Phosphonium cation-based ionic liqs. (ILs) are a readily available family of ILs that in some applications offer superior properties as compared to nitrogen cation-based ILs. Applications recently investigated include their use as extn. solvents, chem. synthesis solvents, electrolytes in batteries and super-capacitors, and in corrosion protection. At the same time the range of cation-anion combinations available com. has also been increasing in recent years. Here, we provide an overview of the properties of these interesting materials and the applications in which they are appearing. [on SciFinder (R)]
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"Although Cyphos IL-104 is classified as hydrophobic ionic liquids, but it has a maximum water absorption capacity of 20.6%. It is a highly viscous IL (806 mPa s at 25 C) and is miscible in both nonpolar and polar aprotic solvents . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The redox of ferrocen couple (Fc+/Fc) in the 1 M Cyphos IL-104/ethanol electrolyte system was studied via cyclic voltammetry under both inert and air atmospheres at room temperature. The anodic and cathodic peak potentials for Fc+/Fc were obtained at scan rates of 0.02, 0.1, and 0.2 V/s. The half-potential of Fc+/Fc versus a silver quasi-reference electrode (QAg) changed from 0.80969 to 0.84945 V and from 0.79872 to 0.8627 V at the glassy-carbon (GC)- and platinum (Pt)- working electrodes (WE), respectively, demonstrating that it depended on the presence of water from 0.1 to 0.3 wt.% in the 1 M Cyphos IL-104/ethanol electrolyte system. The half-potential of Fc+/Fc versus quasi-platinum (QPt) was not changed for both working electrodes and for the same solutions; the differences between the half-potentials of Fc+/Fc versus QPt were 0.0022 and 0.00416 V at the GC- and Pt-WEs, respectively.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Electrochimica Acta
"However in many situations, separation from dilute feed stream becomes challenging. In this work, phosphonium based ILs are chosen as they are lighter than water   and more thermally stable even at high temperature as compared to ammonium, imidazolium and pyridinium based ILs  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In this work, a phosphonium based ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ([TDTHP] [Phosph]) has been used for the recovery of 1-propanol and 1-butanol. The hydrophobic IL having density (0.895 gm/cm(3)) lower than water has been specially chosen to recover alcohol from water. A type II ternary diagram with a large immiscible region was observed at T=298.15K and p=1 atm. High values of selectivity ranging from 53 to 252 and 80 to 305 were observed for 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. The distribution coefficient is greater than unity which indicates easier diffusion of solute from aqueous phase to extract phase. Hence less solvent (IL) is required for separation of specific amount of alcohol from water. The NMR spectra pointed out to the fact that the aqueous rich phase was free of IL and contains high percentage (similar to 92% mol) water. NRTL and UNIQUAC models show deviation (RMSD) in the range of 0.1-0.5% for both the systems.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Fluid Phase Equilibria
"According to current convention, a salt melting below the normal boiling point of water is known as an IL, thus forming liquids that are comprised entirely of cations and anions at room temperature . In contrast to conventional organic liquids/solvents, important physical properties of ILs such as viscosity, density, melting point and conductivity can be tuned to suit a particular need by the appropriate choice of the cation/anion combination . ILs typically contain a large bulky asymmetric cation together with a smaller π-delocalized anion which overwhelmingly exhibit electrostatic interactions; thereby preventing the formation of a structured lattice [23,24]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This overview aims to summarize the existing potential of “Ionogels” as a platform to develop stimuli responsive materials. Ionogels are a class of materials that contain an Ionic Liquid (IL) confined within a polymer matrix. Recently defined as “a solid interconnected network spreading throughout a liquid phase”, the ionogel therefore combines the properties of both its solid and liquid components. ILs are low melting salts that exist as liquids composed entirely of cations and anions at or around 100 °C. Important physical properties of these liquids such as viscosity, density, melting point and conductivity can be altered to suit a purpose by choice of the cation/anion. Here we provide an overview to highlight the literature thus far, detailing the encapsulation of IL and responsive materials within these polymeric structures. Exciting applications in the areas of optical and electrochemical sensing, solid state electrolytes and actuating materials shall be discussed.