideae 8 8 18 10 14 8
Tillandsioideae 3 10 12 39 14 8
3006 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
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known taxa, and habitat disturbance broadens, it is expected that the frequency-
level in status categories presented here will change. According to Martinelli (2000),
74% of Bromeliaceae species within the Brazilian Atlantic forest are endemic. This
vegetation is considered the diversity center of subfamily Bromelioideae (Smith and
Downs 1974; Benzing 2000) and also for many other plant groups (Mori et al. 1981).
To ensure the preservation of this biodiversity, creation of more protected areas
within the Atlantic forest should be encouraged, as this biome has been reduced to 4
% of its original coverage area within MG (Costa et al. 1998). Similar actions should
apply to the cerrado, also considered to be one of the richest Xoristic regions in the
world, and treated as the second Brazilian biodiversity hotspot with high levels of
endemism (Mittermeier et al. 2000). Currently, the cerrado is reduced to 25% of its
original area in MG (Mendonça and Lins 2000) and is suVering from increasing
human pressure, mainly from the expansion of soy bean plantations. This destruc-
tion of cerrado vegetation will likely include loss of the few recorded populations of
Billbergia meyeri and Bromelia glaziovii.
The campo rupestre, which has long provided natural grazing areas for livestock,
has special relevancy for endemic lithophytic taxa, such as the genera Cryptanthus,
Dyckia, Encholirium, and Orthophytum (Versieux and Wendt 2006). The long-held
belief that the Wre does not compromise grassland vegetation because many of its
species are adapted to this disturbance, does not seem to be true for many rocky
Weld bromeliads. During our Weld work we have returned to several places where
Wres were so intense that entire populations disappeared within a few years, regard-
less of their saxicolous life form.
Rapini et al. (2002) observed that many taxa endemic to the Espinhaço are rare
in herbaria collections due to limited blooming periods for many species, and
uneven collecting eVorts. These authors considered that few taxa would be severely
threatened, but many would be considered vulnerable, due to the destruction of
their limited habitat. Our results seem to be concordant with those of Rapini et al.
(2002), since most Bromeliaceae considered threatened here are grouped in the
vulnerable category (Table 2). Under collecting can bias results on species distribu-
tions. However, we consider ongoing Wre disturbance associated with urban devel-
opment, road construction, and mining activities to be major hazards for small
populations, and also an impediment in gaining improved knowledge of Bromelia-
ceae distributions in the Espinhaço. In regards to the Espinhaço, special attention
should be directed to taxa endemic of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero because of the
accelerated loss of habitats by urban growth and mining. Many mining companies
create private reserves as a compensatory measure for the destructive mining activ-
ities. This practice, while commendable, should be carefully managed and moni-
tored by environmental agencies so that these reserve plots are selected to better
reXect the size and vegetation type that is being consumed by mine activity. For
example, selecting an area of semi-deciduous forest for protection in compensation
for canga destruction has no equivalent value because their biotic compositions are
distinct. A conservation procedure that could be employed sometimes is to remove
individuals of Bromeliaceae and transplant them from the mining area to a similar
and protected place in the nearby or to botanic gardens. As shown by Cavallari
et al. (2006), great part of the genetic diVerence of rare rupiculous species of
Encholirium is found among individuals. Thus, every eVort to preserve individuals
and their populations are signiWcant to conserve the whole genetic variation for
some species.
Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009 3007
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Forty four percent (124 spp.) of Bromeliaceae taxa of MG do not occur inside any
protected area (Table 1). Among these, 56 that are threatened (16 critically endan-
gered, 17 endangered, 23 vulnerable), some are only known from roadside localities
(e.g. Aechmea bambusoides) and others from areas adjacent to hydroelectricpower
plant impoundments (e.g. Aechmea bruegerii, A. purpureorosea). Nine taxa are
restricted to a single protected area (Table 1), not occurring outside their limits and
requiring special measurements (i.e., environmental education, isolation of exposed
populations) for their eVective preservation. Camargos (2001) provided a map show-
ing the distribution of all protected areas within MG that clearly indicates that the
northeastern, northwestern and the extreme western (Triângulo Mineiro) regions
are less protected. The northeastern portion of MG, particularly the Jequitinhonha
river basin, is rich in Cactaceae (Taylor and Zappi 1991), new occurrences of Brome-
liaceae (Versieux and Wendt 2006), and other saxicolous taxa characteristic of insel-
berg formations (Porembski et al. 1998), yet it is still poorly protected despite the
advanced fragmentation process (Camargos 2001; IEF-MG 1994) and the threat to
saxicolous taxa by the granite mining companies (Forzza et al. 2003). Although set-
ting targets for protected areas is not a trivial task because biodiversity represents a
continuum of ecological organization that can not be encapsulated in a single
variable (Brooks et al. 2004), we considered that these areas in northeastern MG
(i.e. Jequitinhonha and Mucuri rivers basins) should be given priority-status for
Bromeliaceae conservation. For MG, Drummond et al. (2005) presented an atlas
that mapped areas for biodiversity preservation, taking many groups of organisms
(e.g. invertebrates, mammals) into account. Nevertheless, we reiterate here that
strategies for Bromeliaceae conservation in grid cell F8 are urgent, due to the high level
of endemism and species richness that are threatened by mining and deforestation.
This paper provides an updated analysis of Bromeliaceae distribution within MG
state, using maps containing 1° £ 1° grid cells. A clear decrease in Bromeliaceae
diversity is observed when going from the eastern to the western sides of the state.
Within MG, we observed that areas covered by the Atlantic forest present greater
bromeliad diversity than areas of caatinga, and cerrado vegetation. Also, the Atlantic
forest vegetation shares species with the campo rupestre of the southernmost por-
tion of the Cadeia do Espinhaço. The most diverse grid cells are located in elevated
areas in the southern Espinhaço, or in the Serra da Mantiqueira, in the southeastern
portion of the state. Low Xoristic similarities, favored by the very narrowly distrib-
uted and endemic taxa, were found between neighboring grid cells, even for areas
located along the same mountain chain. Strategic taxonomic surveys and inventories
are required for many grid cells that did not present any Bromeliaceae record, or
that showed low values, particularly those located along the northeastern and
extreme southern portions, where new records for the state are expected, since these
areas are within the Atlantic forest domain. The Cadeia do Espinhaço is considered
the most important area of endemism for Bromeliaceae, sheltering 62% of all the
endemic taxa. From the 283 taxa of Bromeliaceae that occur within MG, 118 were
considered threatened and 124 taxa do not occur inside any protected area. Many
taxa are still poorly known and therefore categorized as data deWcient or were not
evaluated. Changes are expected to occur in this classiWcation, as new population
3008 Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16:2989–3009
1 C
and distribution data become available because taxa considered to be narrowly
endemic can present broader ranges. Immediate actions to protect the Bromeliaceae
Xora of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in the southern portion of the Cadeia do
Espinhaço are needed, since the area suVers with accelerated urban growth and
mining activities.
Acknowledgements This paper represents a part of the M.Sc. dissertation of LMV undertaken at
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... upd.), and its monophyly is currently proposed based on eight subfamilies (Brocchinioideae, Lindmanioideae, Tillandsioideae, Hechtioideae, Navioideae, Pitcairnioideae, Puyoideae and Bromelioideae), each of which have a specific center of endemism (Givnish et al. 2011(Givnish et al. , 2014. In Brazil, it is common to see bromeliads in all phytophysiognomies, from cold highland rock fields to hot and dry lowland Caatinga areas (Fischer & Araujo 1995, Borgo & Silva 2003, Versieux & Wendt 2007, Cavalcante et al. 2017, 2020, Tomaz & Versieux, 2019, Leodegario et al. 2021, Souza et al. 2021a, 2021b. ...
... Among the Brazilian bromeliads, some genera [such as Hohenbergia Schultes & Schultes (1830: 1251, Quesnelia Gaudichaud (1843: 54), Sincorea Ule (1908: 191) and Encholirium Schultes & Schultes (1830: 1233] are important components of the regional flora (Borgo & Silva 2003, Siqueira-Filho & Leme 2006, Versieux & Wendt 2007, Cavalcante et al. 2017, and due to their water impound capacity, they create microhabitats for other plants and animals inside their rosette (Benzing 2000, Givnish et al. 2014, Silvestro et al. 2014. The flowers also offer a high amount of resources to local pollinators (Canela & Sazima 2003, Bianchi & Vesprini 2014, Cavalcante et al. 2019, Cardona et al. 2020, Leal et al. 2020, Neves et al. 2021. ...
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The authors describe Hohenbergia ymboreorum, a new green-flowered species of Bromeliaceae from Bahia state. The new species was found growing in the municipality of Vitoria da Conquista as a terrestrial in a highland transitional area between Atlantic Forest and Caatinga vegetation. This new species is morphologically related to H. minor and H. augusta, but can be easily distinguished by its sparsely white-lanate inflorescence indument, longer and narrower leaves, smaller flowers, with golden-brown floral bracts not hiding the sepals, and the erect petals. Additionally, the conservation status and phenology are discussed, and a table for morphological comparison with the similar taxa is provided.
... Platnick 1991). Among the Brazilian biodiversity hotspots, the Espinhaço Range of Minas Gerais (ERMG), situated between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Biomes, shows one of the richest floras in Brazil (Myers et al. 2000), with a high frequency of endemisms (Hensold 1988;Rapini et al. 2002;Versieux and Wendt 2007). Orchidaceae Juss. is one of the most diverse and important plant families in ERMG, with many endemic taxa having been described (Barros 1987; Barros and Pinheiro 2004;Azevedo and Van Den Berg 2007;Batista et al. 2016;Salazar et al. 2019), including members of the Vanilloideae Szlach. ...
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During surveys conducted on Neotropical Vanilla , a new endemic species was found in the Brazilian campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range. Here, this new remarkable Vanilla species, namely V. rupicola Pansarin & E.L.F. Menezes, is described and illustrated. A phylogeny for Vanilla is presented and the relationships between Neotropical species are discussed. The position of V. rupicola among Neotropical Vanilla is discussed within an evolutionary context. Vanilla rupicola is recognized by its rupicolous habit, its reptant stems, and its sessile and rounded leaves. This remarkable new taxon emerges in a clade that includes V. appendiculata Rolfe and V. hartii Rolfe. Vegetative and floral features support a close relationship between V. rupicola and sister taxa, mainly regarding the apical inflorescence ( V. appendiculata ), the type of appendages of the central crest of the labellum, and the labellar color pattern. Phylogenetic inference suggests that the circumscription of Neotropical Vanilla groups needs revision.
... There is an almost contiguous inselberg, albeit smaller, apparently in a similar conservation condition, which has not yet been visited. Although a very important element of the regional landscape, inselbergs harbor an almost unknown flora (Versieux and Wendt 2007;de Paula et al. 2017). Therefore, additional sampling efforts in this locality and ecologically similar areas in the region are still critical. ...
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In 2015, Brazil faced the worst environmental disaster in its history, when the collapse of an iron ore dam dumped millions of tons of tailings into the Doce River. In this paper, we describe two Hippeastrum species native to localities directly involved in the tragedy. The dam was located in the foothills of Serra do Caraça, a mountain range in the state of Minas Gerais, from where we describe the endemic H.carassense; H.velloziflorum was first found on an inselberg located on the banks of the Doce River, in the neighboring state of Espírito Santo. Comments on their distribution, ecology, and phenology are provided, as well as comparisons with the most similar taxa. The conservation status of the two new species is preliminarily assessed, and both are considered threatened with extinction. We also compared their leaf anatomy and micromorphology with related species of Amaryllidaceae. Based on nrDNA ITS, we infer the phylogenetic position of H.velloziflorum, a taxon with several unique morphological characters for Hippeastrum, as the first branch in subgenus Hippeastrum. The placement of H.velloziflorum in Hippeastrum is also supported by anatomical and cytological data. The somatic chromosome number was 2n = 22, and the karyotype formula was 2n = 8m + 12sm + 2st chromosome pairs. An identification key to the species of Hippeastrum occurring in the Doce and Jequitinhonha River basins is presented.
... The less impacted areas or those which have been regenerating for longer are found in mountainous regions, and were generally transformed in the last century in conservation units, seeking to save at least a part of the remaining biodiversity, but several other priority areas were indicated to direct conservation and/or research efforts (Drummond et al. 2005;Gonzaga & Menini Neto 2017). The cloud forests are in these mountainous areas, a relatively small part of the Atlantic Forest, but have high relevance for preserving the diversity of the country, since this region is also recognized for harboring great diversity and endemism of other taxonomic/functional groups (Drummond et al. 2005;Martinelli 2007;Versieux & Wendt 2007;LeSaout et al. 2013;Stehmann & Sobral 2009;Pelissari & Romaniuc Neto 2013;Gonzaga et al. 2020;Pereira et al. 2021). ...
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Vascular epiphytes represent a remarkable characteristic of the tropical cloud forests. The Serra da Mantiqueira (SM) represents one of the main highland areas of Brazil harboring vegetation remnants, and highlighting the cloud forests. We present a checklist of the vascular epiphytes found in the cloud forests of the SM, discussing the data about taxonomic representativity, distribution in the phytogeographic domains, habits, threatened status in Brazil and the states comprising the SM (Espírito Santo-ES, Minas Gerais-MG, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, São Paulo-SP). Field expeditions were performed between 2012 and 2019, as well as data gathering from scientific collections and published articles. We found 678 species, representing approximately 20% and 30% of the species found in Brazil and Atlantic forest, respectively. The richest families (Orchidaceae, 288 spp.; Bromeliaceae, 112 spp.; Polypodiaceae 65 spp.) corroborated the patterns found in different scales. Forty-one species are threatened nationally (and regionally, there are 149 in ES, 55 in MG, six in RJ, 31 in SP). These numbers of richness and threatened species highlight the relevance of directing efforts toward knowledge and conservation of both cloud forest remnants and SM as a whole, under pain of losing of a large part of the floristic diversity of Atlantic forest.
... Tillandsia was one of the richest genus across the three sites studied. It includes plants widely distributed in the Neotropics, where the occurrence of species is independent of altitude and vegetation type (Versieux and Wendt, 2007). The absorption of water and nutrients in species of this genus is optimized for scales and trichomes that cover the leaf blades (Vanhoutte et al., 2017). ...
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Epiphyte biodiversity is an indicator of environmental quality in water basins, since there is an inverse relationship between richness of these plants and vegetation degradation. An inventory of vascular epiphytes was conducted in three fragments of riparian zone of the Sinos River, RS, Brazil, in the municipalities of Caraá (CA, 560 m alt., Dense Humid Forest), Taquara (TA, 57 m alt., Semideciduous Seasonal Forest) and Campo Bom (CB, 29 m alt., Semideciduous Seasonal Forest); the richness and community structure was compared across sites, and the degree of conservation and environmental quality was assessed using botanical indicators. At each site, 40 phorophytes were selected, and then sorted within five height zones, at which the species and their coverage scores were recorded. The specific Importance Value (IV) was calculated based on the frequencies and coverage value. The study recorded 74 species in CA, 21 in TA and 20 in CB. The site with the greatest epiphyte richness also presented great floristic heterogeneity, and located in a rural area, at a higher region where the type of forest is wetter and there is greater rainfall. Vriesea incurvata presented the highest VI in CA, Pleopeltis pleopeltifolia in TA and Rhipsalis teres in CB. Thirteen of the species are endangered, and 12 of which were found in CA. The botanical parameters obtained support the idea that the riparian forest of CA presents a more complex community structure, with a higher degree of conservation and better environmental quality, when compared to the TA and CB sites.Epitifismo vascular na mata ciliar do Rio dos Sinos: análises fitossociológicas e conservacionistas R E S U M OA biodiversidade de epífitos é um indicador da qualidade ambiental das bacias hidrográficas onde a riqueza dessas plantas tem relação inversa à degradação da vegetação. Foi realizado um inventário dos epífitos vasculares em três fragmentos de mata ciliar do Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brasil, nos municípios de Caraá (CA, 560 m alt., Floresta Ombrófila Densa), Taquara (TA, 57 m alt., Floresta Estacional Semidecidual) e de Campo Bom (CB, 29 m alt., Floresta Estacional Semidecidual); comparada a riqueza e estrutura comunitária entre os sítios; e avaliado o grau de conservação e a qualidade ambiental utilizando indicadores botânicos. Em cada sítio foram selecionados 40 forófitos, divididos em cinco zonas de altura, nas quais foram registradas as espécies e suas notas de cobertura. O Valor de Importância específico (VI) foi calculado a partir da frequência e do valor de cobertura. Foram registradas 74 espécies em CA, 21 em TA e 20 em CB. O sítio de maior riqueza também apresentou uma grande heterogeneidade florística, está inserido em uma matriz rural e localiza-se em uma região mais elevada, com clima mais úmido em função da maior precipitação. Vriesea incurvata apresentou o maior VI em CA, Pleopeltis pleopeltifolia em TA e Rhipsalis teres em CB. Treze espécies estão ameaçadas de extinção, das quais 12 foram encontradas em CA. Os parâmetros botânicos obtidos suportam a ideia de que a mata ciliar de Caraá apresenta uma estrutura comunitária mais complexa, com grau superior de conservação e melhor qualidade ambiental, quando comparada aos outros fragmentos.Palavras-chave: epífito; Floresta Atlântica; estimador de riqueza; indicadores de qualidade ambiental.
... Acanthostachys strobilacea (Schult. & Schult.f.) Klotzsch is a CAM epiphytic bromeliad (Crayn et al. 2015) distributed in dry and humid forest areas of Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil (Crayn et al. 2004;Versieux and Wendt 2007;Derwidueé and Gonzales 2010), that demonstrates its adaptation to diverse conditions of water availability. Hence, juvenile plants of this species can be considered appropriate models for the evaluation of tolerance strategies to short-term water deficit in epiphytic bromeliads. ...
Global warming reduces water availability , exposing plants to more pronounced wet/dry cycles during their lifetime. Under these circumstances , epiphytic bromeliads can be more responsive due to their lack of contact with soil and high dependence on atmospheric water, especially in the case of juvenile individuals, which lose water more intensely than conspecific adults. In this study, we hypothesized that juvenile plants of Acanthostachys strobilacea (Schult. & Schult.f.) Klotzsch would exhibit rapid metabolic defense mechanisms to tolerate the leaf water loss caused by short-term water withholding (i.e. mild to moderate stress). We exposed plants to an 8-day water restriction and assessed their enzymatic antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate content. At 4 days of water restriction, A. strobilacea plants showed starch mobilization and increased the soluble carbohydrate content. After 8 days, carbohydrate reserves were depleted and the antioxidant enzyme activity was stimulated. Our results demonstrated that juvenile epiphytic bromeliads exhibit rapid metabolic adjustments to short-term water deficiency, which might be crucial for their survival in the face of the expected intensification of drought.
... Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril) (Bromeliaceae) (Versieux and Wendt, 2007) is a monocotyledonous, herbaceous and perennial angiosperm that can reach 1.5 m in height (Ferreira et al., 2011). It is called king of colonial fruits for having crown and great commercial acceptance. ...
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Dysmicoccus brevipes is an insect that can cause many losses in the pineapple crop. Thus, it is necessary to study alternative methods to chemical control. The objective of this study was evaluate the insecticidal activity of extracts of Azadiractha indica and Cyperus iria on D. brevipes in pineapple. Tests were carried out on: colonization of D. brevipes and growth of pineapple plants; mortality of this insect by the application of extracts directly and by residual contact, with five repetitions in completely randomized design. Each repetition was composed by one plant to test of colonization of D. brevipes and growth of pineapple plants, and a Petri dish with ten female nymphs of 2nd instar to evaluate the mortality of D. brevipes by application of extracts directly and by residual contact. The treatments tested were: 1) control 1 (water); 2) control 2 (insecticide Evidence( WG, imidacloprid 700 g kg-1); 3 and 4) aqueous extract of A. indica at 5% and 10%, respectively; 5 and 6) aqueous extract of C. iria at 5% and 10%, respectively. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Scott-Knott’s test at the 5% level of significance. It was found that extracts A. indica 10% and C. iria 5% and 10% sprayed once in pineapple plants may adversely affect D. brevipes population, not interfering with pineapple growth. Therefore, these extracts have a potential to be used in Integrated Management of Pests associated with other control methods.
... Bromeliaceae is one of the most morphologically, physiologically, and ecologically distinct clades of Neotropical angiosperms with 3403 described species [1][2][3] distributed among eight subfamilies [4]. Bromeliads are one of the most important, diverse, and conspicuous elements of Campo Rupestre (CR) vegetation in Brazil [5][6][7][8]. CR is a heterogeneous, rocky, mountaintop (>900 m asl), grassland vegetation mostly occurring in the Espinhaço Range, in southeastern Brazil [7,8]. This species-rich vegetation is controlled by topography and pedo-environmental as well as micro-climatic conditions [9,10]. ...
Yeasts can play important roles in promoting plant growth; however, little information is available in this regard for yeasts in water of bromeliad tanks. Here, we characterize the ability of 79 yeast isolates from tank bromeliad Vriesea minarum, an endangered species, to solubilize phosphate, secrete siderophores, and synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The results showed that 67.8% of all assayed yeast isolates mobilized inorganic phosphate; 40.0% secreted siderophores; and 89.9% synthetized IAA and IAA-like compounds. Among the species studied, Carlosrosaea vrieseae UFMG-CM-Y6724 is highlighted for producing IAA (76.1 μg mL-1) and siderophores, and solubilizing phosphate. In addition, evaluation of the effects of filtrate containing IAA-like compounds produced by the C. vrieseae on the development and photosynthetic performance of V. minarum seedlings found it to improve seedling growth equal to that of commercial IAA. These results demonstrate that C. vrieseae can produce compounds with great potential for future use as biofertilizer agents.
The phytotelmata is a water-filled tank on a terrestrial plant, and it plays an important role in bromeliad growth and ecosystem functioning. Even though previous studies have contributed to elucidate the composition of the prokaryotic component of this aquatic ecosystem, its mycobiota (fungal community) is still poorly known. In the present work, ITS2 amplicon deep sequencing was used to examine the fungal communities inhabiting the phytotelmata of two bromeliads species that coexist in a sun-exposed rupestrian field of Southeastern Brazil, namely Aechmea nudicaulis (AN) and Vriesea minarum (VM). Ascomycota was the most abundant phylum in both bromeliads (57.1 and 89.1% in AN and VM respectively, on average), while the others were present in low abundance (< 2%). Mortierellomycota and Glomeromycota were exclusively observed in AN. Beta-diversity analysis showed that samples from each bromeliad significantly clustered together. In conclusion, despite the considerable within-group variation, the results suggested that each bromeliad harbor a distinct fungi community, what could be associated with the physicochemical characteristics of the phytotelmata (mainly total nitrogen, total organic carbon, and total carbon) and plant morphological features.
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The importance of continuously conducting botanical inventories has been questioned in recent decades, generating a lack of investment and interest in this area. However, several applied studies are only possible after obtaining the primary data from such surveys. Despite having the greatest richness of plants known in Brazil, several areas with knowledge gaps remain in Minas Gerais (MG) state. This is the case for the Serra da Mantiqueira, an important area for biodiversity conservation in the country. In this scenario, the phytophysiognomy of Seasonal Semi-deciduous Forest (SSF) deserves attention, as it is broadly distributed and has great relevance in the state, although subsampled. Therefore, this study aimed to present records of species for the flora of MG and discuss the need for floristic surveys in Brazil. These species were recorded in three of 10 studied remnants along expeditions performed between the years of 2012 and 2019 as part of a wide study performed in SSF remnants in the Serra da Mantiqueira which have a deficit of floristic data. Three species are recorded for the first time in MG, one species was rediscovered after more than two centuries from the last collection (which represents its nomenclatural type), in addition to nine other species which must be considered rare in the state. This study contributed to filling gaps in knowledge on Brazilian flora and also demonstrated the relevance of continuing new collections, mainly in specific subsampled areas in the interior of the country such as in SSF remnants.
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RESUMO Este trabalho apresenta a listagem, distribuição geográfica e estado de conservação das espécies de Cactaceae no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizadas como referência as coleções dos principais herbários do estado e a literatura especializada. Os resultados apontam a ocorrência de 45 espécies subordinadas a 13 gêneros. Dez espécies foram listadas dentro de categorias de ameaça e sete são endêmicas para o estado. A maior riqueza para a família foi encontrada no município do Rio de Janeiro que, apesar da alta pressão antrópica, apresenta 30 espécies. Destaca-se, no levantamento, o gênero Rhipsalis, como o mais representativo, com 23 espécies.
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A Serra do Cipo esta situada na porcao sul da Cadeia do Espinhaco, e a area tratada neste trabalho situa-se nos limites do Municipio de Santana do Riacho, MG, entre os paralelos 19o12-19o20'S e longitude 43o30-43o40'W. Apresenta-se sob forma de um conjunto de elevacoes em torno de 1200 m. As estruturas rochosas dobradas sao de natureza quartzitica, entremeadas por alguns afloramentos de calcario. O clima da regiao e do tipo Cwb de Koppen com separacao nitida em estacao seca e chuvosa. O tipo de solo reflete a natureza do embasamento rochoso, sendo predominantemente raso e arenoso. A cobertura vegetal varia com a altitude e estagio de decomposicao ou deposicao do substrato, sendo encontradas matas ciliares ao longo das linhas de drenagem, capoes de mata, manchas de cerrado e, acima de 1000 m, predomina a vegetacao campestre (campos rupestres) e rupicola. Os estudos floristicos na area foram iniciados em 1972 e ate o presente foram encontradas 125 familias de Fanerogamas, das quais 100 de Dicotiledoneas, 24 de Monocotiledoneas, 1 de Gimnospermas, e ainda 10 de Pteridofitas e 11 de Briofitas, num total de cerca de 1600 especies listadas.
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(Checklist, geografic distribution and conservation of the Cactaceae species of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) This work presents the Cactaceae checklist with geographical distribution and conservation status for the Rio de Janeiro State. The collections of the main herbaria in the State and the related bibliographywere used assource of data. The resultsindicate the occurrence of 45 species distributed in 13 genera. Ten species are listed under threat categories and seven are State endemics. Despite the elevated urbanization pressure Rio de Janeiro was found as the most diverse municipality with 30 species. The genus Rhipsalis is notable in this checklist presenting 23 species. Key-words: Atlantic forest, checklist, conservation, Rio de Janeiro.
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During an initial visit to collect material for the projected "Cacti of Eastern Brazil", a remarkable great diversity of species of Cactaceae in the region of middle drainage of the Rio Jequitinhonha (mainly in the localities of Itinga, Itaobim and Pedra Azul) was noted. Twenty one species in the genera Pereskia, Opuntia, Tacinga, Pseudocanthocereus, Arrojadoa, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Coloecephalocereus, Melocactus, Pilosocereus e Selenicereus representing all three subfamilies of Cactaceae were recorted. The phytogeographic affinities of the Cactaceae from this region are discussed.
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Bromeliaceae diversity in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is discussed, and a checklist is provided of the 27 genera, 265 species, and 18 infraspecific taxa found there. The total number of bromeliad genera in Minas Gerais exceeds that of all other Brazilian states and even of all other South American countries. A total of 98 species (37%) are endemic to the state. The exceptional floristic richness observed is attributed to the environmental conditions found solely in Minas Gerais that allow the evolution of different genera and species. The checklist is based on herbarium specimens, the botanical literature, and field observations. Data are presented for type specimens, habitat, elevation range, habit, geographical distribution throughout Brazil and Minas Gerais, phenology, and synonymy and taxonomic commentaries when pertinent.