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Academic expectations as sources of stress in Asian students

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Abstract

Education is highly valued in Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) countries such as China, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and Korea but the expectations of parents, teachers and students themselves to excel academically can also be a source of intense stress for many students. The Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI), developed by Ang and Huan (Educ Psychol Meas 66: 522–539, 2006) to measure parent, teacher and self expectations as sources of academic stress in Asian adolescents, was administered to 176 Singaporean secondary and college students one month before their major examinations. Rasch analyses of the students’ responses to the AESI showed the nine items in the inventory formed a robust unidimensional scale of academic stress, with two separate unidimensional subscales of Expectations of Parents and Teachers and Expectations of Self complementing the factor analysis conducted by Ang and Huan (Educ Psychol Meas 66: 522–539, 2006). The item thresholds showed the AESI measured the student trait range adequately, and affirmed the inventory as a brief yet valid measure of academic stress for Asian students from a CHC background. The AESI is a valuable tool for teachers and researchers, as it provides an understanding of the role of parents, teachers and self expectations as sources of academic stress among students from a CHC background. KeywordsAESI–Expectations of parents and teachers–Expectations of self–Rasch analysis–Singapore

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... Children's academic achievement through hard work is thus considered a means of fulfilling filial duty and bringing honor to the family (Tan and Yates, 2011). Furthermore, an exam-centric culture is rooted in Chinese society, thus driving parents' high expectations for their children's educational accomplishments (Tan, 2019). ...
... Furthermore, an exam-centric culture is rooted in Chinese society, thus driving parents' high expectations for their children's educational accomplishments (Tan, 2019). Several studies have indicated that high familial educational expectations are the main source of academic stress among Chinese students (e.g., Sun et al., 2013;Tan and Yates, 2011), as well as documenting the negative associations between adolescents' academic stress and their mental health (Ahorsu et al., 2020;Pascoe et al., 2020;Ribeiro et al., 2017). ...
... It measures stress on a psychological level and occurs when external stress exceeds an individual's adaptive capacity (Cohen et al., 1995). In this study, we focused on the adolescents' perceived academic stress stemming from their parents' educational expectations (Tan and Yates, 2011). The physiological mechanisms regarding the association between perceived stress and disease, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, are strongly supported by experimental evidence (Schommer et al., 2003). ...
Article
Background : Previous research has indicated the association of perceived stress with mental health problems. In China, Confucian collectivism and an exam-centered culture encourage parents to have high educational expectations that impose great pressure on their children's learning. However, limited research has focused on adolescents’ perceptions of the negative consequences of academic stress stemming from their parents’ educational expectations. This study addressed this research gap by examining the direct effect of adolescents’ perceptions of academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the indirect effects of both parent-child communication and interaction. We further explored the pathway differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescents. Methods : By using a sample (n = 6,566) from the first two waves of the China Education Panel Survey, moderated mediation analysis was performed to simultaneously analyze the mediating roles of parent-children communication and parent-children interaction and the moderating role of adolescent overweight status. Results : adolescents’ perceived academic stress (W1) was positively associated with their depressive symptoms (W2). This association was partially mediated by both parent-child communication (W1) and parent-child interaction (W1). Moreover, adolescent overweight status significantly moderated the paths between the adolescents’ perceived academic stress and their depressive symptoms, between their perceived academic stress and parent-child interaction, and the indirect relationship via parent-child interaction. Limitations : Some measurement biases including self-reported, unverified, and single-item measures, alongside not considering all variations in controlled variables should be noted. Conclusion : The study's findings identify the significant roles of parent-child communication and parent-children interaction in contemporary China and indicate overweight adolescents’ susceptibility to stress.
... However, other studies conducted in Asian societies have suggested the opposite, i.e., a closer parent-child relationship is associated with a higher level of academic stress [18,41]. Cultural studies have suggested that Chinese families have high expectations of children's academic achievements [48,49]. Good rapport with their parents may induce children to adhere more to their parents' academic goals and demands, causing the children to have a greater sense of an obligation to fulfill their parents' high academic expectations, which in turn triggers more academic stress [18,50]. ...
... Parental achievement aspiration refers to the emphasis that parents place on the importance of achievement and accomplishment [19,42]. Such achievement aspirations have been found to be a common feature in East Asian societies [10,48], such as those in Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong. All these societies have been deeply influenced by Chinese culture, in which academic success is considered to be not only a means of personal achievement but also a way of fulfilling one's familial obligations [35,51,52]. ...
... This result suggests that a closer parental relationship could lead to an urge to meet parental academic expectations. As a result, the pressurized need to attain academic success becomes a cause of substantial academic stress [18,48]. It is noteworthy that the findings of the present study are contradictory to the results of studies conducted in Western societies, which have suggested that intimate parent-child relationships could protect children from stress [44,45]. ...
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Abstract: Most previous studies have attempted to explore how different personal, familial, or school factors are linked to academic stress in Western countries. However, relatively less research has incorporated these different factors into one model to examine the most crucial correlate(s) that predict academic stress, particularly in the East Asian context, where the level of academic stress among adolescents is high. This study examined how perfectionism, social-oriented achievement motivation, parental aspiration for achievement, parent–child relationship, emphasis on academics in school, and school climate work together to predict academic stress in Hong Kong. One thousand eight hundred and four students from eight secondary schools in Hong Kong participated in this study. The results indicate that perfectionism, social-oriented achievement motivation, parent–child relationships, and emphasis on academics in school have significant associations with academic stress, while perfectionism and social-oriented achievement motivation, the two factors from the personal domain, are the dominant drivers of academic stress. In addition, these findings applied to both genders. As the significant correlates come from the personal, familial, and school domains, this study recommends multilevel interventions for decreasing the level of academic stress. In addition, this study also suggests further research directions to examine the psychosocial mechanism between the correlates and academic stress.
... Previous studies had outlined the effects of problematic mobile phone use on school/academic performance (e.g., Felisoni & Godoi, 2018), but there had been a lack of studies which sought to explore the role of school-related stress in perpetuating problematic use among the youth population. Past research had shown that students in Asian countries, in particular Singapore, experienced extremely high levels of stress due to the academic demands of the school system (Tan & Yates, 2011). There was reason to believe that student-athletes, who had to juggle their academic and sporting commitments, could possibly face an even greater amount of stress than regular students, and would therefore rely on their mobile phones as an outlet to cope with stress. ...
... This was once again in line with previous research among college athletes, which showed that mobile phone use resulted in a lack of time to complete both academic and sporting tasks (DesClouds & Durand-Bush, 2020). As mentioned in the previous section, this was especially relevant for student-athletes (particularly in Asian countries; Tan & Yates, 2011) as they had to juggle both school and sporting commitments and were often hard pressed for time. Youth athletes who engaged in problematic mobile phone use would have even less time to devote to important tasks, which would diminish their abilities to perform both as a student and athlete. ...
... The current study only sampled Singaporean youth athletes, so the findings might not be generalisable to youth athletes from other countries. As previously mentioned, Singaporean youths operate in a very demanding education system where a lot of emphasis is placed on academic success (Tan & Yates, 2011). Therefore, the stress that Singaporean youth athletes face in terms of juggling both sporting and academic pursuits might be different from youth athletes in other countries. ...
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The study provided an exploratory investigation into problematic mobile phone use among youth athletes. The study aimed to identify the factors contributing to problematic use and effects of problematic use among youth athletes. 369 Singaporean youth athletes, aged between 12 and 19 years old, participated in the study. A structural topic modelling approach using the R package stm was used to analyse the data. The process generated a list of topics for each of the open-ended survey questions. Subsequent interpretation was done to label the topics and group them into higher thematic categories. The prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in the sampled population was 40.65%. The analysis produced 38 topics for factors and 36 topics for effects. For factors, the higher thematic categories were habitual/compulsive use, accessibility/utility, alleviation of boredom/moods, lack of control, coping with school/work, entertainment, and communication. For effects, the higher thematic categories were time wastage/insufficient time, distraction/loss of focus, sleep/tiredness, sport-related areas, and addiction. The study provided novel insight into issues surrounding problematic mobile phone use among youth athletes. Future research needs to be conducted to further investigate the topics and themes that emerged.
... Child and adolescent depression in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) is a serious public health concern, as up to 20% of children (3-10 years) and adolescents (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19) in LMICs are affected by mental illness [1]. Internationally, depression is a leading cause of childhood and adolescent social, health, and psychological problems, which includes increased rates of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts [2]. ...
... Furthermore, the majority of City A residents (55%) are rural and have considerably lower income levels than urban residents. The per capita disposable income of City A rural residents in 2019 (14,586 RMB; 2256 USD) was one of the lowest when compared to other prefecture-level cities in Province A and was less than half the disposable income of City A's urban residents (35,043 RMB; 5419 USD) [27]. In terms of demographics, City A is home to both Han and minority populations, and has a total population count of approximately 1.5 million [27]. ...
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The objectives of this paper were to examine the risk of depression and depressive symptoms among Han and minority children and adolescents in rural China, the links between academic performance and depressive symptoms, and the prevalence of these links among specific subgroups. A total of 8392 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students at 105 sample rural schools in eight low-income counties and districts in a prefectural-level city in Southwestern China were randomly selected using a three-step sampling strategy. A total of 51% of the sample were female (SD = 0.50), and the age range was 7 to 19 years (mean = 11.35 years; SD = 1.05). Using the Patient Health Questionnaire 8-item depression scale, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the sample was assessed, while data on students’ academic performance (standardized math test) and demographic characteristics were also collected. Our results show that the rates of major depression were 19% for Han students, 18% for Tibetan students, and 22% for Yi students; the rates of severe depression were 2% for Han and Tibetan students, and 3% for Yi students. Yi students were at significantly higher risks for major and severe depression than Han students. We conducted multivariate regression and heterogeneous analyses. Academic performance was negatively and significantly correlated to depressive symptoms. Across the whole sample, students with lower math scores, minority students, boys, younger students, and students with migrant parents were most vulnerable to depressive symptoms. The heterogeneous analysis suggests that among poor-performing students, subgroups at higher risk for depression include boys, non-boarding students, and students whose mothers had graduated from high school or above. These findings indicate a need to improve mental health outcomes of rural Han and minority primary school students, targeting academic performance for possible intervention.
... A more recent PISA assessment reveals that students in these Asian countries show high-level fear of failure in general, with Taiwan expressing the greatest fear of failure among all participating countries and economies (OECD, 2019). These negative attitudes toward math and the overly low learning motivation in Asian students can be attributed to the parenting style, highly demanding learning environment (Chang et al., 2019), and the examination system (Tan & Yates, 2011 ...
... Additionally, children learning in traditional settings are vulnerable to anxiety sources from the environmental factors, such as peer pressure and unfriendly behaviors of teachers (Suárez-Pellicioni et al., 2016). The pressure from peers, teachers, and parents appears to be even more severe in East Asian countries (Tan & Yates, 2011), possibly because students in these countries particularly worry about others' perceptions when they fail (OECD, 2019). Herein, the application of exposure therapy with a computerized training protocol assists student-centered learning of children and reduces math-related worries through daily exposure to math practices with minimal, if any, unfavorable outcomes. ...
Article
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Introduction Math anxiety severely impacts individuals’ learning and future success. However, limited is understood about the profile in East Asian cultures where students genuinely show high‐level math anxiety, despite that they outperform their Western counterparts. Here, we investigate the relation between math anxiety and math achievement in children as young as first and second graders in Taiwan. Further, we evaluate whether intensive exposure to digital game‐based learning in mathematics could ameliorate math anxiety. Methods The study first evaluated a group of 159 first and second graders’ math anxiety and its correlation with math performance. Subsequently, a quasi‐experimental design was adopted: 77 of the children continued and participated in multi‐component digital game training targeting enumeration, speeded calculation, and working memory. Post‐assessment was administered afterward for further evaluation of training‐associated effects. Results Results confirmed that math anxiety was negatively associated with school math achievement, which assessed numerical knowledge and arithmetic calculation. Furthermore, children's math anxiety was remarkably reduced via digital training in mathematics after 6‐week intensive remediation. Crucially, this math anxiety relief was more prominent in those with high‐level math anxiety. Although the children who underwent the training showed training‐induced math achievement and working memory enhancement, this cognitive improvement appeared to be independent of the math anxiety relief. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that students can show highly negative emotions and perceptions toward learning even in high‐achieving countries. Auspiciously, the feeling of distress toward learning has the feasibility to be relieved from short‐term intensive training. Our study suggests a new approach of early treatments to emotional disturbance that can lead to permanent consequences in individuals.
... The other ubiquitous sources of stress for adolescents are school relatedacademic achievement/success, relationships with teachers, school adjustment. Tan and Yates (2011) note that stress associated with academic problems is "… particularly evident in Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and Korea where the values of hard work and filial piety inculcated by Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) traditions and concomitant high expectations of parents, teachers and students themselves often place enormous stresses upon students" (p. 390). ...
... 390). Academic and school,related demands and expectations can be a significant source of stress in Chinese, Korean, Singaporean, Malaysian and Indian students (Al-Dubaai et al., 2012;Ashok et al., 2017;Kim & Lee, 2013;Kumar & Talwar, 2014;Liu & Lu, 2011;Tan & Yates, 2011;Yeo et al., 2007). ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine gender and ethnic differences in adolescent stress in a non-Western context; multi-ethnic Malaysia. A Malay language version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire was administered to 300 adolescents aged from 13 to 17 years (Mean = 14.4 years). There were no statistically significant differences between genders or the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Indian, and Malay) across the 10 subscales. There was a significant gender x ethnicity interaction for the school performance subscale with Indian boys reporting significantly higher stress. Gender and ethnic differences were evident at the item level with boys reporting higher stress than girls on 12% of the items. For 27 (47%) of the items on the scale the most frequent response was not at all stressful (or irrelevant to me). Discussion highlights the importance of further research on adolescent stress in the Asian context and acknowledges that Western cultural understandings of stress are not necessarily or inevitably the same as that found in Asian cultures.
... Selain itu, terdapat kondisi unik yang umumnya terjadi pada siswa-siswa Asia. Tingginya ekspektasi dari orangtua dan lingkungan akan hasil belajar siswa juga akan memberikan tekanan tambahan bagi siswa (Tan & Yates, 2011). ...
... Selain itu, hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa aspek sosial, terutama interaksi dengan teman merupakan permasalahan lainnya yang menjadi cukup mengganggu bagi siswa. Penelitianpenelitian sebelumnya juga menunjukkan bahwa hubungan dengan teman sebaya menjadi Psychopolytan : Jurnal Psikologi ISSN CETAK : 2614-5227 VOL. 5 No. 2, Februari 2022ISSN ONLINE : 2654 permasalahan yang sering kali mempengaruhi kesehatan mental siswa (Anniko et al., 2019;Tan & Yates, 2011). Dengan diberlakukannya kebijakan social distancing dan pembatasan aktivitas diluar rumah, membuat para siswa tidak bisa berinteraksi dengan teman-temannya seperti sebelumnya (Wahana Visi Indonesia, 2020). ...
Article
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Kesehatan mental pada remaja merupakan permasalahan penting yang perlu diperhatikan. Pandemi COVID-19 membuat permasalahan ini menjadi semakin perlu mendapatkan perhatian serius dari para pemangku kepentingan, terutama terkait dengan implementasi kebijakan Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh (PJJ). Hasil penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan adanya sejumlah keluhan dari siswa terkait pelaksanaan PJJ. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk memberikan gambaran deskriptif tingkat depresi dan kecemasan pada siswa SMP dan SMA yang sedang menjalani PJJ serta mendeskripsikan beberapa faktor-faktor yang dipersepsikan mengganggu bagi para siswa dan potensial untuk menjadi penyebab kondisi tersebut. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain non-eksperimental deskriptif kuantitatif dengan melibatkan 629 orang siswa SMP dan SMA di Indonesia yang menjalani PJJ. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan Patient Health Questionaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) dan survey mengenai beberapa faktor yang dirasa mengganggu bagi siswa. Kuisioner diisi secara daring dan statistik deskriptif digunakan untuk menganalisis data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sebanyak 46% siswa mengalami gejala kecemasan dan 58% mengalami gejala depresi. Adapun faktor–faktor yang perlu untuk diperhatikan dalam kondisi ini adalah terkait akademik dan interaksi sosial siswa terutama dengan teman. Penelitian lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk menjelaskan mengenai pengaruh yang diberikan oleh pandemi serta hubungan faktor akademik dan sosial terhadap kondisi kesehatan mental siswa.
... While schooling aims at preparing children to become physically, mentally, and professionally prepared for their adult life, it can pose a burden on their mental health [2][3][4]. The high expectations of parents and teachers [5] from 'students' school performance (examination grades), large amounts of homework, and malfunctioned student-teacher and peer relations are some examples of potential stressors [6]. For their simple coping mechanisms [7], long-term exposure to stress may result in mental health issues such as anxiety disorders and depression [8,3]. ...
... The reported stress levels among school-aged adolescents across countries in Asia have shown minimal variations [18], and females have shown higher stress levels than males [10]. The most commonly reported stressors include home life, family conditions, education system, academic competition, future uncertainty, interaction with teachers, school disciplines, parental involvement, financial problems, and peer pressure [14,18,5,6]. As these elements differ between settings, the sources of academic stress may also vary. ...
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Background Academic stress can cause mental and physical problems and affect adolescents’ healthy development. This study aimed to estimate academic stress and explore its sources at the individual- and school levels among school-going adolescents in the city of Qazvin, Iran. Results This cross-sectional study used a stratified cluster sampling to recruit 1724 students aged 12–19 years from 53 schools in Qazvin City. Data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The mean academic stress score was 45.7 (95% CI 45.2, 46.3). The stress level was statistically higher among older 47.5 (95% CI 46.7, 48.3) than younger 44.1 (95% CI 43.4, 44.9) adolescents. The main academic stressors included: future uncertainty 69.7 (95% CI 68.8, 70.7), academic competition 58.5 (95% CI 57.3, 59.6), and interaction with teachers 56.1 (95% CI 55.3, 56.9). Gender, educational period, school type, family socioeconomic status, and father’s education were associated with academic stress. Conclusions We conducted a multilevel study using a random sample of male and female students in the city of Qazvin, Iran. Results indicated moderate levels of stress among Iranian adolescents. The academic stress was associated with several individual and school-level variables. Students and their families and teachers need education on stress prevention methods and coping mechanisms. Future research should focus on developing and testing multilevel policies and interventions to improve students’ mental health and academic performance.
... As in many Asian cultures, Hong Kong students in general are under pressure to perform well in school as education is viewed as a crucial stepping-stone to success (S. Chan, 1999;Tan & Yates, 2011). This pressure may be particularly pronounced in medical students who manifest a greater degree of psychological distress, including perceived stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety, than other university students (Wong et al., 2005). ...
Article
Introduction: The demanding nature of medical and health sciences studies can cause stress among students in these disciplines affecting their wellbeing and academic performance. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is a widely used measure of perceived stress among medical students and healthcare professionals that has not yet been validated among medical and health sciences students in Hong Kong. The aim of this study is to establish the construct validity and reliability of the PSS-10 in this context. Methods: 267 final year medical and health sciences students were surveyed using the PSS-10. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis for construct validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and corrected item-total correlations for reliability. Results: Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure for PSS-10, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.865 and 0.796, indicating good internal consistency. Corrected item-total correlations showed satisfactory correlation ranged from 0.539 to 0.748 for all items and their respective subscale. Both tests supported PSS-10 as a two-factor scale. Conclusion: The PSS-10 is a valid measure for assessing perceived stress in Hong Kong medical and health sciences students.
... Therefore, the students find it unethical to ask questions to the teacher. This cultural pattern also hinders class participation and interactive discussion (Tan & Yates, 2011). ...
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The number of Pakistani students studying at foreign universities (e.g., in the Netherlands) is increasing. However, they appear to face educational and cultural challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe these challenges. In this study, 12 Pakistani students enrolled in graduate and postgraduate programs at two Dutch universities participated in a semi-structured interview procedure. The thematic analysis revealed that Pakistani students perceived academic challenges regarding examination practices, academic writing, class participation and group work, which hindered their academic adjustment. They expressed that these challenges were primarily reflective of differences between the educational practices of their home and the host country. They reported the need for support from staff, friends, and family and appreciated the pedagogical practices, course content, and teaching practices at their host universities. Finally, they shared valuable advice for forthcoming students. This study provides recommendations for universities in Pakistan and abroad, and for Pakistani students when they plan to go for education outside Pakistan.
... Therefore, the students find it unethical to ask questions to the teacher. This cultural pattern also hinders class participation and interactive discussion (Tan & Yates, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The number of Pakistani students studying at foreign universities (e.g., in the Netherlands) is increasing. However, they appear to face educational and cultural challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe these challenges. In this study, 12 Pakistani students enrolled in graduate and postgraduate programs at two Dutch universities participated in a semi-structured interview procedure. The thematic analysis revealed that Pakistani students perceived academic challenges regarding examination practices, academic writing, class participation and group work, which hindered their academic adjustment. They expressed that these challenges were primarily reflective of differences between the educational practices of their home and the host country. They reported the need for support from staff, friends, and family and appreciated the pedagogical practices, course content, and teaching practices at their host universities. Finally, they shared valuable advice for forthcoming students. This study provides recommendations for universities in Pakistan and abroad, and for Pakistani students when they plan to go for education outside Pakistan.
... This commitment to education has not only built a modern and robust educational infrastructure in the city-state, but also engendered a culture in which educational success is accorded a high premium. This has in turn produced a highly competitive climate where educational achievements, measured primarily by success in examinations, have become a major source of anxiety and stress (Cheow, 2019;Tan and Yates, 2011). A recent study found that anxiety levels among Singapore students are significantly higher than students from other countries. ...
Article
This study focuses on a series of videos aimed at teacher recruitment in Singapore and how they are used as an ideological tool for persuasion. By adopting a multimodal critical discourse analysis approach to focus on affect, it examines how these videos create and promulgate the ideology of an ideal teacher as one who is caring, encouraging and supportive of students. The analysis shows how affect is not only embodied in and performed by the primary protagonists in the video narratives through their action, facial expression, posture and speech. It is also evoked through various secondary meaning-making modes, such as focus, angle, lighting, background music and setting, through which the narratives unfold. More importantly, it demonstrates how affect is used not only as a means to arouse and engage viewers’ sensibilities but also as a persuasive strategy to manufacture and manage particular social and economic realities in contemporary society.
... Burnout is a state of physical, emotional, and mental fatigue which induces exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of a low level of accomplishment in one's work (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). School burnout can be a particular problem in cultures where education is highly valued (Tan & Yates, 2011). Adolescents study hard to attain high academic achievement so as to pass examinations and enter into a prestigious university. ...
Article
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This study attempted to explain the relationship of disturbed sleep related to social media and phone use, interest in physical education, and school burnout. A longitudinal survey of two waves was conducted among 2304 eighth- and ninth-grade Taiwanese adolescents of an average age of 13.89 years (SD = .76) at Time 1. Cross-lagged modelling revealed that school burnout at Time 1 was positively associated with disturbed sleep related to social media at Time 2; however, the reverse association was not substantial. Moreover, students’ interest in physical education at Time 1 did not significantly predict either school burnout or disturbed sleep at Time 2. In contrast, adolescents who had elevated school burnout tended to report lower interest in physical education later, with a very small effect size for practical significance. Physical activities may not easily break the bond of the negative factors of burnout and disturbed sleep unless special programmes are designed.
... It is believed that the low expectations from mentors discourage nascent entrepreneurs to create new ventures. Maybe contextually speaking, in Asian cultures expectations become the cause of individual stress (Tan and Yates, 2011). Pressure plunges individuals into various physiological and psychological problems (Abbas and Raja, 2015) and inversely affects their abilities of work-related performance. ...
Article
The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of mentor expectations on nascent entrepreneur’s venture creation and how this relationship strengthens/weakens when mediated by the sense of nothing to lose and entrepreneurial resilience. The authors nested the data from mentors and nascent entrepreneurs by using a questionnaire survey. Mentors were those individuals who were established entrepreneurs and involved in training nascent entrepreneurs. Nascent entrepreneurs were those who were part of the cohorts in incubation centres for startup training. Data revealed that it was unlikely to create a new venture when mentors displayed low expectations in nascent entrepreneurs. However, this relationship was positively mediated by the sense of nothing to lose and entrepreneurial resilience. The findings have important implications on how mentor expectations can hinder nascent entrepreneurs’ venture creation and how it turns around when entrepreneurs display the abilities of nothing to lose and resilience. Keywords: low expectations; the sense of nothing to lose; entrepreneurial resilience; new venture creation; entrepreneurship
... 학업적 기대(academic expectation)란 어떠한 학교급까지 자 녀가 진학하길 바라는지 및 자녀가 학교에서 받으리라 예상하 는 성적과 관련된 부모의 기대를 의미한다 (Louglin-Presnal & Bierman, 2017). 학업적 기대는 아시안 부모의 특수한 양육태도 로 간주되는데 (Ang & Huan, 2006), 이는 아시아 문화권에서 자 녀의 학업적 성취는 가족의 자랑이고, 학업적 실패는 부모의 실패 로 간주될 수 있으며 (Wong et al., 2005), 높은 학업적 성취를 이 루는 것에 대한 강조 및 긍정적 정서가 문화적으로 어릴 때부터 주입되는 경향에 따라 형성되는 것으로 지적된다 (Tan & Yates, 2011 (Kwon & Chung, 2015;Kim & Shim, 2012;Lim, 2017 등 (Jin & Kim, 2010;Park & Chong, 2010 (Han & Yoo, 1994), 청소년기는 우울의 유병률이 급증하는 시기로 보 고된다 (Lim, 2017;Rudolph, 2017 (Kim & Lee, 2008;Yang, Park, & Chang, 2016;Woo, Park, & Jeong, 2010;Choi, 2012 (Kim, 2011;Choi, 2012 ...
Article
This study examined the effect of parental achievement-oriented expectation on high school students’ depression and verified the mediating effect of peer relations on relations. Data were derived from the 7th wave (2016) of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), and 1,979 high school students were included. Descriptive statistics analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and a Sobel test were conducted using STATA. The main results were as follows. First, male adolescents perceived higher parental achievement-oriented expectation, lower peer relations, but lower depression than female adolescents. Second, parental achievement-oriented expectation was negatively related to adolescent peer relations but positively related to adolescent depression. This implies that adolescents whose parents have a higher level of achievement-oriented expectation have lower level of peer relations and higher level of depression. Third, adolescents’ peer relations significantly mediated the relation between parental achievement-oriented expectation and high school students’ depression. The result of Sobel test supported the significance of the mediating effect. The results highlighted a negative impact of parental achievement-oriented expectation on adolescents’ mental health, and addressed how parental achievement-oriented expectation affects adolescents’ depression by showing an important mechanism of peer relations, which was missed in previous research.
... The documentation of these similarities and differences between Asian and Australian students forms a backdrop to understanding the academic performance of Asian migrant students in Australia. Tan and Yates (2011) argue that the primary cause of the effort that Asian students give to their studies lies in their Confucian cultural heritage. Students from countries such as China, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, and Korea share the values of hard work and filial piety which is deeply embedded in Confucian teaching. ...
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The purpose of this chapter is to critically review the Australian research literature from 1980 to 2017 on the relationship between race and ethnicity, education and social inequality. The chapter begins with a discussion of the Australian education system, and also Australia’s changing immigration and immigration policy. An assimilation policy gave way to a multiculturalism policy from 1973 to 1979, which has radically altered the experience of migrants from all cultural backgrounds up to the present time. The points-based selection migration system began to emerge in the 1970s and replaced a system based on country of origin to one based on personal, social and occupational attributes. In this review, in addition to studies of European migrant children, a separate treatment of Asian migrants, refugees and indigenous Australians is provided, as their profiles regarding education and inequality require a different set of sociological variables and processes. The deficit model in various forms still prevails for explanations of low attainments for the indigenous Australians, and to a lesser extent, to refugees, while a language and culture model dominates explanations for European migrant children. Children of refugee migrants have unique experiences of trauma and interrupted schooling, and they have been given special programs. Multiculturalism and the current points-based migration policy have proven to be successful, but contested policies for reducing educational inequalities between migrants and non-migrants. The educational attainment gap between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians has closed, but it is still substantial, and many indigenous youth remain educationally disadvantaged. Implications and directions for future research on the migration and education topic are discussed.
... Previous studies conducted in western countries have indicated that less time spent in PA and higher frequencies of SB was associated with unfavorable body composition in children and adolescents [12][13][14][15]. However, limited studies have evaluated the association of changes of PA and SB with the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents [15], especially in countries with a Confucian heritage culture such as China, Japan, Korea, and Singapore [16,17]. ...
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Objectives: Examine school children’s physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) during 2015-2017 and study their effects on children’s weight status and their relevant gender differences in China. Methods: This open cohort study included students from 5 major cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Xi’an, Nanjing, and Chengdu) across China. Data were collected from students in 2015, 2016, and 2017 (n = 5,535) and from their parents and school personnel. Children’s weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. SB and PA factors were evaluated using questionnaires. Mixed effects models examined the relationship between weight status and PA/SB-associated factors using this longitudinal data. Results: These children had high rates of obesity (12.4%, 95% CI 11.6%-13.3%) and central obesity (28.1%, 95% CI 26.9%-29.3%) during 2015-2017. Boys were more likely to be obese (16.5% vs. 8.4%) and central obese (36.3% vs. 19.8%) and spent more time in screen viewing than girls (hours/week ± SD: 2015, 1.8 ± 2.5 vs. 1.5 ± 2.0; 2016, 2.0 ± 2.4 vs. 1.8 ± 2.5; 2017, 1.7 ± 2.3vs. 1.4 ± 2.1 hours/week). Those who walked < 5 minutes on their average daily walk to school were more likely to be obese (OR: 1.96, 95% CI 1.03-3.73) than those who spent ≥ 15 minutes on walking to school. When stratified by gender, this higher risk was only observed in girls (OR: 3.01, 95% CI 1.09-8.35). Children who spent more time in screen viewing were more likely to be obese (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.21) and have central obesity (OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.09). The association for obesity was consistent in boys and girls (boys, OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.25; girls, OR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.24). Conclusions: More screen time and less active time were risk factors for developing obesity in urban Chinese children. The associations varied by gender.
... Generally, daily stresses, mostly influenced by the amount of social support of individuals and is a risk factor for adolescents' mental health, have a positive rela-tionship with academic failure and reduce the happiness of individuals (2)(3)(4). Several studies have examined the academic stress of adolescents in different countries and mentioned various factors such as inability to fulfill parents' expectations of education, pressure from peers, wrong comparison with peers, and concerns about future decisions in life as factors of academic stress (5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). In Iran, in addition to the above mentioned, the anxiety about the failure to pass the university entrance exam (Konkour) is considered as one of the most important causes of academic stress, which encompasses a wide range of educational grades (8,15). ...
Article
Background: Academic stress is one of the factors affecting the health of adolescents. The aim of present study was to design an academic stress questionnaire for Iranian adolescents with regard to the cultural and educational system of the country. Methods: After reviewing the literature and identifying available tools in 2018, Iranian adolescents' views on academic stress were extracted. Similar questions have been used in other tools. According to expert opinion, the results were overviewed and the initial version was designed. The steps of content validity and instrument reliability were carried out. Internal consistency was investigated with Cronbach's alpha (α) and repeatability with Intra Class Correlation (ICC). After dividing the data into two randomized samples, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with 899 subjects and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 717 subjects were performed. The association between this tool and the Morgan and Jink's Self Efficacy Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire questionnaires was investigated. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Mplus softwares. Results: The Iranian Adolescent Academic Stress Questionnaire (IAASQ) was designed with 57 questions. Relevancy and clarity of the whole tool were obtained as 0.81 and 0.83, respectively. In different domains, Cronbach's alpha was in the range (0.58-0.85) and ICC (0.80 (95% CI:0.66-0.90)). In the EFA, 9 factors were extracted. CFA confirmed the suitability of the model in another sample. Discriminant and convergent validity tool was approved. Conclusion: The IAASQ questionnaire has acceptable reliability and validity. This tool is recommended for use in related studies in the Iranian community.
... Asian individuals, and their families, tend to value and judge educational performance beyond what is typically seen in many other cultures, particularly compared to Caucasians. 37 Within a pharmacy program, this may increase stress in an already high-pressure environment. Another possibility is that Asian students experience specific forms of discrimination on campus. ...
... 5 In Asian culture, a high value is often placed upon academic excellence, resulting in intense academic stress for these students. 6 African Americans and other minorities have reported experiencing microaggression and discrimination from faculty members and peers at a college of pharmacy. 7 As a minority pharmacy student, I have felt selfconscious in pharmacy lectures when disease state discussions indicated that African American ethnicity is a "nonmodifiable" risk factor. ...
... A primary reason frequently mentioned is the shared Confucian sociocultural values and practices in these countries. In Confucian heritage cultures, students are expected, by their families and even themselves, to demonstrate exceedingly high educational performance (Tan & Yates, 2011). The factors related to these academic expectations have been considered to affect the mathematics achievements of students. ...
... The sociocultural context was regarded as one of the proximal socializers for the production of ESs and STVs (Eccles & Wigfield, 2020), however, the Mainland Chinese students who are deeply influenced by Confucian culture have gained surprisingly little attention. Compared with Western students, students influenced by Confucian culture are described as generally facing academic stress, having a passive learning style, and hardly engaging in deep critical thinking (Tan & Yates, 2011;Tran, 2013). Several studies (Eccles & Wigfield, 2020;Kumar et al., 2018;Tonks et al., 2018;Wigfield & Wagner, 2005) indicated that both the meaning of a construct in expectancy-value model (e.g., ESs) and the meaning of those relations that specified in this model could vary greatly from culture to culture. ...
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Based on the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT), this study examined the interactive relation between expectancy of success and attainment value, and how they predicate students’ Foreign Language (FL) performance via behavioral engagement. Self-report data were collected from 522 Chinese non-English majors aged 18 to 22 years in their sophomore year. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that expectancy of success and attainment value interacted in predicting Chinese sophomores’ FL performance. The expectancy of success had both direct and indirect effects on FL performance when investigating the mediating role of behavioral engagement. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... In the study of Lin and Huang (2013), students' self-identity stress and future development stress had a significant association with students' burnout. Tan and Yates (2011) reported that academic expectations from one's parents and teachers turned out to be the major source of Asian students' academic stress. In addition to the previous findings, the results of the current study suggest that psychological demands could have a more harmful effect on students' burnout. ...
Article
Fourteen empirical studies on academic burnout were synthesized and reviewed with a meta-analytic approach based on the framework of job demand, control, support model. It was found that demand, control, and support were associated with academic burnout. The three dimensions of burnout were negatively related to demand and positively related to control and support. In terms of types of demand, which were classified into psychological and physical demands, moderating effects were observed on the three burnout dimensions, with a larger correlation coefficient of psychological demands. As for social support, moderating effects were observed only with exhaustion. Implications for research and interventions as well as limitations are stated. Highlights • 1. Students who reported higher scores in burnout symptoms reported higher demand in their schoolwork. • 2. Both control and support were negatively associated with all the three dimensions of burnout. • 3. The moderating effects of the different types of demand were significant with all three dimensions of burnout. • 4. The moderating effects of different types of social support were only confirmed in the relationship with exhaustion.
... Chinese parents generally hold very high expectations regarding their children's achievement (Leung & Shek, 2011), as illustrated by an old Chinese saying, "wang zi cheng long" (expecting the son to become a dragon), where the dragon is a symbol of supreme power in Chinese culture. Tan and Yates (2011) found that academic expectations from parents were a major source of stress for Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Academic achievement is seen as a filial duty and a source of pride for the family, whereas school failure is associated with feelings of familial shame. ...
Article
This study examines how comparisons with “close others,” namely, parents and friends, influence the discrepancy between economic and subjective poverty. Comparison with parents reflects “intergenerational mobility” and “equality of opportunity,” whereas comparison with friends reflects “equality of outcome.” The data were drawn from the first wave of the Hong Kong Panel Survey for Poverty Alleviation (N = 2,000). As suggested by the theories of fulfilled aspiration, falling-from-grace, self-serving bias and self-interest, I found that people who had experienced upward intergenerational mobility were more likely to feel non-poor even if they were economically poor, and that people who had experienced downward intergenerational mobility were more likely to feel poor even if they were economically non-poor. This association was found for subjective, but not for objective, measures of intergenerational mobility. When comparing themselves to friends, people made both downward and upward comparisons. As suggested by social comparison theory, those who contrasted their social status with their lower-status friends were more likely to feel non-poor, even if they were economically poor, whereas people who contrasted their social status with their higher-status friends were more likely to feel poor even if they were economically non-poor. Moreover, when considering both parents and friends as reference groups, I found that parents (equality of opportunity) appeared to be a more important reference group than friends (equality of outcome).
... From our results, about half of the international students slept with poor quality. These results were similar to those of previous studies [5,19], which showed that international students, especially Asian students, experienced more sleep problems. Additionally, our results showed that international students with poor quality of sleep showed a higher BMI and adjusted odds ratio of being overweight and obese than those with good quality of sleep. ...
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International students are experiencing health problems due to many lifestyle changes, such as those in dietary and sleep patterns. We conducted this study to identify the associations among sleep patterns, changes in eating habits after studying abroad, and overweight or obesity in international students. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data on health-related variables, changes in eating habits after studying abroad, and sleep patterns that were collected from 225 international students in South Korea. Approximately half of the participants experienced poor sleep (47.6%). After adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, nationality, and acculturative stress, the subjects who had poor sleep quality were 2.020-fold (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.045–3.906) more likely to be overweight and obese than those who had good sleep quality. There were significant differences in changes of eating habits after studying abroad according to sleep quality (p < 0.001). When subjects were stratified into groups according to changes in eating habits after studying abroad, the risk of overweight and obesity increased in those with poor sleep quality but not in those with good sleep quality among subjects who had changes in bad eating habits. However, the risk of overweight and obesity did not differ among subjects with changes in good eating habits regardless of their sleep quality.
... Mục tiêu thứ ba của nghiên cứu là đánh giá mối liên hệ giữa mức độ stress và stress trong hoạt động học tập của sinh viên trường Đại học Đồng Nai. Kết quả cho thấy, có mối tương quan thuận khá mạnh giữa stress với stress trong học tập; trong số 5 tiểu thành phần của stress trong học tập, nhóm biểu hiện "Áp lực từ việc học" và "Sự kì vọng trong học tập" là những yếu tố có khả năng dự báo mức độ stress ở sinh viên, kết quả này cũng đã được đề cập trong một số nghiên cứu trước đây [14,21]. Những phát hiện này gợi ý rằng, để giảm stress, sinh viên cũng cần học cách tự giải tỏa những áp lực trong việc học, đồng thời, thiết lập lại các kì vọng của bản thân, gia đình và thầy cô sao cho phù hợp với năng lực của mình, giúp mở rộng cơ hội đạt được các mục tiêu học tập và nâng cao sự tự tin của bản thân. ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the level and expression of stress in learning activities, and its relationship with the stress level among students at Dong Nai University by a cross-sectional survey. The research tools used include the stress sub-scale in the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21), and the Education Stress Scale for Adolescents (ESSA). Survey results on 254 students showed that 64.2% of the students showed signs of stress ranging from mild (23.2%), moderate (18.9%), severe ( 16.5%), to very severe (5.5%). Students showed mild level of stress according to the DASS-21 scale, and moderate level of academic stress according to the ESSA scale. There was a strong correlation between students' academic stress and stress (r = .539, p < .01), in which, the sub-components "Pressure from study" and "Self-Expectation" had a positive effect on the stress level of students. These findings are the basis for providing solutions to help the school improve the appropriate study and exam programs for students, and at the same time, help students determine their learning expectations and goals in accordance with their ability to improve their academic performance and mental health in the future.
... Those subjected to authoritative parenting may feel it is more urgent to satisfy their parents' wishes, due to the deeper emotional connections they perceive with their parents. For example, researchers found Chinese children have strong concern about achieving high academic performance to bring honor to their parents, which translates into a burden of being afraid of failing to fulfill parental expectations (Tan & Yates, 2011;Quach et al., 2015). The affection and care derived from children to their authoritative parents may also enable emerging adult children to create anxiety of "making their parents unhappy (or dishonor)." ...
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In this study, we examined the relationship continuity between parent–child relationships and friendships. Based on the theoretical framework of the internal working model, the study aimed to investigate the mediating role of regulatory focus in the relationship between adult children’s perceptions of parenting styles and friendship intimacy in the Chinese cultural context. The sample included 400 emerging adults aged 18–25 years from Taiwan. Using structural equation modeling, we found that both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles directly contributed to intimacy in emerging adults’ friendships—authoritative parenting contributed to higher levels of friendship intimacy, whereas authoritarian parenting contributed to lower levels of friendship intimacy. Authoritative parenting was positively associated with both promotion and prevention focus, and authoritarian parenting was positively associated with prevention regulatory focus. Only promotion regulatory focus was positively linked to friendship intimacy. Moreover, authoritative parenting was found to indirectly contribute to higher friendship intimacy through the mediating effect of promotion regulatory focus. These results expanded our understanding of regulatory focus theory in the field of intimate relations and explained how regulatory focus plays a role in the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between perceived parenting and emerging adult friendship intimacy.
... Large number of students experiencing depressive symptoms may be associated with cultural factors where high academic achievement is valued and determines not just future employment but the status of the individual within family and community (Dundes et al., 2009). Parental, societal expectations and immensely competitive environment at most of higher education institutes, with little to no emotional/ psychological support put students under huge pressure (Tan and Yates, 2011;Waqas et al., 2015). Curriculum does not focus on important life skills such as stress management and thus, most of the students continue to suffer in silence. ...
Article
Introduction Though university years are peak time for the onset of many mental health problems including depression, knowledge on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is limited. This study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students in LMICs. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, and WHO Global Health Library for studies published between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2018. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies conducted in LMICs (as defined by World Bank), having a sample size≥500 and published in English were identified. Data on study characteristics and prevalence of depressive symptoms was extracted by two investigators. Estimate of prevalence was pooled in meta-analysis using random-effects meta-analysis. Sub-group differences were estimated using mixed-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results Depressive symptoms prevalence data were extracted from 37 studies involving 76,608 individuals in 20 countries. Studies on depression among university students in LMICs were limited, and most were based on non-representative and small study samples. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 24.4% (95% CI, 19.2% -30.5%). Subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence did not vary by study design, sampling technique, sample size, study major, educational level, economic regions, and screening instrument. Limitations Only English language studies were included. Included studies were diverse in design, screening tool, and sample size that introduced substantial heterogeneity. Conclusion Overall prevalence of depression among university students in LMICs was 24.4%, however, finding should be interpreted with caution. Further research are needed to address the issue.
... Evidence suggests that parents value education highly and increasingly expect their children to earn postsecondary degrees (Tan and Yates 2010). While higher education was long available only in Europe, in the twentieth century it became increasingly available around the world and across diverse social, cultural, and economic groups (Schofer and Meyer 2005). ...
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This study comparatively examines variation among the expectations of parents worldwide for the educational attainment of their children. The data are from the 2011 Progress in International Reading and Literacy Study (PIRLS). A two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) was used to estimate multilevel and multi-contextual effects on such expectations. The results reveal that parents in the Middle East had the highest expectations for the educational attainment of their children, followed by parents in East Asia and the Pacific region. Parents in European regions expressed the lowest expectations; however, they expressed significantly higher expectations for their daughters’ educational attainment than for their sons’. In European countries, immigrant parents had significantly higher expectations for the educational attainment of their children than did nonimmigrant parents, but the opposite was true in the Middle East, East Asia, and the Pacific. These results suggest that although parents who belong to different nations and different cultures share norms and values regarding educational attainment, regional differences persist as the result of social, cultural, and economic differences.
... According to the 2019 Chinese Internet Users' Search Engine Usage Research Report [68], 97.1% of internet users used search engines via their smartphones, and the most common usage scenario for search engines was working and studying, at 76.5%. Online learning-related behaviors are consistent with the expectations of parents, teachers, and adolescents themselves, especially in the context of Asian cultures, which place extreme emphasis on academic performance and expect academic achievement from children and adolescents alike [69][70][71]. Once adolescents meet the expectations demanded by their cultures, they are more likely to establish good social bonds with others. Nonetheless, using utilities, cameras, and fitness apps showed relatively low effect sizes (lower than 1%). ...
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The past two decades have witnessed controversy over whether the use of digital technology has damaged or enhanced adolescents’ social relationships, which influences their development. In this study, we addressed this debate by specifying the effect of different types of smartphone use content on social relationships, rather than simply relying on screen time spent on digital media. To avoid selective analysis and report of different variables, we used specification curve analysis (SCA) in a large dataset (N = 46,018) to explore the correlations between 20 types of smartphone use content and adolescents’ social relationships (parent–child, peer, and teacher–student). The types of smartphone use content were measured by the revised version of Mobile Phone Use Pattern Scale, the Parent-Child Relationship Scale, the Peer Relationship Scale, and the Teacher-Student Relationship Scale assessed three different social relationships, respectively. Of the 20 types of smartphone use content, only playing games (negatively explaining 1% of the variation), taking online courses (positively explaining 1.6% of the variation), using search engines (positively explaining 1.2% of the variation), using a dictionary (positively explaining 1.3% of the variation), and obtaining life information (positively explaining 1.5% of the variation) showed a significant effect size. The association between smartphone use and adolescents’ social relationships depends on the various types of content with which adolescents engage during smartphone use. The various effects of different types of smartphone use content deserve the attention of both the public and policy-makers.
... One explanation for this unexpected finding is that the direct relationship between academic expectations of the self to suicidal ideation was too strong to allow predictive power from the other variables. Although more research is needed, this relationship may be strong because the immense need for Asian students to do well academically (Tan & Yates, 2011) and growing expectations of themselves due to globalization (Soenens, Deci, & Vansteenkiste, 2017) which may be leading to maladaptive outcomes that are not related to feeling like a burden or feeling like they do not belong. It may also be that those with high expectations of themselves are experiencing perfectionistic tendencies, which can actually hinder academic success and lead to negative affect (Madigan, 2019). ...
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Objective: As the second most populous country in the world, India accounts for over 20% of the global suicide deaths. Notably, young adults make up 38% of those who die by suicide in India. Yet, the literature on factors associated with suicide within this age group in India is limited. The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS) posits thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness as constructs that heighten the risk for suicide. Testing mechanisms that may mediate the relationship between common stressors for young adults in India, such as academic expectations, and suicidal ideation are important to better understand factors contributing to suicide risk within this country. Method: Indian college students (N = 432, Mage = 19.41, 73.1% male) completed questionnaires on academic expectations, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, collectivism, and suicidal ideation. Results: Current suicidal ideation was endorsed at a rate of 38%. Academic expectancy from the self, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness was significantly associated with suicidal ideation. The only significantly mediated pathway was academic expectancy from others to suicidal ideation through perceived burdensomeness. Collectivism was not a significant moderator in the model. Discussion: The sample endorsed high rates of suicidal ideation, highlighting the need for culturally appropriate interventions. Thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and academic expectations from oneself may be relevant treatment targets for reducing suicidal ideation among college students in India.HIGHLIGHTSOver one-third of Indian university students endorsed suicidal ideation.Suicidal ideation related to one's own more than others' academic expectations.Results offer support for the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide within this context.
... Compared with actual academic performance, academic pressure is a stronger associated factor of depression, yielding a moderate to large effect size. A significant source of academic pressure for Chinese students comes from the expectations of parents (Ang et al., 2009;Tan and Yates, 2011). Compared with Western parents, Chinese parents have more expectations and lower levels of satisfaction with their children's academic performance (Ng et al., 2014b;Qu et al., 2016), which may exert more pressure and thus lead to anxiety and depression (Quach et al., 2015). ...
Article
Background: The objective of the study is to systematically estimate the effect size of psychosocial risk factors for depressive symptoms among adolescents in secondary schools in mainland China. Method: A literature search was conducted in both English and Chinese databases. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to estimate the effect size. Results: Fifteen psychosocial risk factors were identified in a total of 164 articles. The results revealed the ab- solute value of effect size ranging from 0.16 to 0.43. Among them, poor parent–child communication (r = 0.43), negative life events (r = 0.40), academic pressure (r = 0.40), abuse (r = 0.33), poor family functioning (r = 0.33), bullying (r = 0.32), and poor family cohesion (r = 0.32) were associated with depression with a medium to large effect. Moderator analysis shows that grade, study quality, mean age, and gender were significant moderators of at least one factor for depression. Limitations: Limitations included the heterogeneity which is largely unexplained, and the inability to investigate the interactions of different factors and to determine the direction of causal relationships between psychosocial factors and depression in the present meta-analysis. Conclusions: This study suggests that family-related factors and school-related factors may be significantly associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese secondary school students. Further research is needed to develop effective strategies to modify these factors in depression prevention programmes.
... During this phase of life, parents and teachers put many expectations regarding self-responsibility, career path selection, and good performance at the high school exams. A number of studies have reported that parental expectations can lead to psychological distress, anxiety, and depression among adolescents (Ma et al., 2018;Madjar et al., 2015;Tan & journalofmuslimmentalhealth.org sahar, baranovich and tharbe: does gratitude work at school? ...
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The present research measures the effectiveness of gratitude interventions in dealing with academic stress and daily hassles among Pakistani high school students. A total of 162 students randomly assigned in experimental (82) and control groups (80) took part in a four week interventions program. The gratitude interventions included Count Your Blessings, writing Gratitude Letters, and Loving Kindness Meditations which were modified & adapted into Urdu. The pretest and posttest assessment was done. The results of paired sample t-test showed significant decrease in academic expectation scores (t = 5.76**, M1 + SD1 = 31.44 + 6.56, M2 + SD2 = 27.30 + 6.75) with medium effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.65), and also for daily hassles decrease. Further results showed high level of stress about personal future, academic concerns and excessive social demands which were decreased after interventions. This study supports the use of gratitude interventions in school setting especially in developing country like Pakistan where structured counseling services are limited.
... In our study, the effect size of school performance for the adolescents' subjective happiness was the second highest following economic status. Adolescents in Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and Korea, which possess Confucian Heritage Culture, have high academic expectations from parents and feel that high academic achievement is their obligation to live up to the expectation of parents [26]. Thus, low academic performance often leads to negative mental health. ...
Article
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We aimed to investigate the mental health change and associated social correlates in adolescents in terms of depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempt. In total, 978,079 students (12–18 years old, 7th–12th grade) participated in the survey for 13 years (2006–2018) by a multiple-year cross-sectional design (not a repeat measure for smaller group). Mental health outcome variables were assessed using self-report surveys with the independent variables of sex, age, economic status, school achievement, and parental educational level. Korean social indices of income inequality (Gini index, higher scores representing greater economic inequity with score range of 0–1), education (national proportion of tertiary education attainment), and actual suicides were investigated together as related social factors. The prevalence of depressive episodes, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempt markedly dropped by 34.6%, 42.2%, and 48.3%, respectively. Moreover, the Gini index (from 0.314 in 2008 to 0.295 in 2015) and proportion of tertiary education (from 82.1% in 2006 to 69.7% in 2018) showed a decreasing tendency. These indices and adolescent mental health outcomes highly correlated with each other (Pearson’s r between Gini index and depressive episode = 0.789, suicidal ideation = 0.724, and suicidal attempt = 0.740; Pearson’s r between proportion of tertiary education and depressive episode = 0.930, suicidal ideation = 0.809, and suicidal attempt = 0.851). Adolescent mental health has improved in the last 13 years in Korea, and improvements in social inequality (decreased Gini index) and lessened burden of academic competition (decreased national proportion of tertiary education) were significantly associated with the improvement of adolescent’s mental health. However, the impact of parental educational level on children’s mental health was relatively minimal, compared with the impact of economic inequality and academic burden. Further studies are needed to reveal the underlying mechanism for the association between adolescent mental health and sociodemographic factors to save adolescents from psychological distress.
Article
Teachers provide emotional and behavioral supports essential for success in the classroom. This study examined the roles of child interpersonal skills, teacher expectations, and school racial and poverty compositions on the quality of relationships formed between teachers and children. A subsample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort 2010–2011 data set was used to fit two-level, multivariate regression models. Findings showed children with higher interpersonal skills had lower conflict and higher closeness with teachers. High teacher expectations were associated with less conflicting relationships. At the school level, the association between teacher expectations and teacher–child conflict was moderated by the Asian and Hispanic student population, and teacher–child closeness was moderated by the Asian student population. In addition, a higher proportion of school poverty and high teacher expectations was associated with lower teacher–child conflict. Overall, findings suggest the importance of investigating teacher–child interpersonal processes within a school context.
Chapter
As more expatriate Chinese language teachers are recruited to teach in American K-12 schools, there is an increasing need for American university teacher preparation programs to address the challenges they are experiencing, as well as how they should cope. With years' experience and a uniquely cross-cultural breadth, this book chapter first examines the cultural differences between the U.S. and China in classroom management, class communication, teaching styles and instructional strategies. To identify the cross-cultural teaching difficulties, as well as the situational and cultural factors that impact the failure of teaching in cross-cultural situations, literature was then reviewed from the fields of teaching Chinese as a foreign language and cross-cultural Chinese language teaching. Last, employing Byram's intercultural competence model, this book chapter suggests ways in which intercultural awareness and intercultural competence be incorporated in higher education foreign language teacher preparation programs in the U.S.
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The study provided a qualitative investigation into problematic mobile phone use among the youth athlete population. The study aimed to identify the factors which contributed to problematic use, the effects of problematic use, and suggestions on how to help youth athletes overcome problematic use. Four focus groups sessions were conducted with a total of 21 Singaporean youth athletes (aged 12-18 years old) from four different sports. The data was analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. The findings indicated various factors which contributed to problematic use, namely personal attributes, needs fulfilment, and external influences. Effects of problematic use included areas such as shrinkage of time, performance deficits, and undesirable behaviours. There were various suggestions on how to overcome problematic use, which included strengthening internal resources and tapping into sources of external help. Future research should seek to use the knowledge derived from this study to create interventions to help youth athletes deal with their problematic mobile phone use.
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Objectives Examine school children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB) during 2015 to 2017 in China, and study their associations with children's weight status and relevant gender differences. Methods This open cohort study included students from five major cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Xi'an, Nanjing, and Chengdu) across China. Data were collected from students in 2015, 2016, and 2017 (n = 5535) and from their parents and school personnel. Children's weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. SB and PA factors were evaluated using questionnaires. Mixed‐effects models examined the relationship between weight status and PA‐/SB‐associated factors using this longitudinal data. Results These children had high rates of obesity (12.4%, 95% CI 11.6%‐13.3%) and central obesity (28.1%, 95% CI 26.9%‐29.3%) during 2015 to 2017. Boys were more likely to have obesity than girls (16.5% vs 8.4%, respectively) as well as centrally obesity (36.3% vs 19.8%, respectively) and spent more time in screen viewing than girls (hours/week ± SD: 2015, 1.8 ± 2.5 vs 1.5 ± 2.0; 2016, 2.0 ± 2.4 vs 1.8 ± 2.5; 2017, 1.7 ± 2.3 vs 1.4 ± 2.1 hours/week). Those who walked <5 minutes on their average daily walk to school were more likely to have obesity (OR: 1.96, 95% CI 1.03‐3.73) than those who spent ≥15 minutes on walking to school. When stratified by gender, this higher risk was only observed in girls (OR: 3.01, 95% CI 1.09‐8.35). Children who spent more time in screen viewing were more likely to have obesity (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.06‐1.21) and have central obesity (OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.02‐1.09). The association for obesity was consistent in boys and girls (boys, OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.05‐1.25; girls, OR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.00‐1.24). Conclusions More screen time and less walking time were risk factors for developing obesity in urban Chinese children. The associations varied by gender.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of regulatory focus in the relation between filial piety beliefs and life outcomes, including life satisfaction and psychological distress. A total of 1,431 Taiwanese youths, aged 15 through 24 years, were recruited in the study. Results of structural equation modelling indicated that reciprocal filial piety can be associated with stronger promotion regulatory focus, which in turn contributes to greater life satisfaction and less psychological distress. In addition, reciprocal filial piety and authoritarian filial piety can relate to stronger prevention regulatory focus, which subsequently links to lower life satisfaction and more psychological distress.
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The present study examined the relationships of Taiwanese eighth graders’ perceived autonomy support from teachers, parental psychological control, implicit theories of intelligence, and achievement goal orientations to their agentic, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement in schoolwork. Also, the current research explored the determining factors of Taiwanese adolescents’ achievement goal orientations. Four hundred and two eighth-grade Taiwanese students completed a self-reported survey assessing the variables described above. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that autonomy support from teachers along with incremental theory of intelligence positively predicted all the four components of academic engagement. Each aspect of academic engagement was associated with different achievement goal orientations. Additionally, results of this study suggested that teachers’ autonomy support versus parental psychological control as well as students’ incremental versus entity theories of intelligence all positively predicted mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goal orientations. Implications for educational practices and future research are discussed.
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Background Increasing attention has been dedicated to investigate modifiable risk factors of late effects in survivors of childhood cancer. This study aims to evaluate neurocognitive and behavioral functioning in a relatively young cohort of survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Hong Kong, and to identify clinical and socio-environmental factors associated with these outcomes. Methods This analysis included 152 survivors of childhood ALL who were ≥5 years post-diagnosis (52% male, mean [SD] age 23.5[7.2] years at evaluation, 17.2[7.6] years post-diagnosis). Survivors completed performance-based neurocognitive tests, and reported their emotional and behavioral symptoms using the Child/Adult Behavior Checklist. Socio-environmental variables (living space, fatigue, physical activity, family functioning, and academic stress) were self-reported using validated questionnaires. Clinical variables and chronic health conditions were extracted from medical charts. Multivariable linear modeling was conducted to test identify factors associated with neurocognitive/behavioral outcomes, adjusting for current age, sex, age at diagnosis and cranial radiation. An exploratory mediation analysis was performed to examine the mediating effects of risk factors on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes. Results As compared to population norms, a minority of survivors developed mild-moderate impairment in motor processing speed (36.2%), memory (9.2%) and attention measures (4.0%-10.5%). Survivors also reported attention problems (12.5%), sluggish cognitive tempo (23.7%) and internalizing (depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms) problems (17.1%). A minority of survivors developed mild-moderate treatment-related chronic conditions (n=37, 24.3%). As compared to survivors without chronic conditions, survivors with chronic conditions had more executive dysfunction (B=5.09, standard error [SE]=2.05; P =0.014) and reported more attention problems (B=5.73, SE=1.43; P <0.0001). Fatigue and poor family functioning was associated with multiple measures of behavior problems (all P <0.001). A lower level of physical activity was correlated with more self-reported symptoms of inattention (B= -1.12, SE=0.38, P =0.004) and sluggish cognitive tempo (B=-1.22, SE=0.41, P =0.003). Exploratory analysis showed that chronic health conditions were associated with behavioral measures through fatigue as the mediator. Conclusion The majority of young Chinese survivors of ALL had normal cognitive and behavioral function. Regular monitoring of behavioral function should be performed on survivors who develop treatment-related chronic conditions. Health behavior and socio-environment factors may be potentially modifiable risk factors associated with health outcomes in survivors.
Article
With students’ study load becoming increasingly controversial around the world, we investigated whether “less can be more” regarding the relationship between study load and science achievement (i.e., lighter study load, higher science achievement). Using data from the 2016 (Chinese) Program for Regional Assessment of Basic Education Quality (N = 40,536 students under 946 science teachers within 118 schools), we constructed seven measures of study load. We developed multiple membership multilevel models to accommodate students being taught by multiple science teachers. After adjustment for student, teacher, and school characteristics, six measure did not indicate any statistically significant relationship between study load and science achievement, with one indicating a statistically significant but negative relationship, leading us to conclude that heavier study load was not associated with higher science achievement. Meanwhile, some school climate variables could function as moderators of the relationship with academic pressure and parental involvement as the highlights. Under the reduction in these variables, lighter study load began to associate with higher science achievement.
Conference Paper
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Today, depression is considered one of the most important problems among adolescents. The present study aimed to evaluate the rate of depression among adolescents based on their catastrophic cognitions and self-efficacy with the mediating role of academic stress. This descriptive-correlational study was conducted on adolescents aged 13-19 years in Qods town, located in Tehran province, Iran. In total, 790 students (390 boys and 400 girls) were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected using three questionnaires of depression in children (Kovacs and Beck, 1977), self-efficacy in adolescents (Morris, 2001) and educational stress (Stigma and Hwan, 2006). The results of structural equation modelling analysis showed the theoretical model to be engaged in the model including different variables, such as academic stress, which could act as a mediating variable associated with catastrophic cognition and self-efficacy with depression, that was most appropriately fitted to the data (df/S–Bχ2=2/51, CFI=0/98, GFI=0/97, RMSEA=0/045). Moreover, all the direct and indirect paths to predict depression in adolescents were diagnosed in this model. The findings of the present study demonstrated that personal and environmental factors could be variably and directly involved in adolescent depression.
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The growth and development of any society are affected by the educated force of that society and identifying the factors affecting academic satisfaction and providing them is a step towards sustainable development. The aim of this study was to discover and investigate the factors affecting the academic satisfaction of gifted students. The method of the present study was qualitative using a data-based method and data collection was done through semi-structured interviews. The statistical population of the present study included male and female students of the first high school of talented schools in Tehran in the academic year of 2019-2020. The research sample was selected by cluster sampling and after interviewing 20 students, the effective factors were identified in academic satisfaction. It should be noted that data analysis was performed using three steps of open, axial, and selective coding. Based on the results of the research, open codes around 168 concepts, core codes including 21 concepts, and selective codes in 5 concepts under the headings of school factors, individual factors, family
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Numerous studies have indicated that academic stress is associated with various detrimental personal physical and emotional outcomes; however, relatively few studies have explored how academic stress affects adolescents' interactions with their significant others in families and schools, which are two important social systems for school-age adolescents. In addition, there are also few studies examining how academic stress influences adolescents' self-disclosure to parents and school engagement in East Asian districts particularly in Hong Kong, where the level of academic stress among adolescents is high. This study examines how academic stress affects mental distress, academic self-disclosure to parents and school engagement and explores gender differences in the risk for the outcomes of academic stress. One thousand and eight hundred and four students from eight secondary schools in Hong Kong participated in this study. The results indicate that academic stress has a significant association with all three outcomes, but the correlation with school engagement is positive, which is contrary to the findings of most previous studies. The possible reasons for such positive association are discussed. In addition, the model can be applied to both genders, but females are more susceptible to the detrimental outcomes of academic stress by suffering a higher level of mental distress. This study suggests that academic stress should be an important entry point to tackle adolescents' mental distress while interventions should be targeted at females who are experiencing a higher level of mental distress. In addition, in view of the significant associations between academic stress and self-disclosure to parents, as well as between academic stress and school engagement, suggestions are provided to families and schools on how to proactively provide support to those students who are experiencing academic stress.
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Starting from the understandings that emphasize the importance of the Pygmalion effect in teaching, the paper presents an overview of research on the relationship between teachers' expectations and students' motivation to learn. The aim of this paper is to point out the different effects of expectations that teachers form on students' motivation to learn. The findings of the presented relevant research indicate that high expectations of teachers can increase student motivation, but also that low expectations of teachers can lead to its reduction. Also, it was determined that teachers smile more often, communicate more, establish eye contact with students from whom they expect more. The labels that teachers assign to students lead to some students getting less motivating learning situations. The implications of this paper are reflected in the elucidation of the significance of this phenomenon and its reflection on educational practice. It has been found that high as well as low expectations of teachers largely reflect on the motivation of students to learn, which is why teachers should use their influence by encouraging and activating students.
Chapter
As of 2020, in Korea, as 72.5% of high-school graduates go on to college and college period has an impact on the social development of Korean youth, it is very important to increase the sense of happiness of college students. However, there are new terminologies to express the situation in which how young people in Korea feel the difficulties in their lives, such as “Hell Chosun, 88-Dollar-Generation, N-Give-up-Generation, and Spoon-Social-Rank.” This chapter summarizes the factors related to the happiness of college students in South Korea, such as depression, interpersonal relationships, and self-efficacy, to suggest educational programs to promote the happiness of young people in Korea.
Article
Objectives: This pilot study developed an adventure-based cognitive behavioral intervention (aCBI) program and tests its effectiveness in improving the mental health of Chinese university students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 217 undergraduate students participated in an aCBI program in the form of an interdisciplinary general education course in a university in Hong Kong. A battery of standardized online questionnaires was administered to the students before joining and upon completion of the course, and at a 3-month follow-up test. Results: The participants showed a significant reduction of psychological distress, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and negative thoughts and emotions and a significant increase of positive thoughts upon immediate completion of the program. The positive effects maintained at the 3-month follow-up test. Conclusion: The integration of cognitive behavioral intervention and adventure training in a class setting might be an effective and feasible approach for the mental health counseling of university students.
Thesis
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Cách ứng phó với stress học tập quyết định mức độ ảnh hưởng tiêu cực của stress đối với sức khỏe thể chất, tinh thần và hiệu quả học tập của sinh viên. Tại Việt Nam, chưa có nhiều nghiên cứu tìm hiểu về chủ đề này. Nghiên cứu hiện tại được tiến hành dựa trên Lý Thuyết Tương Tác Về Stress nhằm tìm hiểu nguồn gây stress học tập, các chiến lược ứng phó, hệ quả ứng phó, và mối liên hệ giữa các chiến lược ứng phó với những biến số về nhân khẩu, và động lực học tập của sinh viên. Mẫu nghiên cứu là mẫu thuận tiện bao gồm 157 sinh viên trường Đại học Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân Văn với độ tuổi trung bình là 20.52, độ lệch chuẩn là 1.29, và nữ chiếm 77.7%. Kết quả nghiên cứu tìm ra 12 nguồn gây stress học tập chủ yếu. Kết quả và hiệu quả học tập, kiểm tra và đánh giá, khối lượng và mức độ khó của bài tập là những nguồn gây stress học tập phổ biến nhất. Giải quyết vấn đề, bộc lộ cảm xúc, suy nghĩ tích cực, và chấp nhận là những chiến lược ứng phó được sinh viên sử dụng thường xuyên nhất. Những sinh viên ứng phó điều hòa cảm xúc, chấp nhận, suy nghĩ tích cực, và thay đổi nhận thức thì có mức độ stress thấp hơn. Sinh viên ứng phó bằng chiến lược giải quyết vấn đề thì có kết quả học tập cao hơn. Những sinh viên thường né tránh và mong ước thì có mức độ stress cao hơn và kết quả học tập thấp hơn. Những sinh viên có động lực học tập tự chủ thường ứng phó gắn kết trong khi những sinh viên thiếu động lực hoặc có động lực học tập bị kiểm soát thì thường ứng phó tách khỏi.
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This book has been widely acclaimed, and rapidly found a place on reading lists and in citations following its first publication in 1996. Its strengths are evident from the comments of reviewers, e.g. "The Chinese Learner lives up to its title as the reader with insights into Chinese students from the various perspectives of the investigator, the tutors of Chinese students, as well as the students themselves." Katherine Yip, Asia Pacific Journal of Education
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Rasch rating scale structure parameters, are also called Andrich thresholds, step calibrations or Tau's. These relate directly to category probabilities. These probabilities relate to the probability of a category being observed, not to the substantive order of achievement of the categories. So when step calibrations, i.e., Tau's, are disordered, they say that one category is less likely to be observed, not that it is easier to perform. Here is an example that will produce disordered Tau's: Around 100 people work in a building. Let us count the number of people in the building at 10 minute intervals over several days. The "items" are the times of day. The "people" are the days. Here is the rating scale: Less than 100: category 1. Exactly 100: category 2. More than 100: category 3. We will observe categories 1 and 3 far more often than category 2. As people arrive in the morning, it will be category 1. At peak times, category 3. In the evening category 1. During a day we may never observe category 2. But, of course category 2 goes between 1 and 3. But it is a category that is very difficult to observe. The Tau's will be "disordered". So, how do we detect when the categories are actually substantively incorrectly ordered? We use fit statistics. An illustrative example follows. https://www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt131a.htm
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A glance through the titles of research reports in current mathematics education journals might cause one to wonder why researchers in mathematics education eschew the very Queen of the sciences in representing the results of their research. Why do qualitative approaches appear to dominate this field? Many could claim that it is because the usual quantitative methods lose the important qualitative aspects of good mathematics education research. But, what if one quantitative research methodology in education incorporated the same genuine scientific measurement principles that mathematicians routinely expect from the metric system of measures and, at the same time, remained sensitive to those significant qualitative aspects of good educational research? What if this technique was an analytical model in which Australians are world leaders? What if applications of the model to research in mathematics education were already showing very promising results – both in Australia and internationally? Rasch measurement is being used increasingly as a research tool by “mainstream” researchers rather than merely by the sophisticated psychometricians involved in large-scale achievement testing. Using the performance interactions between persons and items, it is possible to produce an ordered conjoint measurement scale of both people and items. This allows researchers to examine the behaviour of persons (e.g., students, markers, teachers) in relation to a particular set of items (e.g., test questions, curriculum outcome indicators, problem-solving methods, attitude surveys.) This permits the identification and examination of developmental pathways, such as those inherent in the development of mathematics concepts as well as the developing capacities of the students. In addition, the behaviour of sets of items can be examined in relation to particular sub-groups of persons (e.g., age cohorts of students) in order to identify the extent to which the chosen items measure the core mathematical constructs the researcher was intending to measure. However, the features of the family of Rasch models make them useful tools for other kinds of research in mathematics education. We might reasonably ask: Is this sequence of the mathematics curriculum appropriate for the children who learn it, and not just appropriate in the eyes of the consultants who wrote it? The Rasch rating scale model allows Likert scale attitude data to be thought about in developmental rather than merely descriptive ways. The Rasch partial credit model provides for the
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If a researcher applies the conventional tests of scale-level measurement invariance through multi-group confirmatory factor analysis of a PC matrix and MLE to test hypotheses of strong and full measurement invariance when the researcher has a rating scale response format wherein the item characteristics are different for the two groups of respondents, do these scale-level analyses reflect (or ignore) differences in item threshold characteristics? Results of the current study demonstrate the inadequacy of judging the suitability of a measurement instrument across groups by only investigating the factor structure of the measure for the different groups with a PC matrix and MLE. Evidence is provided that item level bias can still be present when a CFA of the two different groups reveals an equivalent factorial structure of rating scale items using a PC matrix and MLE.
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We studied and compared the views of Chinese and American high school students as to what attendance at school should achieve, and what brings success in work. The worlds of school and work were perceived by American students to be related, but not so by Chinese students. American students are more firm in the view that school should teach them to understand science, think critically, be useful to society and consider the family first. In contrast, Chinese students showed greater preference that school should teach them to face challenges, creatively sacrifice, and respect authority, and to prepare them to earn money for respect, and luxuries, and to enter high status colleges and jobs. Significant country by sex interaction effects were found, indicating that generalizations about cultural differences which ignore gender are suspect.
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Inferences made from summary indices of psychometric scales must be reliable and valid to advance scientific knowledge in counseling psychology. This article illustrates traditional and innovative uses of the Rasch model in the development and validation of small- and large-scale psychological instruments. Discussion of traditional uses of the Rasch model included reliability and validity of scale scores, whereas discussion of innovative uses included (a) determining the optimal number of response categories for Likert-type items and (b) obtaining a measure of response style for each person. Both mathematical and conceptual explanations are provided, and counseling psychology data are used to illustrate examples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article describes the development and initial validation of obtained scores from the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI), which measures expectations as a source of academic stress in middle and high school Asian students. In the first study, exploratory factor analysis results from 721 adolescents suggested a nine-item scale with two factors—Expectations of Parents/Teachers (five items) and Expectations of Self (four items). The data also revealed initial evidence of the reliability of AESI’s scores. Initial estimates of convergent validity for AESI’s scores were also reported. In the second study, data from 387 adolescents were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis that provided support for the factor structure derived from the first study. In the third study, data from 144 adolescents yielded evidence of AESI scores’ test-retest reliability. Additional evidence of AESI’s internal consistency estimates as well as convergent and discriminant validity for AESI’s scores were also provided.
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By using the Rasch model, much detailed diagnostic information is available to developers of survey and assessment instruments and to the researchers who use them. We outline an approach to the analysis of data obtained from the administration of survey instruments that can enable researchers to recognise and diagnose difficulties with those instruments and then to suggest remedial actions that can improve the measurement properties of the scales included in questionnaires. We illustrate the approach using examples drawn from recent research and demonstrate how the approach can be used to generate figures that make the results of Rasch analyses accessible to non-specialists.
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Considerable attention has been paid to the academic achievements of Asian Americans because there is convergent evidence that this population has attained high educational mobility. In trying to explain the achievement patterns, researchers have largely limited their investigations to one of two contrasting hypotheses involving (a) hereditary differences in intelligence between Asians and Whites and (b) Asian cultural values that promote educational endeavors. Research findings have cast serious doubt over the validity of the genetic hypothesis. Yet, there has been a failure to find strong empirical support for alternative hypothesis concerning cultural values. It is proposed, under the concept of relative functionalism, that Asian Americans perceive, and have experienced, restrictions in upward mobility in careers or jobs that are unrelated to education. Consequently, education assumes importance, above and beyond what can be predicted from cultural values. Research and policy implications of this view are noted.
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Current theories of ethnic identity oversimplify the development process by failing to recognize the malleability of identity within its social context, a conceptualization of self that is particularly relevant for Asian-Americans. Further, these theories tend to view identity in static, deterministic terms, despite social psychology data suggesting that identity is a dynamic ongoing process. Data were analyzed from a sample of 87 Asian-American undergraduates, using the Ethnic Identity Development Exercise (EIDE). While many theories suggest that ethnic identity development is predominantly an internal, intro-psychic process, our data indicate that Asian-Americans are largely influenced by relationships and external forces. In addition, the avoidance of shame was found to be a strong motivating factor in determining their ethnic identification. Thus, ethnic identification theories must acknowledge the malleable and collectivistic nature of ethnic identity development among Asian-Americans. Three theoretical frameworks of research on ethnic identity are reviewed and summarized: identity formation, social identity, and acculturation.
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Health outcomes researchers are increasingly applying Item Response Theory (IRT) methods to questionnaire development, evaluation, and refinement efforts. To provide a brief overview of IRT, to review some of the critical issues associated with IRT applications, and to demonstrate the basic features of IRT with an example. Example data come from 6,504 adolescent respondents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health public use data set who completed to the 19-item Feelings Scale for depression. The sample was split into a development and validation sample. Scale items were calibrated in the development sample with the Graded Response Model and the results were used to construct a 10-item short form. The short form was evaluated in the validation sample by examining the correspondence between IRT scores from the short form and the original, and by comparing the proportion of respondents identified as depressed according to the original and short form observed cut scores. The 19 items varied in their discrimination (slope parameter range: .86-2.66), and item location parameters reflected a considerable range of depression (-.72-3.39). However, the item set is most discriminating at higher levels of depression. In the validation sample IRT scores generated from the short and long forms were correlated at .96 and the average difference in these scores was -.01. In addition, nearly 90% of the sample was classified identically as at risk or not at risk for depression using observed score cut points from the short and long forms. When used appropriately, IRT can be a powerful tool for questionnaire development, evaluation, and refinement, resulting in precise, valid, and relatively brief instruments that minimize response burden.
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This paper attempts to review and integrate existing research findings on Chinese adolescent mental health. Based on a comprehensive survey of the relevant studies in the literature, several conclusions can be drawn: a) most of the studies on Chinese adolescent mental health have been geared toward the study of adolescent psychopathology rather than adolescent positive mental health; b) the existing studies are seldom guided by well-articulated theoretical models; c) although the data arising from the existing studies do not lend strong support for the hypothesis that a majority of Chinese adolescents are 'tumultuous', the available evidence generally suggests that one-tenth to one-third of Chinese adolescents might be psychologically 'at-risk'; d) while Chinese adolescent mental health has been found to be related to a number of personal, psychological, stress-related, family-related, education-related and societal factors, there is a severe lack of integrative models to accommodate the observed relationships; and e) most of the existing studies on Chinese adolescent mental health are plagued with methodological problems. Possible directions for future research are discussed.
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This article describes the development and initial validation of obtained scores from the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI), which measures expectations as a source of academic stress in middle and high school Asian students. In the first study, exploratory factor analysis results from 721 adolescents suggested a nine-item scale with two factors—Expectations of Parents/Teachers (five items) and Expectations of Self (four items). The data also revealed initial evidence of the reliability of AESI’s scores. Initial estimates of convergent validity for AESI’s scores were also reported. In the second study, data from 387 adolescents were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis that provided support for the factor structure derived from the first study. In the third study, data from 144 adolescents yielded evidence of AESI scores’ test-retest reliability. Additional evidence of AESI’s internal consistency estimates as well as convergent and discriminant validity for AESI’s scores were also provided.
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Research in the United States has found that peers and parents play an important role in shaping students' educational aspirations. Little research has examined the extent to which these findings apply in other countries or whether the role of significant others varies according to the organization of national educational systems. This article examines the effects of peers' and parents' attitudes regarding academic performance on students' educational aspirations in 12 countries. The results indicate that peers and parents influence educational aspirations in countries with relatively undifferentiated secondary schooling, like the United States, while the influence of significant others is negligible in societies with more differentiated secondary education. In these latter systems, it appears that aspirations are largely determined by the type of school the student attends; there is little room for interpersonal affects. The effects of significant others on students' aspirations depend, in large part, on the structural features of the educational systems in which they operate.
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Jencks et al. (1983) provide two replications of the Wisconsin status attainment model, comparing their results closely to the results reported by Sewell and Hauser (1975). While concluding that the Wisconsin data are not seriously biased, they raise a number of questions regarding the interpretation of the model. Hauser et al. (1983), while not responding to the Jencks et al. paper directly, provide analyses which speak to the issues they raise. Using multiple indicators of most concepts in the model and the LISREL approach to estimation, they suggest a return to the basic causal chain interpretation originally posited by Sewell et al. (1970). The Hauser et al. estimation procedures are complex, and this paper attempts to explicate them. While the Hauser et al. analysis answers a number of questions and clarifies some important issues, many questions remain including the following: What is the meaning and interpretation of "unmeasured" family background? Should disaggregated measures of ability and performance be used rather than composites? Is a more elaborate model of the socialization process, particularly one which permits reciprocal effects, required to understand status attainment? Finally, what is required to deal effectively with charges that the status attainment model ignores social structure? This paper attempts to answer those questions.
Book
List of Figures. Series Editor's Preface. Preface. 1. What is a Discourse Approach?. 2. How, When and Where to Do Things with Language. 3. Interpersonal Politeness and Power. 4. Conversational Inference: Interpretation in Spoken Discourse. 5. Topic and Face: Inductive and Deductive Patterns in Discourse. 6. Ideologies of Discourse. 7. What is Culture? Intercultural Communication and Stereotyping. 8. Corporate Discourse. 9. Professional Discourse. 10. Generational Discourse. 11. Gender Discourse. 12. Using a Discourse Approach to Intercultural Communication. References. Index.
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The aim of this study was to explore and compare the views of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, parents and teachers on the same adolescent health issues. A total of 22 focus groups were conducted with Form 1 students (aged from 11 to 13) who attended the Basic Life Skills Training program organized by the Student Health Service, Department of Health in Hong Kong. The program covered a wide range of topics including emotions, self-image, stress management, drinking, smoking and substance abuse, self-esteem and interpersonal skills. Responses from the three types of participants were somewhat different and inconsistent on the issues of changes during puberty, stress and stress management, smoking, drinking and substance abuse. Compared to the West, Chinese adolescents tended to report more stress from studying and under-report socially undesirable behaviour. The use of focus groups was recommended as an effective method of collecting qualitative data with Chinese populations. Focus groups can help maximize data collection, and sometimes, the groups can also help different individual members to gain more insights or new ideas.
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Using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88),we analyze how educational aspirations are formed and maintained from eighth to twelfth grades among a single cohort of youth. Guided by research in the status-attainment literature, which focuses on how aspirations are shaped, and the blocked-opportunities framework, which considers the structural obstacles that bound or level aspirations, we find that the relative shares of minority youth who have high educational aspirations are high from eighth to twelfth grades. However, ethnic groups differ in the extent to which high educational aspirations are maintained such that black and Hispanic youth have less stable aspirations. Our results suggest that family socioeconomic status (SES) not only contributes to ambitious aspirations in eighth grade but, more important, to the maintenance of high aspirations throughout the high school years. Because black and Hispanic students are less likely to maintain their high aspirations throughout high school, owing to their lower family SES background, we argue that their early aspirations are less concrete than those of white and especially Asian students. Focus-group discussions with adolescents support quantitative findings that, compared to whites and Asians, black and Hispanic youth are relatively uninformed about college, thus dampening their odds of reaching their educational goals.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine the contributing role of the different aspects of adolescent concerns on the academic stress of youths in Singapore. Data was obtained using two self‐report measures: the Adolescent Concerns Measure and the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory. The study examined four different aspects of adolescent concerns namely: family, personal, peer and school concerns. Gender differences were also explored in terms of these predictions as well as the academic stress experienced by the adolescents. Results obtained showed that only the scores on the Personal Concerns subscale were positively associated with the academic stress arising from self and other expectations, in both adolescent boys and girls. For the girls, school‐related concerns were also predictive of academic stress arising from other expectations. They also obtained significantly higher scores on the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory than boys did. Possible explanations for the obtained results were suggested and implications of the findings were also discussed.
Article
This is a guide to using Quest. Quest offers a comprehensive test and questionnaire analysis environment by providing a data analyst with access to the most recent developments in Rasch measurement theory, as well as a range of traditional analysis procedures. It includes an easy to use control language with flexible and informative output. Quest can be used to construct and validate variables based on both dichotomous and polychotomous observations. It scores and analyses such instruments as multiple choice tests, Likert type rating scales, short answer items, and partial credit items.
Book
Written in an accessible style, this book facilitates a deep understanding of the Rasch model. Authors Bond and Fox review the crucial properties of the Rasch model and demonstrate its use with a wide range of examples including the measurement of educational achievement, human development, attitudes, and medical rehabilitation. A glossary and numerous illustrations further aid the reader's understanding. The authors demonstrate how to apply Rasch analysis and prepare readers to perform their own analyses and interpret the results. Updated throughout, highlights of the Second Edition include: a new CD that features an introductory version of the latest Winsteps program and the data files for the book's examples, preprogrammed to run using Winsteps;, a new chapter on invariance that highlights the parallels between physical and human science measurement;, a new appendix on analyzing data to help those new to Rasch analysis;, more explanation of the key concepts and item characteristic curves;, a new empirical example with data sets demonstrates the many facets of the Rasch model and other new examples; and an increased focus on issues related to unidimensionality, multidimensionality, and the Rasch factor analysis of residuals. Applying the Rasch Model is intended for researchers and practitioners in psychology, especially developmental psychologists, education, health care, medical rehabilitation, business, government, and those interested in measuring attitude, ability, and/or performance. The book is an excellent text for use in courses on advanced research methods, measurement, or quantitative analysis. Significant knowledge of statistics is not required. © 2007 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
This handbook explains how to do Rasch measurement. The emphasis is on practice, but theoretical explanations are also provided. The Forward contains an introduction to the topic of Rasch measurement. Chapters 2, 4, 5, and 7 use a small problem to illustrate the application of Rasch measurement in detail, and methodological issues are considered in chapters 1, 5, and 6. Users of this book might approach the problem first and then explore the theory, or they might familiarize themselves with the theory before considering the practical aspects of Rasch measurement. The following chapters are included: (1) "The Measurement Model"; (2) "Item Calibration by Hand"; (3) "Item Calibration by Computer"; (4) "The Analysis of Fit"; (5) "Constructing a Variable"; (6) "Designing Tests"; (7)"Making Measures"; and (8) "Choosing a Scale." Appendixes contain three supporting tables. (Contains 45 figures, 81 tables, and 61 references.) (SLD)
Article
Examines the pressures toward academic achievement in Chinese and European students in New Zealand through comparisons of the attitudes of the students, the attitudes they attribute to their parents, and the relationships between these two sets of attitudes. Male Chinese students were found to have the most pressure on them. (JS)
Article
The present research comprises two studies, one focusing on maternal child-rearing attitudes and practices and the other on paternal roles and attitudes in Hong Kong. Intergenerational comparisons are made possible by having 17 pairs of grandmothers and mothers and 20 pairs of grandfathers and fathers from the same families serve as informants. An interview schedule was used in the first study, and a questionnaire and two attitude scales were used in the second study. Results show that the fathers depart more from the traditional orientation concerning child training and filial piety and tend to be more involved in child care than the grandfathers. On the other hand, intergenerational comparisons of maternal care are mostly nonsignificant (at the .05 level). Despite important changes that have taken place, continuity with the past remains strong, such as in the control of sex and aggression. A high degree of intergenerational commonality remains in attitudes and conceptions concerning human nature, the importance of social–environmental influences in character formation, and the desired characteristics expected of children when they grow up. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Aimed at exploring the role of culture and context in students' motivational orientation and academic performance, as well as the relationship between these variables within each culture. Ss were 571 grade 12 or 13 students. There were 3 groups of Ss: Chinese students in Hong Kong, Canadian students of European origin, and Chinese Canadian students. The present research addressed 2 questions: (1) what role do culture and context of learning play in students' goal orientations, self-efficacy, test anxiety, effort and actual achievement? and (2) does the Western model of achievement apply in Chinese culture and in the context of learning in Hong Kong? Results showed that compared to Canadian Ss, Hong Kong Ss spend much more time on studying, but receive lower examination marks than their Canadian counterparts. On most measures, Chinese Canadian Ss' scores were between those of Hong Kong Chinese and European Canadian Ss. Chinese Canadian and European Canadian Ss share the same learning context in schools, but they are from different cultural backgrounds. The context of leaning appeared to have a moderating effect on cultural influences. Results clearly showed that culture and context of learning have an influence on students' motivational orientation and achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Adolescent suicide statistics in Hong Kong for the period between 1980 to 1991 were analyzed. Concerning adolescent suicide rates (number of suicide deaths over the total adolescent population), several phenomena could be observed: a) adolescent suicide rates in Hong Kong have been relatively stable for the period under study; b) suicide rates in the 10–24 age bracket for the period under study were the lowest when compared with other adult age groups; c) suicide rates among teenagers in early adolescence were lower than those among adolescents in late adolescence; d) although male adolescent suicide rates were in general higher than female adolescent suicide rates (10–24 age bracket), gender differences in suicide rates appeared to be moderated by age; e) adolescent suicide rates in Hong Kong appeared to be lower than those reported in the western contexts; and f) adolescent suicide rates in Hong Kong appeared to be lower than those reported in China. Some of these observations also appeared when proportional mortality rates for suicide (number of suicide deaths over the number of deaths for the adolescent population) were used as the basis of analysis. An examination of methods of adolescent suicide revealed that jumping from a height has been a common method used. The observed adolescent suicide phenomena are discussed within the socio-cultural context of Hong Kong.
Chapter
intercultural communication;linguistic;ethnography;philosophy;historical analysis
Article
This article reviews the findings of a field-based study that compared the academic performance of East Asians and Anglo elementary school students. Variations in academic performance are viewed as the result of the relationship between sociocultural factors and interpersonal interactions. Results link the academic success of East Asian students to the values and aspirations they share with their parents, to the home learning activities, in which they participate with their families, and to the expectations and interactions they have with their teachers and classmates.
Article
This study examined the motivation and mathematics achievement of Asian-American, Caucasian-American, and East Asian students. Subjects were 304 Asian-American, 1,958 Caucasian-American, 1,475 Chinese (Taiwan), and 1,120 Japanese eleventh graders (mean age = 17.6 years). Students were given a curriculum-based mathematics test and a questionnaire. Mathematics scores of the Asian-American students were higher than those of Caucasian-American students but lower than those of Chinese and Japanese students. Factors associated with the achievement of Asian-American and East Asian students included having parents and peers who hold high standards, believing that the road to success is through effort, having positive attitudes about achievement, studying diligently, and facing less interference with their schoolwork from jobs and informal peer interactions. Contrary to the popular belief that Asian-American students' high achievement necessarily takes a psychological toll, they were found not to report a greater frequency of maladjustive symptoms than Caucasian-American students.
Article
Teacher and student are an archetypal role pair in virtually any society. When teacher and student come from different cultures, such as in the context of economic development programmes, many perplexities can arise. These can be due to different social positions of teachers and students in the two societies, to differences in the relevance of the curriculum for the two societies, to differences in profiles of cognitive abilities between the populations of the two societies, or to differences in expected teacher/student and student/student interaction. This paper focuses in particular on these interaction differences. It relates them to the author's 4-D model of cultural differences among societies, based on research on work-related values in over 50 countries. Differences in expected teacher/student and student/student interaction are listed with reference to the four dimensions of Individualism versus Collectivism, large versus small Power Distance, strong versus weak Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity versus Femininity. Some effects of language differences between teacher and student are also discussed. The burden of adaptation in cross-cultural learning situations should be primarily on the teachers.
Article
The available research indicates that the prevalence of stress is increasing among students studying in higher education. Issues such as student retention and student progression are becoming increasingly important for all universities. There are a significant number of studies that have examined stress and this paper critically reviews that research and identifies several issues that as yet have not been explored. The paper also highlights a number of key weaknesses in the current literature base. In previous studies there has been a focus on a quantitative approach, and research studies have been restricted to using as subjects individuals from a narrow range of disciplines. It is also suggested that there is a need to undertake longitudinal research to investigate individuals' stress experiences during the period they study at university. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Further & Higher Education is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Incl. biographical notes on the contributors, bibliographical references, index
Article
A unidimensional latent trait model for responses scored in two or more ordered categories is developed. This “Partial Credit” model is a member of the family of latent trait models which share the property of parameter separability and so permit “specifically objective” comparisons of persons and items. The model can be viewed as an extension of Andrich's Rating Scale model to situations in which ordered response alternatives are free to vary in number and structure from item to item. The difference between the parameters in this model and the “category boundaries” in Samejima's Graded Response model is demonstrated. An unconditional maximum likelihood procedure for estimating the model parameters is developed.
Article
This study examined key issues facing Singapore youth and whether social class status affected their perceptions of problems. The major problems reported by 220 high school aged youths included being pressured to keep up with schoolwork, worrying about the future, and needing help with schoolwork. A considerable degree of congruence was found in terms of how lower- and middle-class youths ranked their problems. Cm-square analysis, however, indicated that significantly larger numbers of lower-class youths considered the following issues problematic: arguing with parents, receiving enough sex education, feeling good about oneself, worrying about suitable work, worrying about the future, difficulty in accessing recreation facilities, and needing help with schoolwork. The path for Singapore youth growing into adulthood is one that reflects the stress and pressure of a dynamic, modern society with changing social and cultural values.
Article
This study examined the motivation and mathematics achievement of Asian-American, Caucasian-American, and East Asian students. Subjects were 304 Asian-American, 1,958 Caucasian-American, 1,475 Chinese (Taiwan), and 1,120 Japanese eleventh graders (mean age = 17.6 years). Students were given a curriculum-based mathematics test and a questionnaire. Mathematics scores of the Asian-American students were higher than those of Caucasian-American students but lower than those of Chinese and Japanese students. Factors associated with the achievement of Asian-American and East Asian students included having parents and peers who hold high standards, believing that the road to success is through effort, having positive attitudes about achievement, studying diligently, and facing less interference with their schoolwork from jobs and informal peer interactions. Contrary to the popular belief that Asian-American students' high achievement necessarily takes a psychological toll,they were found not to report a greater frequency of maladjustive symptoms than Caucasian-American students.