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Education at a Glance

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Education at a Glance

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... La ricerca pedagogica comparativa intra e inter-nazionale e il Large Scale Assessment affondano le loro radici lontane nel tempo. Dal lavoro pionieristico di Jullien (1817), l'anno zero per la Comparative Education (Brickman, 1960), alle più recenti indagini condotte dall'IEA, l'International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, agli indicatori per l'educazione e alle prove dell'indagine PISA dell'OCSE, l'Organizzazione per la Cooperazione e lo Sviluppo Economico, introdotte all'inizio del nuovo millennio (OECD, 2020a(OECD, , 2001, la ricerca di tipo comparativo e la somministrazione di test standardizzati su larga scala sono evolute notevolmente portando gli esperti a discutere sulle criticità di queste ultime (Hopfenbeck et al., 2018;OECD, 2011). Si tratta, infatti, di un approccio che da una parte influenza i sistemi di misurazione e valutazione nazionali richiedendo di porre attenzione alle modalità di definizione dei benchmark educativi, dall'altra si configura come uno strumento che permette il monitoraggio costante dei processi di insegnamento-apprendimento (Landri & Maccarini, 2016;Breakspear, 2012). ...
... Monitorare il funzionamento, l'efficacia, la qualità, nonché l'aderenza alle linee guida nazionali e il raggiungimento di standard educativi è diventato, infatti, di primaria importanza nel mondo globalizzato e complesso in cui studenti, insegnanti, dirigenti scolastici, famiglie e decisori politici si trovano immersi quotidianamente. La definizione di quadri teorici di riferimento e l'elaborazione di indicatori educativi per descrivere gli aspetti considerati rilevanti per l'efficienza del sistema scolastico hanno impegnato particolarmente studiosi provenienti da ambiti disciplinari differenti (OECD, 2020a;Poliandri et al., 2013;Poliandri, 2010;Cardone et al., 2010), tanto è vero che negli ultimi anni molti paesi europei ed extraeuropei, Italia compresa, hanno affidato ad organismi statali o istituti indipendenti il compito di valutare nel complesso il sistema scolastico e di mettere a punto strumenti di monitoraggio che se da una parte possono causare effetti collaterali negativi (Penninckx, 2017), dall'altra possono dare avvio a interventi di miglioramento (Ehren & Visscher, 2006). L'esperienza più datata di valutazione globale del sistema scolastico è senza dubbio quella inglese dell'Office of Standards in Education (OFSTED) (Rosenthal, 2004), mentre in ambito nazionale è con il D.P.R n. 80 del 2013 che viene introdotto il Regolamento sul sistema nazionale di valutazione in materia di istruzione e formazione il cui compito è organizzare la valutazione degli istituti scolastici attraverso quattro passi all'interno di un processo circolare che, partendo dall'autovalutazione e passando alla valutazione esterna, arriva al miglioramento e alla rendicontazione. ...
... L'OCSE da molti anni è impegnata in questo. Dal 1992, infatti, pubblica annualmente una raccolta di indicatori intitolata Education at a Glance in cui a partire dall'analisi degli input, degli output e dei processi propri di un sistema scolastico rende confrontabili alcuni aspetti educativi (OECD, 2020a;CERI-OCSE, 1994). Nel contesto internazionale, inoltre, quando si parla di Learning Outcomes Assessment non si può non fare riferimento alle indagini comparative standardizzate condotte dalle organizzazioni sovranazionali. ...
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In the sub-Saharan region, there is dearth of contextualized approaches to enhancing and assessing critical thinking. The few attempts at empirical studies to assess critical thinking in low-income contexts rely solely on assessment instruments imported from other cultural contexts, generating problems of comparability, absence of normative groups and lack of familiarity in adaptation and validation processes. This raises questions of cultural relevance. Considering the limited knowledge and understanding of the variables and constructs that characterise critical thinking in Uganda, this research has the long-term goal of developing methods for teaching and assessing critical thinking at classroom level that are relevant to the context. The objectives of this study are to investigate how Ugandans define and conceptualize critical thinking, as a starting point for developing tools for the enhancement of these skills in schools. The author identified in the constructionist grounded theory design a suitable method to generate ideas for a contextual conceptualization of critical thinking among various stakeholders in Uganda. For the data collection, a theoretical sample of 54 key informants was selected for ethnographic interviews. The study presents a contextualized model that describes the critical thinking skills structure. New strategies and methods of critical thinking skills development and assessment should be created as a result of these new localized studies and concepts. Authentic knowledge about the nature of a competency as used in a particular culture could inspire new ways of skills enhancement and assessment. Keywords: Critical thinking; educational development; grounded theory; cultural context; educational goals. 1.
... Foreign or minority background can also hinder children's success due to additional linguistic needs (OECD, 2010;Egelund, 2011, Haahr, 2005GHK Consulting ltd, 2011;Bauchmüller, Gørtz, & Würtz Rasmussen, 2011;DCSF, 2007); children from one-parent families and also families with a history of violence are likely to have lower educational performance and are likely to leave school earlier (OECD, 2010;Prusik, 2010;Matković, 2010;Eivers et al. 2000), which emphasises the important influence of family characteristics and environment on children's learning process. National and international research confirms that physical or mental disability or long illness increases the likelihood of early school leaving (Ferić, et al. 2010;SCB, 2007;Domagała-Kręcioch, 2008, OECD, 2012a. Though it is important to acknowledge the role of background factors in explaining differences in children's performance, it is even more crucial to understand that these factors cannot be decisive in defining children's success or failure. ...
... Alein & et al., 2009;OECD, 2012a;Balica, 2010;Skrzypniak, 2011;Fatyga, Tyszkiewicz, & Zieliński, 2001; Brophy, 2006. 20 OECD indicator: Percentage of students reporting that they have repeated a grade at least once in primary, lower secondary or upper secondary school. ...
... We also know that, in turn, educational attainment is positively associated with social opportunities concerning the job market, social mobility and self-esteem (Stiglitz et al., 2009;Hanushek et al., 2008;OECD, 2010a). Academic performance measured through standardised tests serves as a better predictor of economic and social well-being than the mere quantity of years spent in lower or higher education (OECD, 2010b;2010c) and is also employed to quantify school dropout risks (OECD, 2013). For all these reasons, school performance can serve as an excellent proxy indicator for future social opportunities among adolescents. ...
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In recent years, smartphones have become the most popular and ubiquitous tool for adolescents to access the internet in developed countries (Mascheroni & Ólafsson, 2016). Increasingly, children’s and teens’ daily lives tend to gravitate around their smartphones, mainly for social uses: they spend a good deal of time with their mobile devices communicating and “hanging out” with friends, posting and responding to each others’ messages, but also playing multiplayer games, surfing the web and listening to music in a state of constant connectedness (Chayko, 2017). However, the pervasiveness of this device, even in the most relevant moments of the day has raised some concerns about its confinement capabilities by users. Turkle (2014, 2016) has argued that significant smartphone use at important moments of the day, such as family dinner or sleeping hours, can be socially and psychologically harmful. A growing literature exists on smartphone overuse, which has investigated the psychological roots of this phenomenon and has highlighted its negative consequences (see Elhai et al., 2017 for a review). In particular, a problematic relationship between excessive smartphone use and youth wellbeing is emerging in a number of studies (Lee et al., 2014; Lee, Cho, Kim, & Noh, 2015; Demirci et al., 2015), in addition to its negative association with academic performances at different educational levels (Samaha & Hawi, 2016; Hawi & Samaha, 2016). In this paper we test the hypothesis that smartphone pervasiveness in adolescents’ daily life represents a new source of digital and social inequality by analyzing data on the entire high-school student population of the Valle D’Aosta region, in Northern Italy (N=4,675). By means of a mediation analysis, we show how smartphone pervasiveness mediates the relationship between students’ social origins – measured though their parents’ educational level – and learning outcomes, thus contributing to deepening the academic divide between high and low-performing students.
... Prolific participants are paid for their participation (we paid each participant £0.63/$0.88 for the expected 5 min completion time). Within Prolific, we used a stratified quota sampling procedure to match the education distribution of our sample to the general population (stratified by sex and country) based on available data for each country (Bureau U.S. Census, 2019;OECD, 2021). We aimed to recruit a total of 9000 total participants, split evenly by country and sex. ...
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Background: Fear over side-effects is one of the main drivers of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. A large literature in the behavioral and communication sciences finds that how risks are framed and presented to individuals affects their judgments of its severity. However, it remains unknown whether such framing changes can affect COVID-19 vaccine behavior and be deployed as policy solutions to reduce hesitancy. Methods: We conducted a pre-registered randomized controlled trial among 8998 participants in the United States and the United Kingdom to examine the effects of different ways of framing and presenting vaccine side-effects on individuals' willingness to get vaccinated and their perceptions of vaccine safety. Results: Adding a descriptive risk label ('very low risk') next to the numerical side-effect and providing a comparison to motor-vehicle mortality increased participants' willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine by 3.0 percentage points (p=0.003) and 2.4 percentage points (p=0.049), respectively. These effects were independent and additive and combining both framing strategies increased willingness to receive the vaccine by 6.1 percentage points (p<0.001). Mechanistically, we find evidence that these framing effects operate by increasing individuals' perceptions of how safe the vaccine is. Conclusions: Low-cost side-effect framing strategies can meaningfully affect vaccine intentions at a population level. Funding: Heidelberg Institute of Global Health. Clinical trial number: German Clinical Trials Registry (#DRKS00025551).
... One of the main objectives of higher education is the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge (CHE, 2013), which is also true for one of the most popular study fields in Germany and internationally: economics (OECD, 2017). To effectively support students' learning, the growth of domain-specific knowledge over the course of studies should be measured validly (Shavelson, Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia & Marino, 2018) and reasons for possible low growth rates should be determined. ...
... Despite the strong economic returns to post-secondary education, only 48% of individuals aged 25-35 in the United States had achieved any type of college degree as of 2016. Moreover, there are significant and persistent gaps in postsecondary attainment rates between would-be firstgeneration college students and students with at least one college attending parent, with only 27% of first-generation Americans aged 30-44 obtaining a college degree compared to 66% of individuals with at least one college-attending parent (OECD, 2017). A growing body of literature is systematically documenting the barriers to college access including a lack of financial resources, lack of support during the application process, and a lack of knowledge of how to prepare for college. ...
... By contrast to the Canadian encouraging attainment indicators, Mexico ranks poorly across several indicators. For example, only 20% of Mexican adults ages 25-64 attain tertiary education (OECD, 2014), and only 53% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in education (Castaneda & Rebolledo, 2014), compared to the 84% average for all other OECD countries. Moreover, while in Canada those with higher education are rewarded with better jobs (Bell, 2014), in Mexico this is not necessarily the case (Castaneda & Rebolledo, 2014). ...
... Regarding this topic Chile appears as an interesting case for study. First, its higher education system is fairly unique in its privatization (Bernasconi, 2005(Bernasconi, , 2009, where the tuition fees are among the most expensive of the world (Bernasconi, 2009;OECD, 2016). Second, the productivity of the country has been highlighted, as it is leads Latin America in publications per capita (Bernasconi, 2009;Santelices, 2015). ...
... Similar evidence in literature was mentioned in Cucca's paper (2019) where the author mentioned 2012 PISA data that show that a substantial percentage of Italian households tends to direct their children towards educational pathways differentiated by gender considering twice as likely a future career in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics for male children rather than for daughters. The mentioned orientations of parents do not seem to be based on the school performance of young people: on the contrary, Italian boys show less brilliant school performances than those of their female peers (Cucca, 2019;PISA, 2012;OECD, 2015). Eccles and Jacob (1986) and Eccles, Jacob, and Harold (1990) found that mothers' gendered stereotypes about math ability influenced their perceptions of their children's abilities and stated that if mothers held gendered stereotypes, their rating of their daughter's ability would be lower than the one predicted by the teacher's evaluation of ability. ...
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This study is prepared in the field of approximation theory. Approximation theory is an important tool in solving problems that arise in fields such as daily life and engineering, medicine. It is based on using tools such as simple and useful function operators instead of difficult and complex functions to work with. Many researchers have defined new linear positive operators and their approximation properties have been studied with the help of Korovkin–Volkov type theorem. In this study, a generalization of the Bernstein Schurer operator will be carried into two-dimensional space and important approximation properties will be examined. By obtaining the equations provided by the test functions required for the functions of two variables, calculation of rate of convergence was made with the help of the partial modulus of continuity.
... As the result, there has been a significant increase in the world total number of foreign students since the early stages of international mobility. In the year 2012, the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship rose to 4.5 million, which was 2.1 million in and 0.8 million in 1975(OECD, 2014. Additionally, it was predicted that by the end of 2020, the total foreign student population would raise to 7 million (Altbach et al., 2009). ...
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Bu bildiride varılan temel sonuç, yeni kuramların yerel/bölgesel dinamikleri, kalkınmanın ana aktörü olarak kabul ettiği ve dolayısıyla bölgesel kalkınma ajanslarının potansiyel gücünü vurguladığı hususudur. Bölgesel kalkınma ajansları, kalkınma faaliyetleri çerçevesinde özel sektör aktörlerinin kaygılarına daha yakındır. Aynı zamanda hem günlük hem de siyasi baskılardan korunarak bölgesel kalkınma faaliyetlerine yardımcı olabilecek örgütsel bir yapı olarak önemini arttırmaktadır.
... Similar evidence in literature was mentioned in Cucca's paper (2019) where the author mentioned 2012 PISA data that show that a substantial percentage of Italian households tends to direct their children towards educational pathways differentiated by gender considering twice as likely a future career in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics for male children rather than for daughters. The mentioned orientations of parents do not seem to be based on the school performance of young people: on the contrary, Italian boys show less brilliant school performances than those of their female peers (Cucca, 2019;PISA, 2012;OECD, 2015). Eccles and Jacob (1986) and Eccles, Jacob, and Harold (1990) found that mothers' gendered stereotypes about math ability influenced their perceptions of their children's abilities and stated that if mothers held gendered stereotypes, their rating of their daughter's ability would be lower than the one predicted by the teacher's evaluation of ability. ...
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The coronavirus pandemic necessitates change in every field of life, especially in education. In order to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus, the widespread closure of schools, colleges, universities, and other educational institutions in many countries has become inevitable. Technology plays an important role in the continuation of education during this process. During the epidemic, one of the technology�based models, flipped learning, also known as the 21st century education model, based on teaching at home by using technology and practicing at school in a short time, is thought as a light for the continuation of education. This technology-centered model aims to both provide social isolation to a great extent by spending little time at schools and grow a generation using science and technology skillfully by taking an active part in the process. This research aims to describe ‘flipped learning’, the conceptual framework and its theoretical basis, application, and differences from the traditional model; moreover, to investigate the effect of applying this model during a pandemic on students’ success by reviewing the related literature. The related studies show that applying the flipped learning model during a pandemic affects learners’ success, motivation, and interest positively. It is considered that flipped learning is shining as a diamond for the endurance of education during a pandemic.
... But it is not just the UK that relies on international students to fund its higher education institutions. 19 countries from the OECD charge differential tuition fees (OECD, 2016a), and a growing number of European countries that have chosen not to charge tuition fees to their citizens have recently introduced fees for international students (de Gayardon, 2016;Lundin & Geschwind, 2019;Nikula & Kivistö, 2018). In each context, by attracting international students and charging them differential fees that are above the price of delivery, governments are able to reduce the level of direct state investment required in higher education, effectively subsidising the system from external sources. ...
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This thesis employs narrative research methods to provide empirical and theoretical insights into the role of individual agency in international students’ pre-, during- and post-study trajectories through the education-migration nexus in the UK and Japan. To engage with these issues, I assume a life-course perspective which posits “individuals’ ways of constructing their life-course through choices and actions” (Eteläpelto, Vähäsantanen, Hökkä, & Paloniemi, 2013, p. 59) as the locus of their agency. Drawing heavily on the “chordal triad” model of agency, the project places an empirical emphasis on capturing individuals’ “temporal-relational contexts” (Emirbayer and Mische, 1998), thereby accounting for the reciprocal influences of temporality and structure on international students’ agency throughout their trajectories. From such a perspective, the thesis seeks to answer the following central research question: How is the agency of student-migrants developed and practised throughout their trajectories through the education-migration nexus? The study uses a two-phase research design, combining policy trajectory analysis with a longitudinal qualitative phase with individual student-migrants. Both phases of the study were undertaken in national contexts where student migration is quantitatively and qualitatively significant: the UK and Japan. Phase 1 of the study consisted of a comprehensive analysis of the legal regulatory frameworks governing student migration in each country. This stems from the knowledge that migration regulatory frameworks dictate the legalities and illegalities of mobility across national borders and are critical factors to consider in the study of migration processes. I use an established migration policy trajectory analysis methodology to analyse migration policy change in each national case between 2004-2018. The regulatory frameworks for international students were analysed on an ordinal scale according to 7 indicators of receptivity, using the methodology developed by researchers in the European Commission-funded Temper project. In phase 2, I gathered intensive qualitative evidence of individual student-migrants’ trajectories through the education-migration nexus, and their agentive orientations throughout. These data were gathered via the biographical-narrative interpretive method. Participants were interviewed twice: once in their final year of study (~8 months prior to graduation in the UK, and ~3 months prior in Japan), and once ~8 months after their graduation in both countries. 26 degree-mobile international students completed the study, 10 in the UK and 16 in Japan, with data being collected over a period of 18 months between October 2017 and April 2019. The findings indicate that the role of agency is dynamic within the education-migration nexus, reflecting the evolving relationship between individual student-migrants and their temporal-relational contexts, and the simultaneous evolution of the individual’s life-course project. The results of phase 1 of the study indicated that, over time, within, and between the case study nations, the migration regulatory frameworks affecting the study participants varied in their receptivity, stability, and transparency. The importance of these factors was evident in phase 2. Participants’ narratives revealed that unreceptive regulatory frameworks limited the available trajectories of action, while unstable or opaque regulatory frameworks made the identification of up-to-date and comprehensible information a critical factor in navigating post-study transitions. Interview data also revealed participants’ changing agentive orientations in response to changes in their context, with habit, imagination, and judgment each providing tools that individuals could use to navigate the challenging terrain of their student migration trajectories. While all participants were influenced by context and circumstance, they exhibited the capacity to draw on these tools when making choices and taking action in the pursuit of their goals.
... Not having an internet connection at home, or even having a slow connection or having to use the internet off their phone, can result in students falling behind their peers (Hampton et al., 2020). This is a concern as school failure or poorer performance at school may subsequently limit children's career prospects and even present a barrier to gaining employment (OECD, 2012;De Lannoy et al., 2018). Furthermore, the exclusion of children from internet-dependent learning activities available to their more advantaged peers during Covid-19 lockdowns is likely to broaden the digital divide (Hood, 2020). ...
Article
Digital divides occur when there are inequities in access to the benefits afforded by digital technologies. Originally conceptualised as inequitable access to digital technologies and internet, it is now recognised that the ways in which individuals use digital technologies and the competencies they subsequently develop may also contribute to digital divides. The aims of the current study were twofold. Firstly, to investigate categories of screen media use outside of school for children at age eight, and whether children of this age fall into “user typographies”, whereby different “modes” of digital technology use have already started to emerge. Secondly, to consider the implications of different modes of use at 8 years of age for the establishment of digital divides. Using a sample of 5010 children participating in the Growing Up in New Zealand study, the results of factor analysis indicated six categories of screen-based activities (Social, Creative, Shopping, Educational, Entertainment, and Interests), while four different modes of digital technology use were identified via cluster analysis (Creative, Entertainment, Emergent, and Limited). While Entertainment Users and Creative Users engaged with most activities on a fairly regularly basis, Emergent Users, and in particular, Limited Users, engaged with a narrower range of activities and at lower frequencies. We argue that Entertainment Users and Creative Users who engage with a broader range of activities, and engage in Creative activities such as coding and programming outside of school, may be at an advantage with regard to digital divides. Possible strategies to help mitigate digital divides are proposed.
Chapter
This chapter analyses how early childhood and primary education are articulated to facilitate children’s transition in Chile in terms of institutional arrangements, curricular differentiation, and pedagogical interactions of both levels. It considers to what extent this articulation fosters either a smooth and child-respectful transition or a greater schoolification of the early childhood education (ECE) system. There have been advances in favour of having a smoother transition. The 2 years of kindergarten (for children aged 5 and 6) were included in primary schools, with the aim of easing the transition. Undoubtedly, the transition can be done more organically, but this has also led to greater schoolification. Regarding the curriculum, there are essential differences between the two levels. Notably, while personal, social, and emotional development is highly foregrounded within the early childhood level, it is not in the primary school curriculum. Also, there are schoolification problems within the early years of the primary school level. The accountability pressures for this level could also jeopardise early childhood level objectives. Finally, in terms of pedagogical practices, ECE is focused on children’s socioemotional development while this focus is gradually being lost as children are promoted through the school levels. We propose making the school ready for children, advocating for bringing into the primary school some features of the early childhood level’s pedagogical practice, so that it is more flexible and focused on children’s wellbeing.
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People mobility is the micro-level of internationalization. This chapter offers comparisons of the Chinese and Australian policies, and notes similarities and differences in their policies. It presents the policy convergence and divergence under the globalization in Australia and China regarding IHE at the micro level, with China as an emerging international higher education market and sending country while Australia as a mature international higher education market and receiving country. Specifically, the main content of people focused policies then is about “foreigners” or international students studying in China or Australia, Chinese or Australians studying abroad, alumni engagement and global recruitment of talents. To examine the people focused policies of the two governments, this chapter aims to explore the differences and similarities in policy between traditional brain grain nation (Australia) and traditional brain drain nation (China) on international student mobility and post-study international labour mobility.
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Çalışmanın Amacı: Bu araştırmanın amacı, öğretmen adaylarının öğretmenlik mesleğini ve öğrenim gördükleri alanı tercih etmelerinde etkili olan motivasyonları tespit etmektir. Bunun yanında meslek ve alan tercihlerinde etkili olan içsel ve dışsal motivasyonların cinsiyet, sınıf düzeyi ve öğrenim görülen alan bakımından incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Materyal ve Yöntem: Araştırma, ilişkisel tarama modeli ile yürütülmüştür. Araştırmanın evrenini İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Örneklem ise İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Okul Öncesi Öğretmenliği, Türkçe öğretmenliği, Matematik Öğretmenliği ve Sınıf Öğretmenliği bölümlerinde öğrenim gören öğrenciler oluşturmaktadır. Veriler normal dağılım göstermediğinden parametrik olmayan testler kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Öğretmen adaylarının meslek ve öğrenim gördükleri alanı tercih etmelerinde etkili olan motivasyon kaynakları; içsel alan, içsel meslek, dışsal meslek boyutlarında ve ölçek genelinde katılıyorum düzeyinde iken dışsal alan boyutunda ise kısmen katılıyorum düzeyinde olduğu görülmüştür. İçsel ve dışsal meslek, dışsal alan alt boyutlarında cinsiyet açısından farklılaşmalar bulunmuştur. Sınıf düzeyine göre meslek ve alan seçiminde etkili olan motivasyonlar açısından farklılaşma bulunmamıştır. Öğrenim görülen bölüm açısından farklılaşmalar bulunmuştur. Önemli Vurgular: Öğretmen adaylarının mesleklerini ve öğrenim gördükleri alanı tercih etme motivasyonları daha çok içsel kaynaklıdır. Bu durum Türkiye’nin eğitim geleceği ve öğretmenlik mesleği bakımından umut vericidir. Ancak içsel motivasyon kaynaklarının yanında belirli düzeyde dışsal motivasyon kaynakları da etkili olduğu görülmüştür.
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Libro colectivo del Programa GEDIS, de investigación en sexualidad y género de la Universidad Alberto Hurtado.
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The literature on social inequality in study abroad almost exclusively focuses on university students. This paper systematically examines the role of socioeconomic status (SES) for study abroad intent (SAI) and uptake across all levels of pre-college education in Japan, thereby also providing a first in-depth empirical study on pre-college study abroad (PSA) in this country. Drawing on theories of social inequality (especially the effectively maintained inequality (EMI) thesis) in combination with elements from cumulative advantage and life course research, we understand the intention and final decision to study abroad as an outcome of SES-specific differences in educational biographies, with higher SES families seeking transnational education for their children to achieve status advantages. Using large-scale cross-sectional data for Japan (N = 15,450) for children aged three to eighteen years, binary and generalized ordered logit regressions show that children from high SES families are generally more likely to (1) express SAI (especially for college) and take up PSA; and (2) choose more exclusive forms of PSA, i.e. earlier and more lengthy stays. Findings further indicate that (3) the SES-gap in the likelihood to show SAI or take up PSA is highest at the pre- and high school levels. Applying the KHB method we found that (4) the percentage of SES effects on SAI mediated through earlier PSA experience is marginal or even reversed at times. We conclude that early PSA experience is positively related to further SAI, with high SES students likely accumulating transnational human capital to a greater extent, possibly acquiring status advantages. In sum, our results support the EMI and cumulative advantage perspectives, indicating undetected first- and second-level horizontal inequalities in Japanese education and call for similar research in other national contexts.
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Purpose The purpose of this article is to analyse first-generation Chilean students' transition experiences from secondary school to university. Design/methodology/approach This article presents the analysis results of 12 visual narratives of first-generation Chilean university students, who provided an account of their transition experience from secondary school to university. Participants explored the connections between their most valuable learning experiences during photo-elicitation interviews. The study used Quinn's notion of imagined social capital to understand the transition experience. Findings The analysis reveals the significance of secondary school experiences in understanding students' attitudes toward the university. In an extremely segregated school system, participants' secondary school experiences demonstrated a strong bond with classmates from their social class and a feeling of distance from institutions and their hierarchical structure. In this context, the university space is symbolically recreated into a learning space consistent with their social background. Social implications The research study highlights the need to increase understandings of school experiences and how these shape university transitions in order to effectively support students during the first years of university. In addition, it draws attention to the need to develop strategies that recognize the complex, collective and contextualized understandings of students' transition. Originality/value The research aimed to understand the experience of transition of first generation students from their own narratives and relational perspectives in contrast with the prevailing paradigms which are often individualized and linear.
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The present study evaluated the efficacy of an Italian school-based intervention programme adapted in three Colombian sites (Medellín, Manizales, and Santa Marta) in promoting prosocial behaviour among adolescents. Using a pre-test-post-test design with a multi-informant approach, the present study assessed 451 students (Mage = 12.77, SD = 1.06) of the intervention group and 428 students (Mage = 12.64, SD = 1.01) by using self-report and peer rating measures of prosocial behaviour. After establishing the measurement invariance across time and informants, a latent difference score model showed the positive effect of the intervention programme in improving prosocial behaviour evaluated by peers (Cohen’s d = .379) among Colombian adolescents, across all three sites. Implications of the study will be discussed.
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Tertiary education is the education given after secondary school education. It is an advance education that deals with training and human capital development through teaching, researching and community services. Tertiary education offer a lot of advance programme such as sciences education, social science education and art education. The teaching and learning of science education in Nigeria is facing a lot of challenges. This paper discussed the challenges. The paper among other things discussed the concept of tertiary institutions, concept of science programme and challenge facing teaching and learning of science education in the Nigerian tertiary institutions and recommendation were given.
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In this research, a meta-analysis study was conducted to examine the effect of the STEM approach in science education on academic success of students. In accordance with the criteria determined in the meta-analysis study, the studies included in the research are at the Master's and doctoral levels, and these studies were taken from the National Thesis Center database of the Council of Higher Education. In the study, a total of 147 studies carried out between 2010 and 2020 were examined and 31 Master's and 3 Doctoral studies fit the criteria of inclusion were included in the meta-analysis. The sample of a total of 34 studies consisted of 1962 students at the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade levels. Analyses were made with the help of Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V2 statistical program. The random effects model was used because the structure was heterogeneous when the studies were analysed and combined. As a result of the research, the effect size of the STEM approach in science education on students' academic success was calculated as 1.420. These values are a large effect size according to the academic success variable according to the classification made. In this context, it has been concluded that the STEM approach in science education has a positive and wide-ranging effect on increasing the academic success of students. The size of the effect on academic success differed according to the grade level, and the highest effect was observed in the studies at the 4th grade level.
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En las últimas décadas países como Portugal han realizado un esfuerzo económico importante para poder introducir las TIC en sus escuelas. El objetivo que nos proponemos con este trabajo es identificar las características socio-profesionales del profesorado del primer ciclo de enseñanza básica de la región del Algarbe (Portugal) y su relación con el tiempo de uso de las TIC en sus aulas, entre otros factores. La metodología utilizada es cuantitativa siendo el instrumento principal el cuestionario. La muestra quedó constituida por 156 docentes de la región. Entre los resultados encontramos que las docentes tienen una mayor frecuencia semanal de uso de las TIC que sus compañeros varones y que cuanta más formación se cursa más horas de implementación de las TIC en el aula se produce. Finalmente, concluimos con una serie de reflexiones sobre la formación y la integración de las TIC que pueden servir a prácticos, teóricos e instituciones. <br /
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