Validation of the Revised Individual Placement and Support Fidelity Scale (IPS-25)

Department of Psychiatry, Geisel Medical School at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.
Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (Impact Factor: 2.41). 06/2012; 63(8):758-63. DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed


The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment for people with severe mental illness is an evidence-based practice. The 15-item IPS Fidelity Scale (IPS-15) was developed to measure program fidelity and has been shown to have good psychometric properties, including predictive validity. On the basis of field experience and research updates, the authors developed an expanded and revised version of this scale, the IPS-25, also known as the Supported Employment Fidelity Scale. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the IPS-25.
In addition to data on the local unemployment rate and program longevity, the authors collected IPS-25 ratings and employment data for 79 sites in eight states participating in a learning collaborative devoted to implementing the IPS model. Descriptive data for items and the total scale and predictive validity were examined.
Internal consistency reliability for the IPS-25 was .88. Predictive validity, measured as the correlation between the IPS-25 and site-level employment rate, was .34. Eight of the IPS-25 items were significantly positively correlated with employment rate. Items related to the vocational generalist role, disclosure, follow-along support, and vocational unit were the most strongly correlated with employment. Program longevity was positively associated with employment, whereas the unemployment rate was not.
The IPS-25 has promising psychometric properties, with greater precision and content coverage than the IPS-15. However, it has not demonstrated an advantage over the IPS-15 in predictive validity. Research directly comparing the two scales is needed.

    • "those who did not obtain such good fit (Bégin & Corbière, 2012; Kukla & Bond, 2012). Finally, studies have also looked at programmatic variables, namely employment specialist competencies (or lack thereof) (Corbière & Lanctôt, 2011; Drake, Bond, & Rapp, 2006) or poor fidelity of some SE programs to the gold standard Individual Placement and Support (IPS) principles (Bond, Becker, & Drake, 2011; Bond, Peterson, Becker, & Drake, 2012) as potential explanations for short job tenure. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. Methods: In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. Conclusion and implication for practice: The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals' vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment specialists' competencies. Aim The main objectives of this study were to develop a questionnaire measuring the behaviors, attitudes and knowledge of employment specialists working in SE programs and to link specific competencies to vocational outcomes. Methods: A total of 153 employment specialists working in Canadian and Dutch supported employment programs completed the Behaviors, Attitudes, and Knowledge in Employment Specialists (BAKES) questionnaire and provided information about their clients' vocational outcomes. Results: Exploratory Factor Analyses results found 90 items over 12 subscales (e.g., Relationships with employers and supervisors). Regression analyses indicated that the two most useful subscales for predicting vocational success were: (1) Relationships with employers and supervisors, and (2) support and client-centered approach. Conclusion: Employment specialists require specific competencies to help people with severe mental illness obtain and maintain competitive employment. Validating the BAKES will better define the broad range of competencies expected for this position, and this tool may facilitate training of employment specialists.
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