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Glucosinolate contents in Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) Seeds, Sprouts, Mature plants and Several Derived Commercial Products

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Abstract

Several products derived from processed maca hypocotyls (Lepidium peruvianum Chacón, previously known as L. meyenii Walp.) were surveyed for glucosinolate content and quantified by HPLC analysis. These included pills, capsules, flour, liquor, tonic and mayonnaise. Different plant organs such as fresh hypocotyls and leaves, seeds, dry hypocotyls, and sprouts were also included in the survey. The most abundant glucosinolates detected in fresh and dry hypocotyls and leaves were the aromatic glucosinolates, benzylglucosinolate (glucotropaeolin) and p-methoxybenzylglucosinolate. Maca seeds and sprouts differed in profile from hypocotyls and leaves due to the modification of benzylglucosinolate. No glucosinolates were detected in liquor and tonic, while mayonnaise had only trace amounts of those glucosinolates. It had instead allylglucosinolate (sinigrin), which is an aliphatic glucosinolate. The pills, capsules and flour had the same glucosinolates as those observed in hypocotyls, but in variable amounts. The richest sources of glucosinolates were seeds, fresh hypocotyls and sprouts, in that order.

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... The hypocotyls are rich in benzylamine, benzyl glucosinolates, and their derivates, alkaloids, macamides, sterols, and phenols [104,114,115,126,146,147,150]. Some of the isolated glucosinolates and their derivatives include benzyl glucosinolate, glucoalyssin, glucosinlbin, glucobrassicin and glucobrassicanapin [150]. ...
... The hypocotyls are rich in benzylamine, benzyl glucosinolates, and their derivates, alkaloids, macamides, sterols, and phenols [104,114,115,126,146,147,150]. Some of the isolated glucosinolates and their derivatives include benzyl glucosinolate, glucoalyssin, glucosinlbin, glucobrassicin and glucobrassicanapin [150]. Some of the detected macamides are Nbenzylhexadecaanamide, N-benzyloctadecanamide, N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienamide, N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide, and methoxy-N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca trienamide [104,115,147]. ...
... The hypocotyls are rich in benzylamine, benzyl glucosinolates, and their deriv alkaloids, macamides, sterols, and phenols [104,114,115,126,146,147,150]. Some of th lated glucosinolates and their derivatives include benzyl glucosinolate, glucoalyssin cosinlbin, glucobrassicin and glucobrassicanapin [150]. ...
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Background: In the 1960s, research into plant adaptogens began. Plants with adaptogenic properties have rich phytochemical compositions and have been used by humanity since ancient times. However, it is not still clear whether the adaptogenic properties are because of specific compounds or because of the whole plant extracts. The aim of this review is to compare the bioactive compounds in the different parts of these plants. Methods: The search strategy was based on studies related to the isolation of bioactive compounds from Rhaponticum carthamoides, Lepidium meyenii, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Results: This review includes data from 259 articles. The phytochemicals isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides, Lepidium meyenii, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng were described and classified in several categories. Conclusions: Plant species have always played an important role in drug discovery because their effectiveness is based on the hundreds of years of experience with folk medicine in different nations. In our view, there is great potential in the near future for some of the phytochemicals found in these plants species to become pharmaceutical agents.
... Nutritive characteristic: The Official Method of Analysis of AOAC (26) Glucosinolate analysis using HPLc procedure: The Maca hypocotyls collected from processed 12 lots of the four Peruvian Maca phenotypes: Yellow, Black, Red and Purple originating in Junin and Ancash, and pulverized to 80 mesh size, were analyzed for Glucosinolates according to the method by Li et al. (28), together with the protocol and modifications described previously (16). Three 1g samples from each phenotype were extracted in methanol, followed by purification using a solid-state extraction method and Glucosinolate detection at 235nm against Glucotropaeolin (Benzylglucosinolate), Sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate derived from black mustard) and mmethoxyglucotropaeolin, as external reference standards for Glucosinolates. ...
... Also an attempt has been made to use DNA profiles in identifying Maca phenotypes so as to distinguish Yellow Maca from the two other phenotypes studied (16). The previous work on the application of analytical techniques to identify Maca phenotypes from Glucosinolate profiles, confirmed earlier stipulation by Johns (14), Li et al. (28) and Gonzales et al. (4), who considered Glucosinolates as the group of compounds which reflect physiological functionality and influence therapeutic potential of cultivated Maca blends and Maca phenotypes, used individually as dietary supplements (19). ...
... Maca hypocotyls contain relatively higher levels of glucosinolates when compared to other cruciferous crops like white cabbage and cauliflower (28). Therefore, it has been assumed that Glucosinolates -as a group of characteristic compounds, may potentially be used as a marker when screening Maca for its peculiar functionality and gender-related physiological effects (4). ...
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Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as "Yellow", "Purple", "Red" and "Black" were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (P<0.01) in hypocotyl weight/size of four Maca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly "large" class (13.3 g) with "small" size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a "small" class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (P<0.001) microbial contamination than the other three, with Black Maca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (P<0.01) in Glucosinolates existed between the Red and Black Maca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant P<0.01) differences determined in ratios of individual Glucosinolates between four Maca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products.
... The GLs profile and content for three maca ecotypes have unique HPLC behaviors, and the characteristic peaks produced by the major GLs components (aromatic GLs) were distinct (Yábar et al. 2011). Nine kinds of GLs have been found from L. meyenii, and 80% of them are benzyl glucosinolates (Dini et al. 2002;Li et al. 2001;Yábar et al. 2011). For the different origin and color types, the content of GLs in maca roots differ mainly (Clément et al. 2010a). ...
... Blackcolored maca roots contain the largest quantity of GLs among the three major phenotypes (Clément et al. 2010b). According to Li et al. (2001), the fresh maca roots contain approximately 1% (m/m) GLs, this content is 100 times higher than that in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower (cruciferous crops). Considering that high concentrations of aromatic GLs (especially for benzyl and p-methoxbenzyl GLs) and their isothiocyanate derivatives have been linked to therapeutic and health properties of maca (Johns 1981;Gonzales et al. 2014); therefore, they could hopefully become one of the distinguishing marks or traits to identify maca materials from other plants and analyze their quality. ...
... The isolation of GLs was performed according to the method described by Li et al. (2001) with some modifications. Briefly, the power (200 mg) was added into test tube and incubated in a bath at 75°C for 1 min, and 2 mL of 70% (v/v) hot methanol was added. ...
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In order to evaluate the quality of maca samples, 15 batches of maca hypocotyls from different geographical origins were analyzed by using HPLC and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Their glucosinolates (GLs) were identified, profiled, and quantified. Three aromatic GLs, glucosinalbin (GSB), glucotropaeolin (GTL), and glucolimnanthin (GLH), were identified from maca roots. It was found that the HPLC profiles of maca samples showed a similar qualitative pattern except for some differences in their contents. The amount ranges (μmol g⁻¹, DW) of GSB, GTL, and GLH were 2.62–5.55, 12.99–57.12, and 3.15–12.12, respectively. Furthermore, a HCA (hierarchical clustering analysis) was used to classify the quality of maca samples according to their cultivated sources and GLs contents. The results showed that the combination of GSB, GTL, and GLH could be a marker for accurate determination and quality control of maca samples. It was concluded that the multi-component analysis in combination with HCA could be a supplement to assess the quality of maca materials.
... The various compositions were considered closely related to the health effects of maca. Some researches showed that maca not only was rich in protein, amino acids, lipid, and minerals [7] but also contains a variety of secondary metabolites: macaene, alkaloid (including unique maca amide), glucosinolate, and other components [8][9][10]. A variety of factors can cause composition changes in maca, for example, maca planting environment (including altitude, climate, and soil fertility) and maca root colour types as well as the process of drying and so on [11][12][13]. ...
... N-benzyl hexadecanamide was used as external standard. The content of benzyl glucosinolates was estimated by the HPLC method [10]. Benzyl glucosinolate was used as external standard. ...
... Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites with negative ion hydrophilic which contain sulphur and nitrogen in plant [25]. Their decomposition product and themselves were considered to have lots of biological activities, such as the ability to combat pathogens and cancer [10]. We determined the benzyl glucosinolate content which was the highest in glucosinolate content. ...
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Maca ( Lepidium meyenii Walp.) was introduced to China in the recent two decades. Proximate compositions and secondary metabolites in dried maca tuber powders of different cultivation areas and colour types were analyzed and compared in order to provide the scientific guideline for its application. Cultivation region significantly affects the compositions of maca. The protein content of maca ranged from 9.31% to 21.02% by dry basis of maca powders and Xiaopingba-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y have the higher protein contents. The essential amino acids (EAA) contents ranged from 189.19 to 312.90 mg/g protein. The crude lipid content of different maca ranged from 0.59% to 1.00% and has no significant difference ( P>0.05 ). The total dietary fiber (TDF) contents ranged from 17.82% to 26.00% and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) ranged from 2.46% to 7.88%, respectively. Maca samples were rich in Na, Mg, Ca, and K elements which ranged 138.3–187.8, 625.2–837.2, 3838.9–4502.7, and 5394.8–8063.3 mg/kg dry matter (DM). Xiaopingba-Y has the highest benzyl glucosinolate content which was 2.31 mg/g DM. Peru-Y and Xiaopingba have the higher contents of total alkaloids contents which was 2.61 and 2.56 mg/kg DM. Yongsheng-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y were rich in N-benzyl hexadecanamide contents, which were 0.164, 0.174, and 0.173 mg/g DM, respectively. Significant higher protein, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, total alkaloids, and benzyl glucosinolate contents were found in purple and black maca compared to yellow maca in Pamirs, while there was no significant difference in N-benzyl hexadecanamide content.
... There are strong indications (7,8,13) that the therapeutic properties of Peruvian Maca and its fertility-enhancing properties in particular, may be linked to high concentrations of Glucosinolates (benzyl and p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate and their isothiocyanate derivatives), which represent one of the major functional groups of biologically active compounds in this herb (7,13,14). It has been further observed that several Glucosinolates' concentrations determined in hypocotyls of various coloured Maca phenotypes (8,(15)(16)(17), may be linked to specific genderand age-dependent physiological and therapeutic properties induced by oral administration of Maca preparations, as demonstrated in a series of studies on laboratory animals (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23), and on humans using both male subjects (24) and pre-and post-menopausal women (9)(10)(11)(12). ...
... There are strong indications (7,8,13) that the therapeutic properties of Peruvian Maca and its fertility-enhancing properties in particular, may be linked to high concentrations of Glucosinolates (benzyl and p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate and their isothiocyanate derivatives), which represent one of the major functional groups of biologically active compounds in this herb (7,13,14). It has been further observed that several Glucosinolates' concentrations determined in hypocotyls of various coloured Maca phenotypes (8,(15)(16)(17), may be linked to specific genderand age-dependent physiological and therapeutic properties induced by oral administration of Maca preparations, as demonstrated in a series of studies on laboratory animals (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23), and on humans using both male subjects (24) and pre-and post-menopausal women (9)(10)(11)(12). ...
... With the use of currently available laboratory techniques, there are seven classes of distinctive secondary metabolites which are recognised as of physiological importance in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum); these are: Glucosinolates (13), fatty acids (33), imidazole alkaloids (34), Amides (33,35), Cyanogenic compounds (36), catechins (37) and Carbolines (30,33). However, according to the survey conducted by Li et al. (13) on Maca hypocotyls and products based on L. peruvianum, the most abundant group of compounds detected in fresh and dry hypocotyls were Glucosinolates with the most prominent being aromatic Glucosinolates, Benzylglucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) and p-methoxybenzylglucosinolate, thus confirming earlier analytical results reported by Johns (7). Also, Gonzales and his Research Group (8) noted that Maca hypocotyls contain relatively higher Glucosinolates level than is observed in other cruciferous crops such as white cabbage and cauliflower. ...
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In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates’ characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as “Yellow”, “Black”, “Red” and “Purple” were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher (P<0.05) Glucosinolates’ concentrations, adopted as the marker of Maca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates’ content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant (P<0.05) trend, while the Yellow phenotype showed no visible altitude-inflicted response (P>0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated.
... Chemical profiling of maca has enabled identification of several secondary metabolites. The most notable ones are: the imidazole, hydantoins and thiohydantoin alkaloids, the alkamides and glucosinolates and the meyeniins (Cui et al., 2003;Jin et al., 2016;Muhammad et al., 2002;Zhao et al., 2005;McCollom et al., 2005;Chain et al., 2014;Zheng et al., 2014;Zheng et al., 2003;Li et al., 2001;Dini et al., 2002;Piacente et al., 2002;Yu et al., 2017b;Zhou et al., 2017; Supplementary Data Supplementary Appendix 2. Phytochemicals of maca). ...
... The breakdown products of glucosinolates are biologically active compounds like indoles, nitriles, thiocyanates and isothiocyanates, which are known to have anti-cancer effects (Gupta and Prakash, 2014). Of the nine glucosinolates identified in maca, benzyl glucosinolate (glucotropaeolin) and methoxy-benzyl glucosinolate are the most abundant (Li et al., 2001;Dini et al., 2002;Piacente et al., 2002) with glucotropaeolin reported making up 80% of glucosinolate content (Yabar et al., 2011). Fresh maca hypocotyl has also been found to have 10 times more glucosinolate content than other Brassicaceae species like broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences. ...
... For instance, no glucosinolate was found in tonic and liquor of maca. This is believed to be due to hydrolysis of the compounds by myrosinase enzyme liberated upon break down of plant tissues (Li et al., 2001;Esparza et al., 2015). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1,300 to 2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too. Aim of study: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims. Methodology: A search of electronic databases such as EMBASE and a hand-search was done to acquire peer-reviewed articles and reports about maca. Results and discussion: Lepidium meyenii is used traditionally as a tonic, fertility enhancer for both humans and cattle, and to treat a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, respiratory disorders and anaemia among others. Maca root is cooked, baked, fermented as a drink and made into porridge. In the last twenty years, maca was introduced onto the global market and demand has dramatically grown over this time with its promotion on the internet, as the 'Peruvian Ginseng' for libido and fertility enhancement. It has also been said to treat menopausal symptoms, erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The sky-rocketing demand for the plant has seen a shift from traditional cultivation methods to mass production practices with the use of fertilisers and also pesticides; as maca is now grown in areas other than the Andes such as in the Yunnan province in China. This can potentially affect the phytochemistry and composition of the plant and thus, the quality, safety and efficacy of maca products. Meanwhile, research into maca's medicinal properties has followed the spike in popularity of maca and has been focused mainly on maca's aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing properties. So far, the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted have yielded inconclusive results. Some of the key limitations reside in methodology and sample size. Chemical profiling, led to the discovery of new compounds unique to maca, such as, 'macamides' and also other active metabolites like the glucosinolates; to which the medicinal effects of maca have been ascribed but cannot be confirmed due to lack of data. Conclusions: To date, the health claims of maca cannot be fully supported from a scientific standpoint and more research is needed. It appears that the indigenous local knowledge about the health benefits of maca has been dragged out of context to fit the demands of a growing market for herbal remedies. This globalisation (or hype esp. in China) also has had serious consequences for the local producers in Peru. The lack of protocols to regulate the production and marketing of maca during this rapid expansion, poses a threat to both the safety of consumers and the sustainability of supply.
... The content of the three benzyl groups containing macamides was higher than all the others, and they contributed to the main component of the total macamides. Except for the above-mentioned alkamides, a few other macamides also contain benzyl groups (Li et al., 2001;Chen et al., 2017;Xia et al., 2018), but the content was very low and could not be detected from the maca used in this study. ...
... These results provided further evidence that there were two special components in macamides that originally came from the conversions of maca glucosinolates, and two feasible pathways for macamides synthesis are shown in Fig. 6. To date, only three macamides were generated based on the m-methoxybenzyl group, and almost all of the other macamides were synthesised based on the benzyl group (Li et al., 2001;Chen et al., 2017;Xia et al., 2018). For these benzyl group-based macamides, three (macamide-2, macamide-4 and macamide-6) are the major alkamides in maca hypocotyls (Li et al., 2001;Chen et al., 2017), and the other eighteen alkamides, including two kinds of benzyl group-based macamides reported by Xia et al. (2018), were difficult to detect because their contents were too low. ...
... To date, only three macamides were generated based on the m-methoxybenzyl group, and almost all of the other macamides were synthesised based on the benzyl group (Li et al., 2001;Chen et al., 2017;Xia et al., 2018). For these benzyl group-based macamides, three (macamide-2, macamide-4 and macamide-6) are the major alkamides in maca hypocotyls (Li et al., 2001;Chen et al., 2017), and the other eighteen alkamides, including two kinds of benzyl group-based macamides reported by Xia et al. (2018), were difficult to detect because their contents were too low. ...
Article
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Macamides, functional compounds found only in Lepidium meyenii Walpers, have gained interest in many fields of research due to its multiple bioactivities. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which macamides are synthesized is not thoroughly understood. In this study, the synthesis of six macamides and the conversion of three glucosinolates were studied systematically during a six‐month natural air drying process. An investigation of synthesis profiles showed that the largest category of macamides, the major constituents of total macamides, have the same benzyl group as benzyl glucosinolate, which has higher content than other glucosinolates. The second largest group of macamides contains the same m‐methoxybenzyl group as m‐methoxybenzyl glucosinolate which is the second major constituent of total glucosinolates. The results from this study suggest that glucosinolates are one of the most important precursors of macamides. Compared with all other drying methods, natural air drying is the most suitable condition for the formation of macamides.
... Glucosinolates are also a kind of secondary metabolites in Maca, which are considered to be responsible for the distinctive, pungent flavor of Maca [11]. Nine glucosinolates (1-9) have been found in Maca (Fig. 1), among which the aromatic glucosinolates represent a 99% average of the total glucosinolates content [5]. ...
... Thus far, eighteen macamides (10-27) and three macaenes (28)(29)(30) have been found in Maca (Fig. 2), among which compounds 10-12, 15, 17, 19-30 were isolated as new compounds [17][18][19][20][21], compounds 13, 14, 16, 18 were identified by HPLC-UV-MS/MS, UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-UV [16,[21][22][23]. Six major macamides (10,11,(16)(17)(18)(19) have been quantified in the ethanol extracts of Maca. The results show that N-benzylhexadecanamide (10) is the most abundant compound in Maca from Peru, while N-benzyl-9Z,12Z-octadecadienamide (17) is the richest compound in the Yunnan Maca and is the second highest abundant compound in Maca from Peru [22]. ...
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Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.), a famous food supplement, has drawn an unprecedented international interest over the last two decades. It was assumed that glucosinolates, macamides, macaenes, and alkaloids are the main bioactive components of Maca before. Recently, a series of novel thiohydantoins which generally exhibit a variety of activities have been isolated from Maca. This review focuses on the progress on the main bioactive components of Maca and their biosynthetic pathway, which indicates that macamides, thiohydantoins, and some alkaloids may originate from glucosinolates. Interestingly, thiohydantoins from Maca are the first type of thiohydantoin derivatives to be found from a natural source and may contribute to some significant effects of Maca. Graphical Abstract Open image in new window
... However, the crop status changed suddenly around 1998, and the global demand for maca has been rising ever since (Hermann and Bernet 2009;Gonzales 2012). This 'maca boom' (Li et al. 2001) occurred mainly due to its high nutritional value and numerous pharmacological properties, including positive effects on spermatogenesis, female fertility, sexual drive, memory, depression, anxiety, among others (Wang et al. 2007;Gonzales et al. 2014). ...
... Variation in seed color could also be associated with variation in other secondary metabolites. In maca, glucosinolates and other metabolites can be found in seeds, leaves and hypocotyls (Li et al. 2001). Some glucosinolates, and their by-products (isothiocyanates), have shown negative effects on seed germination (Bialy et al. 1990;Brown and Morra 1996;Haramoto and Gallandt 2004). ...
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Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a high-Andean crop whose subterranean storage organs (hypocotyls) show distinctive colors that are related to pharmacological properties. Little is known about seed color variation and its influence on germination performance, hypocotyl pigmentation and plant survival. Germination rate is critical for maca plants to survive frost events during early development. We evaluated the effect of germination promoters (gibberellic acid and sodium hypochlorite) and temperature regimes (constant and cold: 4 °C; variable and moderate: 5-10 °C; constant and warm: 16 °C) on germination of seeds with different embryo color (yellow, reddish-purple and blue). We also assessed the association between seed color, hypocotyl color and plant survival under field conditions. Seeds with blue and yellow embryos had the lowest and highest germination rates, respectively, across cold and moderate temperature regimes. At warm temperature, germination was not affected by seed color. Germination promoters only enhanced seed germination at cold and moderate temperatures. In the field, black seeds (with blue embryos) showed the greatest survival. Seeds with reddish-purple embryos produced a higher proportion of pigmented hypocotyls –mainly purple– than other seed colors. Seed color should be taken into account in maca breeding programs, particularly in the context of climate change.
... The Maca hypocotyls collected from the cultivation sites in Pe and Cn were pulverised under liquid Nitrogen to 80 mesh size powder for GCSN analysis according to the HPLC method by Li et al. (2001), with laboratory modifications previously described (Meissner et al., 2015a). ...
... In previous papers from this series (Meissner et al., 2016(Meissner et al., , 2017, it has been shown that the profiles of the group of compounds, glucosinolates and their intermediary metabolites GLCT and MGLCT may help in the identification of individual Maca phenotypes selected from mixed Maca crops or commercial pulverised Maca products. Suggested in this and earlier papers, the application of analytical techniques to identify Maca phenotypes from glucosinolates profiles, confirmed earlier studies conducted by Johns (1981), Li et al. (2001), Gonzales et al. (2014) and Chen et al. (2018aChen et al. ( , 2018b, who considered glucosinolates as the group of compounds which -although unstable during Maca processing -may reflect physiological functionality, and influence therapeutic potential of cultivated Maca blends and Maca phenotypes, when used individually or as defined blends in a wide range of dietary supplements (Gonzales, 2017;Meissner et al., 2017). ...
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HPLC glucosinolate (GCSN) profiles and concentration levels were examined in hypocotyls of the four prime Maca phenotypes (Lepidium peruvianum synonym L. meyenii) labelled as “Yellow”, “Black”, “Red” and “Purple”, grown in Peru (Pe) and/or China (Cn). In Trial I, glucotropaeolin (GLCT) and m-methoxyglucotropaeolin (MGLCT) content, and their ratios, was determined in commercial Maca products of Pe origin and compared with similar products declared as of Cn origin. In Trial II, Maca was propagated and cultivated either in Ancash – Peru, according to a traditional single stage planting system, or in Shangri-La – Cn, applying a two-stage Maca planting procedure adopted by Maca growers in Yunnan. Irrespective of the phenotype, in the Pe cultivation system, cylindrical elongated and pointed Maca hypocotyls (H) were harvested in the mixed crop, while disfigured Maca tubers resembling “ginseng-type root” (G) were predominant in the crop harvested in Cn. Two peaks of GLCT and MGLCT were detected in all analysed hypocotyls of the four Maca phenotypes grown in Pe, but only one peak (GLCT) was detected in the Maca phenotypes grown in Shangri-La, Cn. Significantly higher GLCT values were detected in all the Maca phenotypes grown in Cn than in Pe (P < 0.05), with the highest content recorded in the Black and Purple H-shaped while MGLCT was the highest in Yellow G-shaped Cn Maca tubers. Cn-made “Chinese Maca tablets” contained both GLCT and MGLCT. This indicates that Maca imported from Pe could have been used in the formulation - a fact which was subsequently confirmed by the manufacturer.
... The most of Gls in maca is aromatic type and glucotropaeolin. The Gls content varies by ecotype, part of maca plant, harvest time, cultivation region, drying and extraction process ( Table 2) [8,[16][17][18]. Also, researchers have focused on antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of Gls in maca [4,19]. ...
... or grinding influence adversely [16]. Boiling the dried maca hypocotyl before consumption increases total Gls content. ...
Chapter
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Maca plant belongs to Brassicaceae such as broccoli, cabbage and radish, and has a tuber-ous root. With the declaration of The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) that maca is a forgotten and disappearing plant, the fresh, dried, powder and organic forms of it take part in nutrition as a food supplement worldwide. Studies have focused on antioxidant effects depending on its bioactive components such as phenols, glucosino-lates, alkamides and polysaccharides. Antioxidant enzymes and their ability of inhibition the free radicals in blood and tissues were measured to determine the antioxidant effects. The research results have suggested that these compounds present the antioxidant effect by increasing enzyme activity and scavenging free radicals. Yet further experiments are needed to understand this relation between antioxidant activity and maca's antioxidants. The objective of this chapter is to carry out the possible antioxidant activity of maca in human and animal nutrition related to its active compounds such as: phenols, glucosino-lates, alkamides and polysaccharides.
... Some (i.e., the aromatic GL glucotropaeolin) or all of these secondary metabolites, or a distinct combination of them, could play a role in the exhibition of biological eff ects of maca, especially the improvements in fertility reported (e.g., Gonzales et al., 2006aGonzales et al., , 2006bGonzales et al., , 2007. Here, in particular, the aromatic GL glucotropaeolin (benzyl GL) was oft en mentioned (Johns, 1981;Li et al., 2001;Gonzales et al., 2007). It has been observed that maca batches from diff erent producers signifi cantly vary in concentrations of macaene, total macamides, sterols, and GL (Ganzera et al., 2002;McCollom et al., 2005;Clément et al., 2007). ...
... For peak identifi cation, a sample of standard canola seed (ERM-BC367, European Reference Materials, Geel, Belgium) was analyzed by the same method. Gluconasturtiin (2-phenylethyl GL), glucoaubrietin (4-methoxybenzyl GL) (Johns 1981;Li et al., 2001), and glucolimnanthin (3-methoxybenzyl GL) (Dini et al., 1994;Piacente et al., 2002) are eluated at the same peak site. Despite this correspondence with time and the fact that Lepidium sativum contains gluconasturtiin as well (Fahey et al., 2001), a noncorrespondence in the wavelength chromatogram with the gluconasturtiin standard peak basically excludes that the peak was gluconasturtiin. ...
... Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.), a biennial herbaceous plant of the family brassicae, which is cultivated mainly in the central Andes of Peru at elevations of 3500-4500 m above sea level, has been used as both a food and a traditional medicine in the region for over 2000 years [1]. Domestic and foreign experts researched on the nutritional compositions and secondary metabolites of maca, finding that it not only contains rich protein, amino acids, fat, and minerals ion [2] but also contains a variety of secondary metabolites: maca ene, alkaloid (including maca amide), glucosinolate, and other components [3][4][5]. These secondary metabolites are considered closely related to the health effects of maca. ...
... The benzyl glucosinolate content of Xinjiang maca is 1.24 mg/g maca, which also means that the proportion of glucosinolate is 0.124% in maca. This is lower than the result of 0.2% reported by Li et al. [5]. ...
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Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein content and amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids such as Valine and Isoleucine related to the effect of antifatigue. It also has considerable minerals ions such as Ca and Mg. Besides, bioactive ingredients such as maca amide, glucosinolate, and alkaloid of Xinjiang maca are similar to those of maca from other areas, which qualify the biological value of Xinjiang maca. The results of mice model suggest that maca has a dose-dependent antifatigue activity by decreasing blood lactic acid, as well as increasing liver glycogen content and the forced swimming time.
... Aliphatic amino acids including Ala, Leu, Ile, Val and Met, are the precursors of methoxybenzyl glucosinolate, aromatic amino acids, including Phe and Tyr, which are the precursors of benzyl glucosinolate and Trp is the precursor of indole glucosinolate [33]. This study's results show that black Maca has the highest content of Ile, Tyr and Trp, which is consistent with previous reports demonstrating that black Maca is highest in glucosinolate content [6,7,34]. These results indicate that yellow Maca is more suitable for providing basic material and energy as food, while black Maca is preferred to be used in health products. ...
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Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) is a traditional Andean crop with great potential for various sanitarian and medical functions, which is attracting increased research attention. The majority of previous Maca studies were focused on biochemistry and pharmacodynamics, while the genetic basis of its unique characteristics lagged due to a lack of genome information. The authors perform gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis in the hypocotyls of three Maca ecotypes and identify 79 compounds. Among them, 62 compounds have distinct profiles among Maca ecotypes. To reveal the underlying regulatory mechanism of the chemical composition differences, de novo transcriptome sequencing is performed and the transcription profiles of three Maca ecotypes are comparatively analyzed. Functional analysis indicates several key pathways, including “starch and sucrose metabolism,” “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis,” “phenylalanine metabolism” and “plant-pathogen interaction,” are involved in regulating the chemical compositions of Maca. Combining metabolomics and transcriptomics analysis indicates transcription factors such as MYB and WRKY and mediators such as protein kinase and bifunctional inhibitors might be critical regulators of chemical composition in Maca. The transcriptome reference genome and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) obtained in this study might serve as an initial step to illustrate the genetic differences in nutrient component, secondary metabolites content, medicinal function and stress resistance in Maca.
... En la cosecha de maca se obtiene un rastrojo, compuesto por tallos y hojas, el cual es desperdiciado, no teniéndose referencias sobre su posible uso en la alimentación animal. Los componentes nutricionales y bioactivos están concentrados en la raíz de la maca, aunque diferentes fracciones están presentes en las hojas; así, Li et al. (2001) identificó los aromáticos bencilglucosinolatos (glucotropaeolin) y el p-metoxibencilglucosinolato en hojas frescas y secas. Asimismo, Castañeda et al. (2010) empleando cromatografía líquida de alta presión reportan un contenido de 3.5 mg de quercetina por gramo de muestra en hoja de maca, así como contenidos de ácido palmítico, linoleato de etilo, linolenato de etilo, palmitato de etilo, ácido esteárico y linolenato de metilo. ...
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Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad nutricional del rastrojo de maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacón) proveniente de la trilla para la colección de la semilla botánica, en la provincia de Junín (4000 msnm), Perú, se determinó la composición química proximal, los coeficientes de digestibilidad, el contenido de nutrientes digestibles totales, el consumo voluntario y la ingesta proteica del rastrojo picado de maca. Se utilizaron 4 cuyes machos de 4 meses de edad de la raza Wanka dispuestos en jaulas metabólicas que permiten colectar heces libres de orina. Los contenidos de humedad (H), materia seca (MS), proteína total (PT), extracto etéreo (EE), fibra cruda (FC), extracto libre de nitrógeno (ELN) y ceniza del rastrojo de maca fueron 11.30, 88.70, 6.97, 3.58, 36.35, 44.53 y 8.58%, respectivamente; los coeficientes de digestibilidad de la MS, PT, EE, FC, ELN, materia orgánica (MO) y nutrientes digestibles totales (NDT) del rastrojo de la maca fueron 74.79, 68.00, 75.27, 71.78, 77.08, 74.21 y 71.21%, respectivamente. Los consumos promedio de rastrojo fresco de maca por cuy/día y como porcentaje del peso vivo fueron 21.46 g y 3.25%, respectivamente; mientras que el consumo de MS como porcentaje del peso vivo y en gramos por kilogramo de peso metabólico fue de 2.89% y 146.11 g, respectivamente. La ingesta promedio diaria de proteína por kilogramo de cuy vivo fue de 2 g.
... Indigenous Peruvians have traditionally used Maca for centuries as an adaptogenic plant to manage infertility, anemia, menstrual, anticancer, female hormone balance and sexual disorders [1][2][3]. In recent years, Based on the historical use of above facts, a series of commercial dietary supplements containing Maca have gained popularity in Japan, Europe, the US and China [4]. Numerous secondary metabolites of the Maca have been found over the years, and macamide, one of the secondary metabolites, was first found in Maca as the typical marker. ...
Article
Purpose: To study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of N-3-methoxybenzyl-palmitamide (MPM) derived from Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Methods: MPM and N-benzylpalmitamide (BPM, as the internal standard, IS) were prepared by one-pot synthesis method and characterized. For the analysis of MPM in rat plasma and tissue samples, a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated by optimizing sample preparation conditions and UPLC conditions. Finally, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of MPM after oral administration in rats were studied. Results: The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) of the UPLC-MS/MS method were 1.2 and 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. Good linear relationship of calibration curve (r > 0.9951) was achieved over the range of 5 – 5000 ng/mL. In pharmacokinetics, plasma concentration-time curve of MPM showed double peaks. The highest distribution of MPM after absorption was in the stomach, followed by lung. The absorption and eliminate rate of MPM were slow in rats. In fact, MPM displayed a lung targeting property. Conclusion: The developed UPLC-MS/MS method is suitable for plasma and tissue distribution studies of MPM in rats. The present study can provide guidance for the further development and utilization of Maca tuber. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved.
... Elle augmente les capacités sexuelles et la fertilité, qui semblent diminuer avec les hautes altitud es aussi bien chez les hommes que chez les animaux domestiques. (9,16) La Maca est surtout prisée pour cette réputation qui n'est pas prouvée scientifiquement. Elle est plus connue, de nos jours pour ses utilisations médicinales que pour ses utilisations alime ntaires. ...
Thesis
La Maca parvient à pousser à près de 4000 mètres d' altitude, là où quasiment aucune plante n'a la force de résister. Pour les Incas déjà, c'était une plante sacrée, non seulement parce qu'elle semblait pouvoir vaincre les éléments (elle pousse aux alentours des neiges éternelles!), mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elle détenait des propriétés déèjà recherchées à l'époque : des effets aphrodisiaques.La maca (Lepidium meyenii est cultivée depuis des siècles sur les hauts plateaux de la puna, ao sud du Pérou, à partir de 3500 mètres d'altitude. De la famille des crucifères (comme le navet, le chou , la moutarde ou le radis),elle pousse là où le froid est permanent et les gelées fréquentes. Dans ces terres inhospitalières, la racine se faufile entre les cailloux pour rechercher les nutriments dont elle a besoin. Les études scientifiques pratiquées avec la Maca ont donné de tels résultats sur les prouesses sexuellesmasculines (l'effe t aphrodisiaque a été mesuré avec succès sur des souris et des rats) que le petit tubercule a vite été très demandé aux Etats-Unis. Heureusement le gouvernement péruvien veille à ce que la plante ne soit pasexploitée sans mesure. au risque de disparaître. La Maca est restée pratiquement ignorée de tous jusqu'à ces dernières années. Seuls les pauvres paysans des hauts plateaux péruviens connaissaient ses formidables propriétés nutritives et médicinales.
... Maca root has a comparatively high concentration of glucosinolates, and the glucosinolate content of fresh maca root is approximately 100 times higher than that in other cruciferous crops such as cauliflower and cabbage (Li et al., 2001). Studies in animals suggest that maca root has a range of pharmacological functions, such as enhancing fatigue resistance (Ikeuchi et al., 2009), anticancer activity (Večeřa et al., 2007), and reducing prostate hyperplasia (Gonzales et al., 2008). ...
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Premise of the Study Maca (Lepidium meyenii; Brassicaceae) has been cultivated by Andeans for thousands of years as a food source and has been used for medicinal purposes. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying material accumulation during plant growth. Methods RNA‐Seq technology was used to compare the transcriptome of black maca root at three developmental stages. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were applied for the identification of pathways in which differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched. Results Trinity was used to de novo assemble the reads, and 120,664 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 71.53% of the unigenes were annotated based on BLAST. A total of 18,321 differentially expressed genes were observed. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis found that the most highly represented pathway among the differentially expressed genes was for genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. We also found that genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis, such as glucosinolate biosynthesis, were significantly enriched. Discussion The genes that were differentially expressed between developmental time points likely reflect both developmental pathways and responses to changes in the environment. As such, the transcriptome data in this study serve as a reference for subsequent mining of genes that are involved in the synthesis of important bioactive components in maca.
... Plants in the order Brassicales, including maca (Lepidium meyenii) root, papaya (Carica papaya) seed, and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) sprout, were tested for the presence of compound 1 (1, 3-dibenzylurea) using LC-MS/MS. These plant species and parts were selected based on previous reports of the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (glucotropaeolin) or benzyl isothiocyanate [23,34,35]. Compound 1 was detected in all three plants, suggesting that the occurrence of urea derivatives is conserved among these plant species (Table 1). ...
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Recently, dibenzylurea-based potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors were identified in Pentadiplandra brazzeana, a plant in the order Brassicales. In an effort to generalize the concept, we hypothesized that plants that produce benzyl glucosinolates and corresponding isothiocyanates also produce these dibenzylurea derivatives. Our overall aim here was to examine the occurrence of urea derivatives in Brassicales, hoping to find biologically active urea derivatives from plants. First, plants in the order Brassicales were analyzed for the presence of 1, 3-dibenzylurea (compound 1), showing that three additional plants in the order Brassicales produce the urea derivatives. Based on the hypothesis, three dibenzylurea derivatives with sEH inhibitory activity were isolated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) roots. Topical application of one of the identified compounds (compound 3, human sEH IC50= 222 nM) effectively reduced pain in rat inflammatory pain model, and this compound was bioavailable after oral administration in mice. The biosynthetic pathway of these urea derivatives was investigated using papaya (Carica papaya) seed as a model system. Finally, a small collection of plants from the Brassicales order was grown, collected, extracted and screened for sEH inhibitory activity. Results show that several plants of the Brassicales order could be potential sources of urea-based sEH inhibitors. © 2017 Kitamura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
... However, the definition of the most abundant hemicelluloses and their changes of proportions with the advance of development depend on an analysis by methylation or enzymatic methods. In any event, the brazilwood has shown potential for storing carbon in the form of xylans responsible for 1/3 of the whole renewable organic carbon available on earth (Petzold et al. 2006), what may represent 15-30% of the angiosperms secondary cell wall content (Li et al. 2001;Brüx et al. 2006). ...
Article
For this work we hypothesize the existence of proportional increase in the thickness of the mesophyll cells and dimensions of the fiber cells of stem and the content of the cell wall polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) with the ontogeny of brazilwood. We also postulate that the capacity of this heliophile in inhabit lower stratum of forest densely shaded until the canopy highly illuminated is due to high plasticity of specific leaf area and stomatal density. Juvenile individuals stood out for higher specific leaf area, lower stomatal density, size of vessel elements and lignin contents as much in leaf and in stem. Young individuals presented, in general, intermediate values. The adult individuals, whose crowns reached the canopy, stood out for greater thickening of the spongy parenchyma, stomatal density, water content and hemicelluloses and lignins of leaf and stem. The cellulose content of the leaf and stem did not vary between different stages of ontogeny. From all the structural variables, the dimensions of the vessel elements and the proportion of hemicelluloses of leaves showed greater plasticity. Qualitative analysis of the cell wall suggested that the hemicelluloses are the type xylan with the possibility of presence of xyloglucan. Differently than what was hypothesized, we concluded that the capacity of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in inhabit lower stratum of forest densely shaded until the canopy highly illuminated is due to high plasticity of density and diameter vessel and hemicelluloses of leaves and not specific leaf area and stomatal density.
... La harina de maca se ubica en el séptimo lugar. Los glucosinolatos identificados en la harina de maca son: glucoalisin, glucosinalbin, glucotropaeolin, glucolimnatin (Li et al., 2001; Piacente et al., 2002). La mirosinasa (tioglucósido glucohidrolasa, E.C.3.2.3.1) ...
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Resumen The aim this work was to compare the extraction process optimization of total glucosinolates of maca flour (Lepidium meyenii) (ETGMF) using RS for Box-Behnken (RSBB) Design with that of GA, according to x1: temperature (°C), x2: ethanol (%), x3: ratio solvent/raw material and x4: extraction time (min). TG were identified and quantified using HPLC. The variables (x1, x2, x3, x4) that influence their extraction were evaluated using a RSBB with the software Statistica and Wolfram Mathematica for the AG. From the development of the RSBB, a second order equation with R2 = 0.74794, p = 1.88248E-10 << 0.05 with 11% average absolute error was obtained; it showed the consistency of the model. It was not possible to obtain an optimal value of the ETGMF using RSBB because of the existence of two optimal zones due to the configuration of a chair surface. After 2000 iterations using GA, the maximum value of the function of 17.0986 μmol of TG/g of MF was obtained, which was reached with 69.9783 °C, 70.9540 ethanol%, 10.0488 ratio solvent/raw material in 90 min, which demonstrates the applicability of the GA. DOI: 10.17268/sci.agropecu.2016.03.16
... Maca contains many proteins, amino acids, fats and vitamins [2], as well as a variety of secondary metabolites such as maca ene, alkaloids (including maca amide), glucosinolates, and other components [3][4][5]. It is also a rich source of micro-and macroelements, including iron, calcium, ...
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Lepidium meyenii , commonly known as Maca, is a Peruvian plant that grows high in the Andes, in areas over 4,000 meters above sea level. Its composition contains almost all of the essential amino acids and twenty of the essential fatty acids needed by man, as well as many vitamins, minerals and several sterols and glucosinolates. The specific and unique unsaturated acids and amides found only in this plant are the macaenes and macamides. Most valuable ingredients are contained within the hypocotyls. Maca comes in three forms, based on its root colour, yellow, red and black. Although used individually, consumption recommendations are usually for a mix of all three. Since Inca times, it has been considered as super food. Although now mostly used in the form of a supplement, ongoing research does not exclude future applications of Maca as medicine. It is attributed to have an effect on male fertility (adding energy and vitality), and in regulating hormone secretion. In animal studies, Maca has been shown to have antioxidant, neuroprotective effects and antiviral activity. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to alleviate the effects of depression. In addition, there are reports that Maca reduces the development of cancer and osteoporosis, improves memory, facilitates concentration and alleviates the symptoms of menopause. The obtained results, however, require further analysis to confirm its effect. Currently, there is little information on toxicity, so there is a need for specialized research in this area, and on-going research concerns the most effective variety and form of preparation of Maca for administration to achieve best effects. The potential of Maca as medicine exists. The increasing pan-continental popularity of Maca has created the need for a better understanding of its action mechanisms.
... El contenido de glucosinolatos fue de 1,58 μmol/g, y se mantuvo por efecto del proceso, indicativo de que no existe cambio sensorial apreciable en el producto por efecto de la aplicación de vapor saturado. Flores et al. (2003), Dini et al. (2002) y Li et al. (2001) indican que los glucosinolatos son considerados responsables del sabor picante de la maca y se encuentra en menor proporción en maca seca, en comparación al tejido y semilla fresca; la importancia de mantener el contenido de glucosinolatos casi invariable es por la funcionalidad que presentan en las actividades biológicas, propiedades anticancerígenas y capacidad para combatir patógenos (Fahey et al., 2001). ...
... The maca's edible underground storage organ, the hypocotyl, is appreciated for its high nutritional value and pharmacological properties (Carvalho & Ribeiro, 2019;Peres et al., 2020). This part of the plant is known mainly for its content in isothiocyanates, compounds with biological activity for cancer protection (Li et al., 2001). According to the maca cultivar, the hypocotyl has different colors (mainly yellow, red, purple, and black), which are thought to be associated with distinctive biological activities (Gonzales et al., 2014;Peres et al., 2020). ...
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High Andean crops are precious resources for low‐income farmers threatened by climate conditions. In the Puna region of the central Peruvian Andes, poor farmers grow Lepidium meyenii Walpers (maca), a root crop endemic to this region, under extreme environmental conditions. The performance ranking of crop accessions may vary with climate variability due to interactions between genotypes and the environment, but this issue has not been addressed for maca crops. Here we used three thermal setups under laboratory conditions and tested the effects of temperature regime, seed accession, and germination promoters on seed germination and seedling performance traits of maca plants. We found significant Temperature x Accession (T x A) interactions for most response variables, i.e., the performance ranking of accessions varied with temperature regimes. The positive effects of promoters (gibberellic acid, GA; sodium hypochlorite, SH) on germination and seedling emergence variables were not additive and showed a clear trend to be greater at lower temperatures. Because available maca accessions still require the Andean Puna´s cold environment to develop their hypocotyls fully, the selection of accessions with better tolerance to higher temperatures should be taken as a long‐term challenge. In the short term, our findings strongly suggest that maca growers might use GA as a promoter to overcome limitations imposed on seed germination and seedling emergence by low temperatures at the crop growing areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved Performance ranking of maca accessions varied among different thermal scenarios. The positive effects of germination promoters was most noticeable at low temperatures. Promoters did not show an additive effect when applied together. Association between germination and seedling emergence was independent of temperature.
... Los aproximadamente 120 glucosinolatos estudiados, consisten en β-D-glucopiranosa, unido mediante un átomo de azufre, a un éster (Z)-Nhidroximinosulfato, más un grupo R variable, derivados de uno de los siguientes aminoácidos: Ala, Leu, Ile, Met y Val, glucosinolatos alifáticos, Phe y Tyr, glucosinolatos aromáticos o bencénicos y Trp, indol glucosinolatos (Halkier & Gershenzon, 2006;Sønderby, Geu-Flores & Halkier, 2010). Son los metabolitos secundarios más importantes en la maca, la mayoría de ellos de tipo aromático, el glucotropaeolin es el más abundante, los hipocótilos frescos contienen 100 veces más que la col, coliflor y brócoli, seguido de las semillas, brotes, hipocótilos secos y hojas frescas (Li, Ammermann & Quirós, 2001). El 80-90% de los glucosinolatos totales en la maca está constituido por glucotropaeolin (Clément et al., 2009;Yábar, Pedreschi, Chirinos & Campos, 2011), están presentes en diferentes órganos de la planta, varían en contenido y tipo, dependiendo de la edad de la planta y color del hipocótilo (Clément et al., 2010). ...
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Maca is nutritious, energetic and functional food. As a defense mechanism, its secondary metabolites react to biotic and abiotic stress, during pre-harvest, harvest and traditional post-harvest drying. The aim of this review is to evaluate and provide relevant scientific information about bioactives, biochemistry and biological activity of the maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers or Lepidium peruvianum Chacón) related to health and reassess its functional food condition. A search of four electronic databases and information required from the authors was used for this review. There is a lack of in vivo and clinical research with more representative sample sizes and more consistent methodologies. Therefore, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, macaenes, macamides, macahidantoins, meyeniins, alkaloids and others formed during the productive cycle of maca act synergistically to prevent chronic diseases when consumed as part of a varied diet (functional), very common in our food culture and not as isolated bioactive compounds (nutraceutical) from the biological context as pretended by the pharmaceutical industry
... Due to various health claims and benefits exhibited, food products derived from maca have become popular in the niche food section market, specifically involving health-conscious consumers. A wide range of commercial products obtained from maca mainly includes flour (milled and dried), maca root capsules or pills, encapsulated or plain hydroalcoholic extracts, gelatinized flour (dried, milled and extruded), liquor, mayonnaise, tonic drinks, and chocolate [53,54]. ...
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The advancement within the food and nutrition sector has resulted in the development of a special category of food, particularly referred to as “superfoods”. Superfoods are special kind of foods capable of exhibiting different positive effects involving prevention of different ailments, pro- vide impetus to the immune system, and essential macro- and micro-nutrients in ample quantities. Nowadays, these are gaining considerable attention due to the increased health consciousness of consumers. In contrast to their exceptional health or even medicinal benefits, which are based on their long history of use, the concept of superfoods is still little understood. The category of super- foods mainly comprises different types of fruits, vegetables, grains, etc. This review sheds light on the nutritional composition as well as the possible intervention in the prevention of various chronic ailments of some significant superfoods. This manuscript could help consumers to use superfoods as part of their diet more often and very effectively.
... La Maca es un sub arbusto anual (leñosa en la base y herbáceas en la zona superior), de raíz tuberosa y arrosetada (en botánica disposición de las hojas en rosetas), es la única Brassicaceae (Crucífera) domesticada en los Andes y es cultivada en la Puna entre los 3.850 a 4.850 metros sobre el nivel del mar. La raíz tiene diversidad de metabolitos secundarios (glucosinolatos, isotiocianatos aromáticos, bencilisotiocianato, p-metoxi-bencilisotiocianato, flavonoides, y antocianinas (Li et al. 2001) por lo que es usada como como un nutrialimentos y también como una planta farmacéutica y energética. Su valor nutricional superior al de cereales como el trigo, el maíz y el arroz por la gran cantidad de almidón. ...
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Este trabajo es un libro de divulgación de la ciencia, dirigida a todo público que narra un proyecto internacional de colaboración científica para el estudio de la biogeografía, filogeografía, genómica y la distribución planetaria del insecto plaga agrícola de crucíferas la polilla espalda de diamante Plutella xylostella (L.). Ese proyecto internacional científico fue un ejemplo de la sinergia entre la academia científica internacional y la sociedad para estudiar un insecto plaga de la agricultura. En el rastro de la polilla la col Plutella xylostella una hiper plaga agrícola Primera parte: Sudamerica es un libro de divulgación de la ciencia hecho de tres volúmenes, en el que aquí se presenta el primero (los otros dos volúmenes relatan África y Europa). A ser publicado en inglés, y en chino, además de en castellano para enseñar al público nacional pero también internacional, (especialmente al Chino, pueblo contraparte de este proyecto científico) la colaboración científica global para el estudio de la genómica de Plutella xylostella (L.) la plaga de insectos más resistente a insecticidas del mundo, insertando en el texto, reflexiones e información científica acerca de la filogeogeografia, el ADN mitocondrial, el ADN nuclear, el manejo integrado de plagas, biología y ecología de esta plaga, y de las sociedades y países donde se colecto el insecto, con el objetivo de sensibilizar, educar, porque, ningún proyecto científico tiene sentido, sino educa y no intenta cambiar la sociedad, hacia una sociedad más verde y más sustentable.
... In contrast, total GSL concentrations increased from immature to mature seeds in both species as well as in the transgenic line. These findings are in congruence with higher concentrations of GSLs found in mature seeds than in juvenile plant parts of other species within the genus, such as L. peruvianum [33] and L. draba [18]. Moreover, the consistently high concentrations of GSLs in seeds underpin their role in the protection of the tissue that will eventually give rise to the next generation irrespective of whether the seeds are enclosed within the papery thin pericarp of L. appelianum or released from the dehiscent fruits of L. campestre. ...
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The morphology and physiology of diaspores play crucial roles in determining the fate of seeds in unpredictable habitats. In some genera of the Brassicaceae different types of diaspores can be found. Lepidium appelianum produces non-dormant seeds within indehiscent fruits while in L. campestre dormant seeds are released from dehiscent fruits. We investigated whether the allocation of relevant defence compounds into different tissues in different Lepidium species may be related to the diverse dispersal strategy (indehiscent and dehiscent) and seed physiology (non-dormant and dormant). Total glucosinolate concentration and composition were analysed in immature and mature seeds and pericarps of L. appelianum and L. campestre using high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, for comparison, transgenic RNAi L. campestre lines were used that produce indehiscent fruits due to silencing of LcINDEHISCENCE, the INDEHISCENCE ortholog of L. campestre. Total glucosinolate concentrations were lower in immature compared to mature seeds in all studied Lepidium species and transgenic lines. In contrast, indehiscent fruits of L. appelianum maintained their total glucosinolate concentration in mature pericarps compared to immature ones, while in dehiscent L. campestre and in indehiscent RNAi-LcIND L. campestre a significant decrease in total glucosinolate concentrations from immature to mature pericarps could be detected. Indole glucosinolates were detected in lower abundance than the other glucosinolate classes (aliphatic and aromatic). Relatively high concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate were found in mature seeds of L. appelianum compared to other tissues, while no indole glucosinolates were detected in mature diaspores of L. campestre. The diaspores of the latter species may rather depend on aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates for long-term protection. The allocation patterns of glucosinolates correlate with the morpho-physiologically distinct fruits of L. appelianum and L. campestre and may be explained by the distinct dispersal strategies and the dormancy status of both species.
... Maca also includes macaridine, macaene, macamides, glucusinolates, alkaloids and sterols (76). It has been reported that Maca has glucosinolates 100 times more than curcifera (285). Amino acids are one of the simulating factor for the secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland anterior lobe and eventually the growth hormone stimulates IGF_1 (insulin-like growth factor) secretion from liver (23) which has an important role in energy and protein metabolism, in addition to regulation of increasing the protein synthesis and decreasing its catabolism in the body (286). ...
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Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has emerged as a popular functional plant food due to various claimed health effects. This review details the major (i.e., starch, dietary fiber, and protein) and minor constituents (i.e., minerals, non-starch polysaccharides, polyphenols (flavonolignans), macaenes, macamides, glucosinolates, and alkaloids) of maca (root and aerial parts). Diverse health effects of maca are also summarized. Various bioactivities of maca include enhanced reproductive health, antifatigue, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, hepatoprotection, immunomodulation, and improving skin health and digestive system's function. Plant genetics, botanical parts, processing, extraction, and experimental protocols represent the major factors affecting the chemical composition, physicochemical attributes, and health effects of maca-based products. However, clinical studies to support the claimed health effects of maca and related mechanisms appear to be lacking. Product innovation and diversification in food and non-food utilization of different parts of maca to maximize the value perceptions are suggested.
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It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (una de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muna), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.
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Lepidium meyenii (Maca) contains several active components, including alkaloids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and sterols, which make it have the traditional therapeutic uses. In this paper, we summarized the analytical progress of the active components associated with alkaloids, polysaccharides, glucosinolates, sterols, free fatty acids, flavonoids, and natural phenols in Maca by mass spectrometry (MS). Due to the effect of color and type on active components in Maca, we summarized the study of quality evaluation about Maca according to the type and the content of active components such as glucosinolates, essential oils, macamides, and macaenes by MS. Additionally, the research on the change of active components in Maca at different growth stages by MS will be beneficial to full utilization of active components in Maca and other natural resources. We reviewed the study in the visible distribution of amino acids, amide alkaloids, imidazolium alkaloids, and saccharides in Maca by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). We also reviewed the pharmacology value associated with improvement of reproductive function, anti‐stress response, anti‐osteoporosis, antitumor activity, clinical research and toxicity of Maca, and so forth. Nevertheless, due to individual differences and limitations of the subjects, further high‐quality studies are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of the plant.
Chapter
In this chapter, some of the most recent information on glucosinolate-containing plant families is presented. Glucosinolates (GLs) are structurally homogenous secondary metabolites present in the Brassicaceae, Capparidaceae, Moringaceae, and Resedaceae families, as well as in other less-studied families of the order Brassicales. Based on the GL contents, new subdivisions of GL-containing plants are suggested. It was shown that only a limited number of the reported ca 130 GLs are available in fair quantities, acceptable for further investigation of the biological potential. In recent years, degradation products of a limited number of GLs (e.g., gluconasturtiin, glucoraphanin, glucomoringin), mostly isothiocyanates, have been found to possess real pharmacological activity. Some of the biological aspects of GLs and isothiocyanates which have been in recent focus are presented.
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We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells.
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The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (M 18:3) on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity. A neurotoxic model was established by subcutaneous injection of corticosterone (40 mg per kg bw) for 21 days. Depressive behaviors (the percentage of sucrose consumption, the immobility time in the forced swimming test, and the total distance in the open field test) were observed. The levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the contents of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and the numbers of positive cells of doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine in the hippocampus were measured. The density of hippocampal neurons was calculated. The morphological changes of hippocampal neurons (the density of dendritic spines, the dendritic length, and the area and volume of dendritic cell bodies) were observed. The expression levels of synaptophysin, synapsin I, and postsynaptic density protein 95 were measured. Behavioral experiments showed that M 18:3 (5 and 25 mg per kg bw) could remarkably improve the depressive behaviors. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that M 18:3 could considerably reduce hippocampal neuroinflammation and increase hippocampal neurotrophy. Nissl staining showed that M 18:3 could remarkably improve the corticosterone-induced decrease in the hippocampal neuron density. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that M 18:3 could considerably promote hippocampal neurogenesis. Golgi staining showed that M 18:3 could remarkably improve the corticosterone-induced changes in the hippocampal dendritic structure. Western blotting showed that M 18:3 could considerably increase the expression levels of synaptic-structure-related proteins in the hippocampus. In conclusion, the protective effects of M 18:3 may be attributed to the anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and synaptic protection properties.
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The consumption of glucosinolate (GL)-rich foods, including Brassica vegetables, such as mustard, broccoli, and maca, is associated with decreased risk of developing cancer. The GL content in maca, which is recognized as a “superfood”, is approximately 100-times higher than that in other brassicas. Although maca is a potential dietary source of GLs, limited studies have examined the bioactivity of maca GLs using the combination of chemical characterization and bioassays. In this study, the fractions (Lm-II and Lm-III) rich in intact GLs (glucotropaeolin and glucolimnanthin) were isolated and characterized from maca ethanolic extracts using chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, the growth-inhibitory effects of Lm-II and Lm-II fractions against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2/C3A) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines were examined in the absence or presence of myrosinase (MYR). Fractions lacking low molecular weight sugars dose-dependently exerted cytotoxic effects in the presence of MYR. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of Lm-II and Lm-III against HepG2/C3A were 118.8 and 69.9 µg/mL, respectively, while those against HT29 were 102.6 and 71.5 µg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that the anticancer properties of maca can be attributed to GLs and corroborate the categorization of maca as a “superfood.” Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1952444
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1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lacks treatments; for this reason, the search for potential compounds against therapeutic targets is still necessary. Bioinformatics tools have allowed the rapid in silico screening of possible new metabolite candidates from natural resources or repur-posing known ones. Thus, in this work, we aimed to select phytochemical candidates from Peruvian plants with antiviral potential against three therapeutical targets of SARS-CoV-2. (2) Methods: We applied in silico technics, such as virtual screening, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation , and MM/GBSA estimation. (3) Results: Rutin, a compound present in Peruvian native plants, showed affinity against three targets of SARS-CoV-2. The molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated the high stability of receptor-ligand systems during the time of the simulation. Our results showed that the Mpro-Rutin system exhibited higher binding free energy than PLpro-Rutin and N-Rutin systems through MM/GBSA analysis. (4) Conclusions: Our study provides insight on natural metabolites from Peruvian plants with therapeutical potential. We found Rutin as a potential candidate with multiple pharmacological properties against SARS-CoV-2.
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Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a biennial plant of the crucifer family (Brassicaceae), cultivated on the Andean plateaus of Peru. According to traditional beliefs, maca is considered to be an aphro-disiac, also known as ‘Peruvian ginseng’. The edible parts of the plant are the bulbous root and hypocotyl, which have health-promoting properties. The analysis of the chemical composition showed that L. meyenii had a high nutritional value and contained biologically active compounds such as: polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins), tannins, saponins, prostaglandins and alkaloids. Furthermore, the plant is a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol) and glucosinolates, which are valuable dietary components. According to the avail-able literature, maca is currently the only known plant that contains macamides – components improving sexual functions. The results of studies have confirmed its impact on fertility, physical performance and health improvement in animals and humans. Moreover, maca also shows anti- -cancer, anti-osteoporosis and neuroprotective potential.
Chapter
In this chapter, some of the most recent information on glucosinolate-containing plant families is presented. Glucosinolates (GLs) are structurally homogenous secondary metabolites present in the Brassicaceae, Capparidaceae, Moringaceae, and Resedaceae families, as well as in other less-studied families of the order Brassicales. Based on the GL contents, new subdivisions of GL-containing plants are suggested. It was shown that only a limited number of the reported ca 130 GLs are available in fair quantities, acceptable for further investigation of the biological potential. In recent years, degradation products of a limited number of GLs (e.g., gluconasturtiin, glucoraphanin, glucomoringin), mostly isothiocyanates, have been found to possess real pharmacological activity. Some of the biological aspects of GLs and isothiocyanates which have been in recent focus are presented.
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Macathiohydantoins B–K (1–10), two new group of naturally occurring thiohydantoin derivatives, together with one known analogues (11), were isolated from the rhizomes of Lepidium meyenii (Maca). Compounds 1–11 were all initially obtained as racemic mixtures and further separated by chiral HPLC chromatography to afford the eleven pairs of enantiomers. The structures of 1–10 including their absolute configurations were fully established by the comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.
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The identification and quantification of Glucosinolates (Gls) via UPLC® MS‐MS/PDA/qToF in ten mashua cultivars was carried out. Gls total contents were within the 4.9–54.2 μmol g−1 dry matter range, of which 96–99% corresponded to glucoaubrietin. Other less abundant Gls were glucotropaeolin and tentatively two isomers of hydroxybenzyl Gls. Postharvest refrigeration and shade storage conditions increased the content of Gls up to day 6 in 39.7% and 51.5% respectively. Sun exposure increased the Gls content in 40% up to day 3 but from day 6 considerable losses were attained (92% at day 15). Low correlation levels (R2) between the Gls and myrosinase (MYR) activity of 0.57, 0.28 and 0.39 for the refrigeration, shade and sun exposure treatments were obtained. The cooking regimes tested, boiling, microwaving and baking totally inactivated MYR without affecting the Gls content. Postharvest affect the stability of glucosinolates of Andean mashua tubers.
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The demand and sales of dietary supplements derived from maca (Lepidium meyenii) have skyrocketed in the last decade and a variety of related nutritional and healthcare products have mushroomed into a business with market prominence. However, the lack of standard testing protocols for quality control could jeopardize the immediate benefits of these products for public health. We describe herein the development of analytical procedures for the determination of glucosinolates (GLs), the biologically active ingredients in maca. Because of the high polarity and instability caused by enzymatic hydrolysis, GLs in maca have been exclusively analyzed using desulfated GLs. This indirect analysis requires additional sample preparation steps, which is labor-intensive, and may lose the original GLs and introduce artificial compounds. Furthermore, the reported GL profiles of maca are inconsistent and incomplete, some GLs may be structurally misidentified. In this context, we focused on direct analysis of intact GLs in maca without the enzymatic desulfation. Four GLs (sinalbin, glucolepigramin, glucolimnanthin, and glucotropaeolin) were identified as the major GLs in maca root powder. An HPLC method based on ion pair chromatography was developed to determine individual and total GLs; chromatographic separations were achieved on a Luna column (C18, 4.6 × 100 mm,3 mm) using 0.1% TFA in water and in methanol as mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The developed procedures were validated within the calibration range of 10 – 500 µg/mL. Inter- and intra-day precision were shown to be lower than 3% at all concentrations levels with recovery between 100.2 and 103.3 %. The procedures were applied to a total of 42 maca root powder products from 11 manufacturers. Sample analysis revealed a consistent correlation of glucotropaeolin: glucolimnanthin (1: 0.19) across all products with a correlation coefficient of 0.994. The correlation in combination with total GL contents for each product could be used for authentication and GL content determination. Incorporation of the developed procedures into USP monographs will strengthen the public standards for maca powder dietary supplements.
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Lepidium meyenii, a Peruvian plant growing over 4000 m.a.s.l., has effects on nutrition and fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm count in 105 male mice receiving boiled aqueous extract of yellow maca hypocotyls from different sizes, under different pH conditions and using two different routes of administration. Five mice per group were treated daily for 3 days with vehicle (oral and intraperitoneal) or maca aqueous extracts (5 mg/0.5 ml/day) belonging to the first, second, third and fourth categories, according to their hypocotyl size. On day four, sperm count was evaluated at testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Sperm count was higher in mice receiving maca from the larger sizes (first and second categories). Reduction in maca extract pH increased sperm count, whereas an increase in the pH resulted in a reduction in sperm count. The effect of pH reduction is observed only in maca from the first and second categories. Aqueous extract of maca was effective only after oral administration. In conclusion, the larger size of hypocotyls presented the best biological effect, and the low pH in the extract and the transformation after gastrointestinal passage are both important for its biological action.
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Lepidium meyenii is a medicinal edible plant that have nutritional and therapeutic benefits due to synthesis of bioactive compounds. The main phytochemicals found in Lepidium meyenii can be categorized into six classes: glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, thiohydantoins, macaene and macamides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, and fatty acids. These compounds show a wide range of biological activities, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory activities. Hereby, the objective of this review is to provide a wide comprehension of the nutraceutical properties of Lepidium meyenii. For that, we review and critically discussed original manuscripts describing the chemical and nutritional composition, as well as biological activities of Lepidium meyenii extracts. We showed that the nutraceutical properties of the belowground part of Lepidium meyenii shows great variations that are dependent of differences of phenotype, place of cultivation, type of soil, environmental conditions, and time of harvest. Additionally, we have demonstrated that diet supplementation with Lepidium meyenii may exert several health prophylactics benefits.
Chapter
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The Andean and Amazonian regions harbor a remarkably rich biodiversity. Many food crops such as corn, potato, cassava, tomato, peanut, and cacao have crossed borders and are consumed worldwide. However, there are still plenty of other native food crops that have not been fully exploited, which have a great potential for the development of innovative food products and derivatives and may contribute to food security, reduction of biodiversity loss, and resilience to climate change. Some grains, cereals, legumes, tubers, roots, and fruits are rich not only in macronutrients and micronutrients but also in bioactive compounds, which seem to be able to modulate metabolic processes with a positive effect on human health, although the mechanism of action of bioactive compounds is not completely understood. Food crops with an interesting content of nutrients and bioactive compounds that have been selected for presentation in this chapter are Amaranthus caudatus, Chenopodium pallidicaule, Chenopodium quinoa, Lupinus mutabilis, Zea mays, Lepidium peruvianum, Smallanthus sonchifolius, Tropaeolum tuberosum, Annona muricata, Euterpe oleracea, Myrciaria dubia, Physalis peruviana, Plukenetia volubilis, and Solanum betaceum.
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The aim of the study was to present the fingerprint of different Lepidium peruvianum tuber extracts showing glucosinolates-containing substances possibly playing an important role in preventinting dementia and other memory disorders. Different phenotypes of Lepidium peruvianum (Brassicaceae) tubers were analysed for their glucosinolate profile using a liquid chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS platform). Qualitative analysis in 50% ethanolic extracts confirmed the presence of ten compounds: aliphatic, indolyl, and aromatic glucosinolates, with glucotropaeolin being the leading one, detected at levels between 0–1.57% depending on phenotype, size, processing, and collection site. The PCA analysis showed important variations in glucosinolate content between the samples and different ratios of the detected compounds. Applied in vitro activity tests confirmed inhibitory properties of extracts and single glucosinolates against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (15.3–28.9% for the extracts and 55.95–57.60% for individual compounds) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) (71.3–77.2% for the extracts and 36.2–39.9% for individual compounds). The molecular basis for the activity of glucosinolates was explained through molecular docking studies showing that the tested metabolites interacted with tryptophan and histidine residues of the enzymes, most likely blocking their active catalytic side. Based on the obtained results and described mechanism of action, it could be concluded that glucosinolates exhibit inhibitory properties against two cholinesterases present in the synaptic cleft, which indicates that selected phenotypes of L. peruvianum tubers cultivated under well-defined environmental and ecological conditions may present a valuable plant material to be considered for the development of therapeutic products with memory-stimulating properties.
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Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a biennial herbaceous plant of the family Brassicaceae, which recently gained research attention as well as consumer interest. Its underground storage organs are used both as a food and as traditional medicine. The storage organs, called fleshy-hypocotyls, are formed by swollen hypocotyl tissues fused with a taproot. The attempts to grow maca outside of its centre of origin have increased globally, although many cropping requirements are unknown. In terms of fleshy-hypocotyl formation, the impact of day length remains unclear. In this study the effects of day length (8 h, 16 h) on early plant development and hypocotyl thickening in yellow maca were investigated in a rhizobox experiment under controlled conditions (20 °C day and 18 °C night temperature, and relative air humidity 25–30%). Results of a 13-week cultivation period showed that number of leaves and leaf length significantly increased in plants grown under long-day (LD, 16 h) conditions as compared to those from the short-day (SD, 8 h) treatment. Furthermore, plants developed under LD conditions had larger hypocotyl width within 67 days after sowing. At 88 days after sowing, the width was almost two-fold higher. Moreover, the total root length of maca plants from LD treatment was significantly longer and had more fine roots (diameter < 0.4 mm) than in plants cultivated in SD treatment. The obtained results suggest that in early stages of plant development LD can stimulate root development and hypocotyl thickening in yellow maca.
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Experiments based on four accessions of maca (Lepdium meyenii) disclosed higher developmental rates in plants grown in neutral pH (6.6) soil when compared with those grown in acidic soil (5.3). Photoperiod response studies revealed similar growth rate for plants grown under either long day or short day condition. Plants in the field and growth chambers completed their life cycle in 11 months or less, therefore maca can be considered an annual crop. These results suggest that the range of adaptation of maca is not as narrow as previously believed, and therefore it can be successfully produced outside its natural habitat. Chromosome counts and predominance of bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I disclosed that maca is a disomic octoploid of 2n=8x=64 chromosomes. Field and growth chamber observations and morphological uniformity of the plants within accessions indicate that maca relies mainly on self-fertilization for its reproduction.
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Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica Group) has been recognized as a source of glucosinolates and their isothiocyanate metabolites that may be chemoprotective against human cancer. A predominant glucosinolate of broccoli is glucoraphanin and its cognate isothiocyanate is sulforaphane. Sulforaphane has been shown to be a potent inducer of mammalian detoxication (Phase 2) enzyme activity and to inhibit chemical-induced tumorigenesis in animal models. Little is known about phenotypic variation in broccoli germplasm for Phase 2 enzyme (e.g., quinone reductase) induction potential. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate: 1) quinone reductase induction potential (QRIP) diversity among a population of broccoli inbreds; 2) QRIP levels in selected lines; 3) correlation of QRIP with other horticultural characteristics; and 4) QRIP expression in a sample of synthesized hybrids. In 1996, 71 inbreds and five hybrid checks (all field-grown), ranged from a QRIP of nearly zero to 150,000 units/g fresh weight (FW) (mean of 34,020 units/g FW). These values were highly correlated with methylsulphinylalkyl glucosinolate (MSAG; primarily glucoraphanin) concentrations that ranged from 0.04 to 2.94 μmol·g-1 FW. A select subset of lines evaluated in 1996 were reevaluated in 1997. QRIP and MSAG values in this second year were similar to and correlated with those observed in 1996 (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.79, P < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, both QRIP and MSAG concentration were highly correlated with days from transplant to harvest. Average F1 hybrid values for QRIP and MSAG in 1997 fell typically between their parental means, but were often closer to the mean of the low parent. Results of this study indicate that divergent QRIP expression can effectively be used to select enhanced inbred lines to use in development of value-added hybrids. Evidence is also provided that there is a significant genetic component to both QRIP and MSAG concentration, and that selection for either one may provide an effective means for developing broccoli hybrids with enhanced chemoprotective attributes. Chemical names used: 4-methylsulphinylbutyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin) and 4-methylsulphinylbutyl isothiocyanate (sulforaphane).
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Tropaeolum tuberosum, aiiu. and Lepidium meyenii. maca, are cultivated in the Andes mountains for their edible underground parts. Cultural and medicinal associa-tions between the plants are supported by their similarity in secondary chemistry, and by the pharmacological properties of the isothiocyanates released upon hydrolysis of the glucosinolates present. T. tuberosum has been reported to contain p-methoxybenzyl glu-cosinolate; L. meyenii is reported here to contain benzyl and p-methoxybenzyl glucosino-lates. The likelihood that human selection for specific flavor and medicinal properties has altered the secondary chemistry of, at least, the onu raises questions concerned with both human taste perception and plant domestication.
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The glucosinolate (GSL) pattern of 93 resynthesized (resyn) repeseed lines was examined over three years, and five stable genotypes with distinct GSL profiles were identified. Typically the resyn B. napus profile exhibited progoitrin as the main GSL, but contained sinigrin. The different GSL patterns of the four deviating lines are discussed with respect to the proposed biosynthetic pathway. Within the resyn and further extensive breeding materias, screening for low indolyl GSL contents resulted in finding one genotype with an extremely low 4-hydroxy-gluco-brassicin and glucobrassicin content. Furthermore, other lines were identified, over a wide range of indolyl GSL contents. The values were stable over two years.
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Variation in subunit polypeptide composition of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) from native AustralianLepidium taxa was analyzed by isoelectric focusing (IEF). Species of grexMonoplocoidea on the one hand, and species of gregesPseudoruderalia andPapillosa on the other, were well separated by Rubisco IEF patterns. The protein data suggest grexMonoplocoidea to be placed in sect.Monoploca whereas gregesPseudoruderalia andPapillosa should be integrated into sect.Dileptium. We suggest that the Rubisco type of American and/or AsianLepidium species was contained in those plants migrating to Australia and evolving into the recent native Australian species. Fossil pollen records and vegetation history indicate that the origin ofLepidium in Australia was restricted to the late Tertiary of Quaternary. Data presented in this study fit best with an immigration by long-distance dispersal of seeds by birds from Asia and/or from South America.
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A phylogenetic survey based on similarity levels was performed for 29 cultivated accessions of maca (Lepidium meyeniiWalp.) and 27 accessions of wild species ofLepidiumfrom Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, with RAPD markers. Chromosome counts for each accession were also performed. The similarity tree matrix separated in two main branches: cultivated and wild species. The similarity level among cultivated accessions was high (0.952 or higher) indicating a low level of polymorphism. Within the wild species, two main secondary branches could be resolved, of which one was subdivided into two tertiary branches. Morphological evaluation of the wild species accessions within each main group identified three wild species: (1)L. bipinnatifidum, consisting mostly of tetraploids and a single octoploid accession; (2)L. kalenbornii, consisting only of tetraploid accessions; and (3)L. chichicara, consisting mostly of octoploid and a few tetraploid accessions. Clustering by principal coordinates analysis supported the results obtained by the similarity tree matrix. These results indicate that none of the three wild species is related enough to be considered ancestral to the cultivatedL. meyenii. Three accessions of intermediate position may be of hybrid origin. None of the wild species was found to be diploid, which suggests that polyploidy has been an important adaptation to high altitude habitats in these species.
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Lepidium meyenii Walpers, a tuber of Andine origin still cultivated in Peru for local preparation, was studied. The carbohydrate, lipid, protein, fibre and also the amino-acid, fatty acid, mineral and sterol fractions were determined. The results show that the tuber is nutritionally interesting. Alkaloid-like compounds were also found. It is concluded that this tuber can be a food source in countries, where economic and technological conditions are inadequate to combat malnutrition.
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The effects of sodium cyanate, tert-butyl isocyanate, and benzyl isothiocyanate on carcinogen-induced neoplasia were studied in experiments in which the test compound was fed starting 1 week following completion of carcinogen administrations. Under these conditions, all three test compounds exerted an inhibitory effect on the occurrence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced neoplasia of the breast of Sprague-Dawley rats. In a second experiment model, sodium cyanate inhibited the occurrence of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced neoplasia of the large bowel of female CF-1 mice. Thus, a new group of compounds has been identified which has inhibitory capacities against neoplasia when given subsequent to carcinogen exposure.
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The effects of two aromatic thiocyanates, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and benzyl thiocyanate (BTC), on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis were examined in rats. A total of 108 male ACI/N rats, 5 weeks old, were divided into 6 groups (18 rats in each). Group 1 was given a single i.p. injection of DEN (200 mg/kg body weight) one week after the start of the experiment and then kept on the basal diet until the end of the experiment (1 year). Groups 2 and 3 were treated with DEN and received dietary BITC (100 ppm) or BTC (100 ppm), respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Groups 4 and 5 were not given the carcinogen and were fed the diet containing BITC or BTC, respectively. Group 6 was kept on the basal diet alone and served as a control. Liver neoplasms were seen in Groups 1, 2 and 3. Incidence and average number of liver neoplasms in Group 2 were significantly smaller than in Group 1 (P < 0.0005 and P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of liver neoplasms in Group 3 was slightly lower than in Group 1, although the difference was not statistically significant. The numbers of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci in Group 2 and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in Groups 2 and 3 were significantly smaller than those in Group 1 (P < 0.001). The average and unit areas of GST-P- or GGT-positive foci in Group 2 or 3 were also significantly smaller than those in Group 1 (P < 0.05). These results suggest that BITC and BTC are chemopreventive agents for DEN-induced liver tumorigenesis.
Article
Induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes [e.g., glutathione transferases, epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, and glucuronosyltransferases] is a powerful strategy for achieving protection against carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and other forms of toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen. Since consumption of large quantities of fruit and vegetables is associated with a striking reduction in the risk of developing a variety of malignancies, it is of interest that a number of edible plants contain substantial quantities of compounds that regulate mammalian enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. Thus, edible plants belonging to the family Cruciferae and genus Brassica (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) contain substantial quantities of isothiocyanates (mostly in the form of their glucosinolate precursors) some of which (e.g., sulforaphane or 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) are very potent inducers of phase 2 enzymes. Unexpectedly, 3-day-old sprouts of cultivars of certain crucifers including broccoli and cauliflower contain 10-100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than do the corresponding mature plants. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates can be efficiently extracted from plants, without hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase, by homogenization in a mixture of equal volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile at -50 degrees C. Extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts (containing either glucoraphanin or sulforaphane as the principal enzyme inducer) were highly effective in reducing the incidence, multiplicity, and rate of development of mammary tumors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated rats. Notably, sprouts of many broccoli cultivars contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which predominate in the mature vegetable and may give rise to degradation products (e.g., indole-3-carbinol) that can enhance tumorigenesis. Hence, small quantities of crucifer sprouts may protect against the risk of cancer as effectively as much larger quantities of mature vegetables of the same variety.
Article
To determine the effect of oral administration of a purified lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii (MacaPure M-01 and M-02) on the number of complete intromissions and mating in normal mice, and on the latent period of erection (LPE) in rats with erectile dysfunction. Mice and rats were randomly divided into several experimental and control groups. A 10% ethanol suspension of M-01 and M-02 was orally administered for 22 days to the experimental groups according to the dosage specified by the experimental design. On day 22, 30 minutes after the dose was administered to the male mice, 2 virgin female mice were placed with 1 male mouse. The number of complete intromissions of each male mouse in 3 hours was recorded. In an assessment of 1 day of mating, each male mouse was cohabited with 5 estrous female mice overnight. The number of sperm-positive females was recorded. The LPE was measured to assess the sexual function in rats with erectile dysfunction. By using a YSD-4G multifunction instrument, an electric pulse at 20 V was applied to stimulate the rat's penis, and the duration from the start of the stimulus to full erection was measured in seconds as the LPE. In the normal male mice, the number of complete intromissions during the 3-hour period was 16.33 +/- 1.78, 46.67 +/- 2.39, and 67.01 +/- 2.55 for the control group, M-01 group, and M-02 group, respectively. In the assessment of mating, the number of sperm-positive females increased from 0.6 +/- 0.7 in the control group to 1.5 +/- 0.5 in the M-01 experimental group. The LPE of male rats with erectile dysfunction was 112 +/- 13 seconds with a regular diet (control group). The oral administration of M-01 at a dose of 180 or 1800 mg/kg body weight and M-02 at a dose of 45, 180, or 1800 mg/kg body weight reduced the LPE to 54 +/- 12 seconds, 54 +/- 13 seconds, 71 +/- 12 seconds, 73 +/- 12 seconds, and 41 +/- 13 seconds, respectively. The LPE of the surgical rats treated with M-01 at the lowest dose (45 mg/kg) was 121 +/- 12 seconds; thus, the change was not significant. Oral administration of M-01 and M-02 enhanced the sexual function of the mice and rats, as evidenced by an increase in the number of complete intromissions and the number of sperm-positive females in normal mice, and a decrease in the LPE in male rats with erectile dysfunction. The present study reveals for the first time an aphrodisiac activity of L. meyenii, an Andean Mountain herb.
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