OX2R activation induces PKC-mediated ERK and CREB phosphorylation
Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Research Sec, Rm: K217, 10701 East BLVD, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. Experimental Cell Research
(Impact Factor: 3.25).
05/2012; 318(16):2004-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2012.04.015
Deficiencies in brain orexins and components of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway have been reported in either human depression or animal model of depression. Brain administration of orexins affects behaviors toward improvement of depressive symptoms. However, the documentation of endogenous linkage between orexin receptor activation and MAPK signaling pathway remains to be insufficient. In this study, we report the effects of orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) activation on cell signaling in CHO cells over-expressing OX2R and in mouse hypothalamus cell line CLU172. Short-term extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and long-term cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were subsequently observed in CHO cells that over-express OX2R while 20 min of ERK phosphorylation was significantly detected in mouse adult hypothalamus neuron cell line CLU172. Orexin A, which can also activate OX2R, mediated ERK phosphorylation was as the same as orexin B in CHO cells. A MAPK inhibitor eliminated ERK phosphorylation but not CREB phosphorylation in CHO cells. Also, ERK and CREB phosphorylation was not mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) or calmodulin kinase (CaMK). However, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X eliminated the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in CHO cells. A significant decrease in ERK and CREB phosphorylation was observed with 1 μM GF 109203X pre-treatment indicating that the conventional and novel isoforms of PKC are responsible for CREB phosphorylation after OX2R activation. In contrast, ERK phosphorylation induced by orexin B in CLU172 cells cannot be inhibited by 1 μM of protein kinase C inhibitor.
Available from: Joshua Patrick Nixon
- "Immortalized murine microglial cells (BV2) and adult murine hypothalamic cells (mHypoA-1/2, cited elsewhere as CLU172; CEL- Lutions Biosystems)    were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin , streptomycin, and neomycin (Invitrogen) and maintained at 37 • C with 5% CO 2 . Orexin A peptide (American Peptides) was suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, Invitrogen) and diluted to 300 nM in DMEM. "
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ABSTRACT: Excess dietary saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) induce peripheral and hypothalamic inflammation. Hypothalamic inflammation, mediated in part by microglial activation, contributes to metabolic dysregulation. In rodents, high fat diet-induced microglial activation results in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), and increased central pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA, hypocretin 1) is neuroprotective in brain. In cortex, OXA can also reduce inflammation and neurodegeneration through a microglial-mediated pathway. Whether hypothalamic orexin neuroprotection mechanisms depend upon microglia is unknown. To address this issue, we evaluated effects of OXA and PA on inflammatory response in immortalized murine microglial and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate for the first time in microglial cells that exposure to PA increases gene expression of orexin-1 receptor but not orexin-2 receptor. Pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglial cells are increased following PA exposure, but are reduced by pretreatment with OXA. The anti-inflammatory marker arginase-1 is increased by OXA. Finally, we show hypothalamic neurons exposed to conditioned media from PA-challenged microglia have increased cell survival only when microglia were pretreated with OXA. These data support the concept that OXA may act as an immunomodulatory regulator of microglia, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory factors to promote a favorable neuronal microenvironment.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Available from: Xiaoxing Xiong
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ABSTRACT: Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project throughout the brain, including to the hippocampus, where Hcrt receptors are widely expressed. Hcrt neurons activate these targets to orchestrate global arousal state, wake-sleep architecture, energy homeostasis, stress adaptation, and reward behaviors. Recently, Hcrt has been implicated in cognitive functions and social interaction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Hcrt neurons are critical to social interaction, particularly social memory, using neurobehavioral assessment and electrophysiological approaches. The validated "two-enclosure homecage test" devices and procedure were used to test sociability, preference for social novelty (social novelty), and recognition memory. A conventional direct contact social test was conducted to corroborate the findings. We found that adult orexin/ataxin-3-transgenic (AT) mice, in which Hcrt neurons degenerate by 3 months of age, displayed normal sociability and social novelty with respect to their wild-type littermates. However, AT mice displayed deficits in long-term social memory. Nasal administration of exogenous Hcrt-1 restored social memory to an extent in AT mice. Hippocampal slices taken from AT mice exhibited decreases in degree of paired-pulse facilitation and magnitude of long-term potentiation, despite displaying normal basal synaptic neurotransmission in the CA1 area compared to wild-type hippocampal slices. AT hippocampi had lower levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), an activity-dependent transcription factor important for synaptic plasticity and long-term memory storage. Our studies demonstrate that Hcrt neurons play an important role in the consolidation of social recognition memory, at least in part through enhancements of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation.
Available from: Mathieu Nollet
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ABSTRACT: Depression is a devastating mental disorder with an increasing impact throughout the world, whereas the efficacy of currently available pharmacological treatment is still limited. Growing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that orexins (neuropeptides that are also known as hypocretins) and their receptors are involved in the physiopathology of depression. Indeed, the orexinergic system regulates functions that are disturbed in depressive states such as sleep, reward system, feeding behavior, the stress response and monoaminergic neurotransmission. Nevertheless, the precise role of orexins in behavioral and neurophysiological impairments observed in depression is still unclear. Both hypoactivity and hyperactivity of orexin signaling pathways have been found to be associated with depression. These discrepancies in the literature prompted the necessity for additional investigations, as the orexinergic system appears to be a promising target to treat the symptoms of depression. This assumption is underlined by recent data suggesting that pharmacological blockade of orexin receptors induces a robust antidepressant-like effect in an animal model of depression. Further preclinical and clinical studies are needed to progress the overall understanding of the orexinergic alterations in depression, which will eventually translate preliminary observations into real therapeutic potential. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of human and animal research dedicated to the study of the specific involvement of orexins in depression, and to propose a framework in which disturbances of the orexinergic system are regarded as an integral component of the etiology of depression.
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