Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine: Therapies for Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants
• Limited but positive findings have been reported for massage therapy and music in preterm neurodevelopment, whereas long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids present contradictory evidence with some trial data revealing gender effects. Further studies involving well-controlled or sham trials with definite end points would be helpful. • Overall, in trained hands, these therapies seem to be safe in children.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human milk but not in most currently available infant formulas coupled with better subsequent neurobehavioral development of breastfed versus formula-fed infants has led to speculation that LC-PUFA are important for optimal infant development. This is supported by some, but by no means all, studies of visual function and neurodevelopmental status of infants fed formulas supplemented with LC-PUFA versus unsupplemented formulas. Nonetheless, the available data are sufficiently suggestive to warrant support for supplementing term and preterm formulas, particularly the latter, with LC-PUFA. Moreover, though additional data are needed, recent studies alleviate many concerns about the potential toxicity of available sources of LC-PUFA for supplementing infant formulas.0Comments 64Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neurodevelopmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6omega3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4omega6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in lower tissue levels of AA. LCPUFA accumulation in the brain starts early and increases during the third trimester. Initially brain AA-accretion exceeds DHA-accretion; after term age DHA-accretion surpasses AA-accretion. Animal studies indicated that early omega3-depletion results in poorer developmental outcome. They also showed that early omega3-supplementation had no effect on cognitive outcome, promotes visual development and impairs auditory and motor development. Only limited human data are available. Correlational studies suggest that neonatal AA status shows a positive relation with early neurodevelopmental outcome and that neonatal DHA status also might be correlated with improved outcome beyond infancy. Results of human intervention studies are equivocal: most studies were unable to demonstrate a positive effect of prenatal omega3-supplementation. It is concluded that only limited evidence exists to support the notion that prenatal omega3-supplementation favours developmental outcome. Caution is warranted for an unbalanced high DHA intake during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, i.e., DHA without additional AA supplementation.0Comments 56Citations
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