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“ADAPTABILITY OF CONSUMER FOR NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCE OF ENERGY AS COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL REGULAR SOURCE OF ENERGY IN AND AROUND PUNE CITY”
A ABSTRACT SUBMITTED TO
SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY
FOR AWARD OF DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D.)
UNDER THE FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT
MAHESHKUMAR SHANKAR KEDAR
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
DR. JOE LOPEZ CAJETAN
SINHGAD INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT,
VADGAON (BK), PUNE (MS)-411041
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Abstract of the Ph.D. Thesis
„Adaptability of Consumers for Non-Conventional Source of Energy as compared to Conventional regular source of Energy in and around Pune City.‟
2. Overview of Energy Scenario
3. Review of the Literature
4. Research Methodology
5. Hypothesis Testing
6. Finding of the Study
9. Chapter Schemes for the Thesis
In last 10 years, the Non-Conventional energy source has become essential part of our daily lives. As world is facing problem of energy crunch need of non-conventional energy is arising on daily basis. We all have facing problem of Energy shortage, Light cut off, Load shading need is arising on daily basis. Non-Conventional energy source becoming essential requirement of our day to day life.
The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. Depends on its capacity.
There are two types of Energy Sources as Follows,
Non-Conventional and Conventional Source:-
Non-Conventional source of energy is energy sources obtained from sources that are essentially infinite. Examples of Non-Conventional sources include Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Tidal, Hydroelectric and Biomass. Previously these were Conventional energy source before James Watt invented the steam engine in the eighteenth century. In fact, the New World was explored by man using wind-powered ships only. The non-conventional sources are available free of cost, pollution-free and inexhaustible. Man has used these sources for many centuries in propelling ships, driving windmills for grinding corn and pumping water, etc. Because of the poor technologies then existing, the cost of harnessing energy from these sources was
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quite high. Also because of uncertainty of period of availability and the difficulty of transporting this form of energy, to the place of its use are some of the factors which came in the way of its adoption or development.
Conventional energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as Coal, Oil, Gas and Nuclear energy which are likely to reduce with time. The use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy replaced totally the non-conventional methods because of inherent advantages of transportation and certainty of availability; however these have polluted the atmosphere to a great extent. In fact, it is feared that nuclear energy may prove to be quite hazardous in case it is not properly controlled.
India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water and biomass. Enthusiastic efforts during the past two decades are now bearing fruit as Consumer in all walks of life are more aware of the benefits of Non-Conventional energy source, especially decentralized energy where required in villages and in urban or semi-urban centers. India has the world‟s largest programme for Non-Conventional source of energy.
Adoption Process: - It focuses on the stages through which individual consumer passes when deciding to accept or reject a new product. In case of Non-Conventional energy sources consumer not easily adopting as compared to Conventional regular Energy source. It is true that as Invention come true new technology like Bulb invention by Thomas Edison consumer started adopting new Technology. It was ancient time when consumer were using Non-Conventional energy sources as days passes consumer started using Conventional energy sources. These Convention sources become Non-Conventional. But now days as cost of adoption of conventional energy sources goes on increase Consumer is attracted towards Non-Conventional energy Sources. Scarcity of Conventional energy source is there in market so consumer started using Non-Conventional energy source. Non-Conventional source of energy help to save time, money and energy.
Consumer is king in today‟s Marketing world so for that we have to keep studying on consumer Adaptability for the process of selecting and rejecting the product, consumer always follow the consumer adaptability process. Research shows that even with the best brands and best of the business rehearses, you still need strong relationships building with consumer to flourish in the marketplace.
Consumer Adaptability It focuses on the stages through which individual consumer passes when deciding to accept or reject a new product. There are following stages of consumer adaptability Awareness, Interest, Evolution, Trial and last but least adoption or rejection. It is ability of an entity or organism to alter itself or its responses to the changed circumstances or
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environment. Adaptability shows the ability to learn from experience, and improve the fitness of the learner as competitors. Adopter having five categories as follows Innovators, Early Adopter, Early Majority, Late Majority and Laggards.
This study present awareness and adaptability of non-conventional source of energy to consumers. What are the important factors which have considered responsible for the adaptability of non-conventional source of energy. Creation of awareness and making consumer adaptability is important one. Creation of awareness about government subsidy schemes and making consumers to take benefit of it.
Pune city has been selected for this research because: it is one of India‟s largest city with a metro area population of over 5 million people. Pune is fastest growing city and for growth of it, one of the most important factor is energy i.e. power. Pune city has very good infrastructure and industry growth rate is very fast whose requirement of energy is full-filled by use of non-conventional source of energy.
2. Overview of Energy Scenario:-
Solar power in India is a fast developing industry, with a cumulative installed grid connected solar power capacity of 8,062 MW (8 GW) as of 31 July 2016, In January 2015 the Indian government significantly expanded its solar plans, targeting US$100 billion of investment and 100 GW of solar capacity (including 40 GW from rooftop solar) by 2022. Large scale solar power deployment began only as recently as 2010, yet the ambitious targets would see India installing more than double that achieved by world leaders China or Germany in all of the period up to 2015 year end. The rapid growth in new deployments of solar power are recorded and updated monthly on the Indian Government's Ministry of New and (Renewable) Non-Conventional Energy website.
In addition to the ambitious large scale grid connected solar PV initiative India is also continuing to develop the use of solar power for off grid and localised energy needs. By the end of 2015 only 55% of all rural households had access to electricity and 85% of rural households depended on solid fuel for cooking. Solar products have increasingly helped to meet rural needs, by the end of 2015 a cumulative total of just under 1 million solar lanterns had been sold in the country reducing the need for expensive kerosene. In addition a cumulative total of 30,256 solar powered water pumps for agriculture and drinking water had been installed. During 2015 alone 118,700 solar home lighting systems were installed and
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46,655 solar street lighting installations were provided under a national programme. The same year saw just over 1.4 million solar cookers distributed or sold in India.
In January 2016 the Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi, and the President of France Mr. François Hollande laid the founding stone for the headquarters of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in Gwalpahari, Gurgaon. The ISA will focus on promoting and developing solar energy and solar products for countries lying wholly or partially between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The alliance of over 120 countries was announced at the Paris COP21 climate summit. One of the hopes of the ISA is that wider deployment will reduce production and development costs and so facilitate increased deployment of solar technologies, including in poorer and more remote regions.
India is ranked number one in terms of solar electricity production per watt installed, with an insolation of 1700 to 1900 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak (kWh/KWp). On 16 May 2011, India‟s first solar power project with a capacity of 5 MW was registered under the Clean Development Mechanism. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched on the 11th January, 2010 by the Prime Minister. The Mission has set the ambitious target of developing MW grid connected solar power by 2020 is aimed at reducing the cost of solar power generation in the country through long term policy, large scale development goals, aggressive research and development and domestic production of critical raw materials, components and products, as a result to achieve grid tariff parity by 2022. Mission will create an enabling policy framework to achieve this objective and make India a global leader in solar energy.
3. Review of the Literature:-
The researcher has studied and analyzed around 198 research papers, journals and books with respect to Consumer Adaptability for Non-Conventional Source energy as compared to Conventional energy source and related to Consumer Adaptability, from National, International Journals, conferences and various report of TERI, MSEB, MEDA, Maha-Urja, Maha-Jenco and MNRE .
The Researcher has also taken extensive data from the websites and blogs of many organizations who are connected with Consumer adaptability for Non-Conventional source of energy in different ways like Training, consultancy and Research.
The literature Reviewed can be classified into Books, Research Papers from India, Research paper and journals from overseas, case studies and articles available on websites and blogs.
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“Products and the process by which they are adopted are among the most actively researched topic in marketing and the social sciences in terms of the number of publications”, Explained by Rogers, 1983. “Such attention appears well warranted given the role which new product diffusion plays changes in both consumer consumption activity and in society itself”, described by Schumpeter, 1934. Furthermore, “new product diffusion plays critical role in the performance of individual firms, a stream of successful new products is essential for business continued prosperity in a free economy”.
The Adoption process is the “mental and behavioral sequences through which the consumer progress and which may result in acceptance and continued use of a product or Brand”, Said by Rogers, 1974. “It Encompass four components: 1) an Innovation, 2) which is communicated through certain channels, 3) over time, 4) among members of a social system”, described by, Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971. “Although component of time has received minimal attention in this body of research”. Mittelstaedt, Grossbart, Curtis and DeVere noted that since “time is of Paramount concern, it would seem that the most obvious question is not „Who passes through the adoption process‟ But How do individuals vary in their decision behavior over time”.
India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. India is already a leader in wind power generation. In the solar energy sector, some large projects have been proposed. In India to overcome energy crunch various initiative have been taken to overcome this energy crunch problem. Government of India is drafting various policy and plans for the non-conventional energy problem, as it is environmental friendly and pollution free option. Government aims to install various Solar power projects, planned to install the solar rooftop schemes in urban and rural India to overcome this problem. Government is providing various state specific schemes to promote non-conventional schemes in India. Government aims to providing the various subsidy schemes for the non-conventional energy source especially for Solar Water heater and solar roof-top schemes. Solar Source is abundant and pollution free need to utilize and upgrade as per requirement of society.
India is planning to promote non-conventional energy source to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020. Under the plan, the use of solar-powered equipment and applications would be made compulsory in all government buildings, as well as hospitals and hotels. It was
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reported that India was ready to launch its National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, with plans to generate 10,000 MW of power.
Year on year new plan are prepared from ministry of non-conventional (renewable) sources and prime minister of India to promote the non-conventional energy source in India. India is facing a perfect storm of factors that will drive solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption at a „furious pace over the next five years and beyond‟. The falling prices of PV panels, mostly from China but also from the US, have overlapped with the growing cost of grid power in India. Government support and ample solar resources have also helped to increase solar adoption, but perhaps the biggest factor has been need. India, „as a growing economy with a surging middle class, is now facing a severe electricity deficit that often runs between 10 and 13 percent of daily need‟. India is planning to install World's largest Solar Power Plant. Few important literatures from each of the above groups have taken for this abstract preparation.
4. Research Methodology:-
4.1. Nature of the Research Work
Sampling has been carried out by researcher to concentrate upon a well segmented number of Consumers and hence devote more energy. The information collected from them is accurate and technique used for the sampling is Simple Random Sampling Technique (Purposive Sampling). In this technique proportionate allocation pattern has been used where a sampling fraction in each of the sample that is proportional to that of the total respondents who have mainly the Household Consumer and Corporate Consumer.
There are large numbers of consumer in and around Pune city who are using Conventional Source of Energy. Many of them are using Conventional and Non-Conventional Source of Energy. As Compared to Conventional Source of Energy users Non-Conventional Energy Source User are quite less in number.
In this research work, the Sample size is 400 out of those 200 corporate consumers and 200 household consumers.
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4.2. Objectives of the Study
Research Objectives as Follows
To Study Adaptability of Consumer for Non-Conventional Source of Energy as a Best Option for Conventional Source of Energy.
To Study Extent of Awareness Created by Non-Conventional Source of Energy for Urban and Rural Electrification as an Energy Conservation Option.
To Study Extent of Awareness on Household Energy Efficiency Improvement.
To Study Direct and Indirect Employment/ Entrepreneur Opportunities Especially Created by Non-Conventional Energy Sources in Rural and Backward Areas.
To Study the Energy Option as Green and Environment Helpful Option.
To Study the Awareness about State and Central Government Subsidy Schemes of Non-Conventional Energy Source Schemes, and making their utilization and Adaptability to Consumers.
4.3. Hypothesis of the Study
The Research Hypothesis as follows
“Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy.”
“Selection of Proper & appropriate Non-Conventional energy source is up to the Awareness of Consumer.”
“Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy.”
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“Consumers have awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source.”
“Consumers those have awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies.”
4.4. Scope of the Study
Geographical scope of this research is limited to Pune city of Maharashtra in India. All major areas/ parts of City, newly constructed apartments, newly based townships and few Thasils and villages within Pune district including Warje, Narhe, Malawadi, Shindewadi, Pirangut, Nanded city, Sanghavi, Wakad, Urali Kanchan, Talegaon Dhabahade, Sudumbare, Chikali, Bhosari, Nigadi, Sadashiv Peth, Deccan, Shivaji Nagar, Kothrud, Karve Nagar, Camp, Aundh, Sanghvi, Baramati, lonavala, and many more places…...
In this research work, the Sample size is 400 out of those 200 corporate consumers and 200 household consumers.
4.5. Sampling Design
Different types of research designs have different advantages and disadvantages. The design is the structure of any scientific work. It gives direction and systematizes the research. The methods we choose affect our results and how we conclude the findings. Most scientists are interested in getting reliable observations that can help the understanding of a phenomenon.
Since this piece of research has study available large number of consumers for using the conventional and non-conventional energy sources. For study purposed used Exploratory Research Design.
4.6. Sources and Methods of Data Collection
After preparing the details of the information required, the investigation will be done and the main tools of collecting the information will be as worked out as follows.
a) Secondary data:-
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Journals, brouchers, internet sites etc.
Newspaper articles, Media, Reports, Publications
Primary information collected from websites and company broachers
MITCON, Chamber of commerce offices were visited to get more information
b) Primary data: -
i) Questionnaire: - It is the list of research or survey questions asked to respondents, and designed to extract specific information. It serves four basic purposes: to (a) collect the appropriate data, (b) make data comparable and amenable to analysis, (c) minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and (d) to make questions engaging and varied.
ii) Personal Interview: - It is a Market research technique for gathering information through face-to-face contact with individuals. This type of research is relatively costly, because it requires a staff of interviewers, but it provides the best opportunity to obtain information through probing for clearer explanations. The personal style (tone of voice, rewording of a question) and biases of each interviewer can affect how the participants respond and how the responses are recorded. It is the best technique to use early on in the research process when the researcher is not yet sure which questions need to be asked, because new and better questions can come out of the dialogue.
iii) Observation: - Observation Method is method of obtaining marketing research data by watching human behavior & mechanical monitoring devices closely are also used commonly. Observation is a complex research method because it often requires the researcher to play a number of roles and to use a number of techniques; including her/his five senses, to collect data. In addition, despite the level of involvement with the study group, the researcher must always remember her/his primary role as a researcher and remain detached enough to collect and analyze data relevant to the problem under investigation.
Visits will be made to various places where conventional and Non-Conventional energy source are using by Consumer. Contacted approximately more than 400 consumers who are using conventional and Non-conventional energy sources. To get detail information from them and filling up questionnaire, interview and live observation; this helped to gather reliable information regarding subject of the survey.
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4.7. Analysis of the Data
The collected data was analyzed with simple percentile analysis. The variables were analyzed based on their frequency of occurrence. The cross tabulation analysis of various variables is done to understand the association between the respective variables. T test is used for the Hypothesis testing. SPSS 2.0 updated version was used for analysis of and Microsoft Office Excel 2013 is used to generate graphs based on frequency distribution tables.
4.8. Limitation of the Study
In this research researcher has prepared questionnaire for the corporate consumer and household consumer only it‟s taken in to consideration only in and around Pune city. Only Pune in and around area geography is limitation. Corporate customer number is very less.
As a solar energy source has used by limited corporate consumer and household consumers so limitation is there. As most of the household consumers are using only Solar Water heater and limited products so there is no scope for the other solar products.
The most of corporate consumer are using only primary MSEB energy source they are not using solar energy source. Now they were started adopting and utilizing solar energy source. The cost for Solar Photovoltaic cell and cost of inverter battery is very high most of the clients are not thinking to install it. In this case cost is very important factor.
Most of the consumer having lack of knowledge regarding government subsidy schemes for solar photovoltaic cell, even they are unaware about exemption of VAT and GST. Adoption as most of the consumer is habitual of MSEB they do not want to invest on Solar Energy.
Area is limited only Pune city is selected for the Study. It is very difficult to obtain information from the consumers and disclose information.
5. Hypothesis Testing:-
5.1 Hypothesis 1:
“Most of the consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy.”
H0: Consumers are not aware of Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ=1)
H1: Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ>1)
Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy
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5.2 Hypothesis 2:
Selection of Proper & appropriate Non-Conventional energy source is up to the awareness of Consumer.
H0: There is no difference in opinion of Respondents about their willingness to use Non-conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy If they are aware about it. (μ=3)
H1: Respondents are willing to use Non-conventional and Conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy, If they are aware about it. (μ>3)
Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Respondents are willing to use Non-conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy, if they are aware about it.
5.3 Hypothesis 3:
“Consumer having Awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy.”
H0: Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have not started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ=1)
H1: Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ>1)
Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy.
5.4 Hypothesis 4:
“Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source.”
H0: Consumers don‟t have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source. (μ=1)
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H1: Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source. (μ>1)
Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source.
5.5 Hypothesis 5:
“Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies.”
H0: Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are not taking benefit of government Subsidies.
H1: Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies.
Interpretation: As per the analysis of independent sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies.
6. Finding of the Study: -
Study shows that Majority of Consumer (Household as well as Corporate) have awareness about Conventional as well as Non-Conventional Source of Energy Sources, and as a best source of Energy option is non-Conventional source of energy. It shows that Most of the consumers (Household as well as Corporate) have adaptability of both sources. In urban as well as rural electrification option non-conventional source is a best energy conservation option, and Consumer have good experience about it.
It results that Conventional source of energy is generating employment opportunity like that Non-Conventional energy source is also generating employment opportunity in urban as well as rural areas. The Bill generated by using Conventional source energy and average monthly billing by It consumes are not satisfied. Due to that Consumer are attracting towards Non-Conventional energy source option. It results that majority of consumer are using Non-Conventional source energy i.e. Solar Energy Source for the consumption.
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It illustrate that there are various sources of Non-Conventional Energy Sources available majority of Consumer using Solar Water Heater, Solar Street Light System, Solar Calculator, Solar Home Lighting System, Solar Lantern, Solar Cooker, and Solar Pumps and for other there is less scope. Examples Solar Power Pack, Solar Modular kitchen, Solar Power Battery, Solar Cooker, Solar Electric Power Generation, Solar Vehicle, Solar Charge Controller, Solar Inverter, Solar Educational Kits, Solar Refrigerator, Solar Furnace, Solar Watch, Solar Mobile Battery. Up-gradation and new technology brining good results and it‟s accepted by consumers. It shows that consumer have started adopting different strategies for adopt Solar Energy. Solar energy contributes for household energy efficiency improvement programme.
Solar energy is green and environment friendly energy option in urban and rural India. Most of consumers are switching from Conventional energy to Non-Conventional Energy. Solar Energy generate employment and entrepreneurial opportunity in Urban and Rural India. Government is providing various subsidy schemes for Solar Photovoltaic cell Installation. Consumers have knowledge about it and consumers are taking benefit of it.
Consumers pass from various Adoption phases starting from Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial and last adoption or rejection. Consumer passes from various adopter categories from Innovators, Early Adopter, Early majority, Late Majority, Laggards.
Product with best quality, 7 P‟s, after sales services, Durability, Convenience these factors keep more impact for Solar Energy Usage. Marketing decision of solar energy adoption have influenced by the solar is abundant source of energy & most of consumer has agreed on this.
Government have giving various Subsidy schemes and consumers adopting it, getting benefit on billing, exemption from VAT, GST and ST. Consumer having good awareness and experience about Solar Energy Adoption and they satisfied with their energy requirement. Solar energy Installation is one time investment options where consumers invests it once get benefit for more than 25 years and lifetime also.
There are various brands of solar energy sources available and most of the consumers are using following brands, Tata Power Solar System Ltd., Photon Moser-bear, Madhuri, Swellect, Emvee, and many more domestic and international brands are available. Few Chinese brands are captured market. With this all brands consumers are started using Solar energy Source Adoption for their daily life Energy requirement full-fillment.
7. Suggestions: -
Non-Conventional Source of Energy includes wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal power and hydroelectric power, for study purpose I have selected Only Solar Energy
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Sources. As all of you know very well Solar is abundant source of energy which will not finish till existence human being/Sun, so there is a huge scope for study and Innovation on Solar Energy Sources is needed for better utilization. Researcher suggest here that people will start adopting non-conventional source of energy in all level of life.
As we all know we are facing problem of load shading, overload, light cutting, electricity shortage and many other problems for that we have solar is best option as it is abundant source. As most of the Consumer are unaware about non-conventional energy source need to create awareness by study. Need to create more and more awareness by promotional activities which results into more adaptability of solar energy source. We option of non-conventional energy sources as option for conventional energy source we have to adopt it.
Entrepreneurial and Employment opportunity helps to build nation which helps to create more and more employment opportunities in urban and rural area which reduce unemployment ration we need to focus on it. As company start work start it is full filled by Manpower by generating entrepreneurial and employment opportunity.
Government giving various subsidies and incentive schemes need to concentrate benefits of government subsidy, consumer need to focus on it and start taking benefit of it. As government is giving benefits need to take benefit of it state as well as central government.
As it is pollution free option need to create more and more awareness. Need to install more and more power grids in India by Installation of various Solar power projects in India.
Non-Conventional energy source is environmental friendly and Pollution free option need to concentrate and get benefit of it. By adapting non-conventional energy source of energy.
Non-Conventional Energy help to save time and money and energy. Need to analyze and study the role of society and government for supporting and promoting Non-Conventional Source of Energy. Need to promote for the use of non-conventional energy source in India.
8. Conclusion: -
The Study Shows that Majority of Male Consumers adopt the non-conventional energy source they are the decision makers. Consumer of age group 31 to 45 take decision of non-conventional energy source usage. Higher qualified people take decision regarding non-conventional energy source usage and adoption. Higher Profile background consumers are aware, use and adopt non-conventional energy source. It is observed that consumer having higher income group only can offered the cost of non-conventional energy sources in India.
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Study shows that awareness and adaptability of non-conventional energy source is up-to level need to create more awareness and adaptability of it by advertisement.
There are various types of conventional and non-conventional energy source need to create awareness about the types of market place to promote the non-conventional energy sources. Need to create awareness about the entrepreneurial and employment opportunity by the non-conventional energy source in India. Need to focus attention on it. Non-Conventional energy source is environment friendly and green energy option which one is abundant. We solve energy problem with use of this energy source.
Majority of customers have habit of using conventional energy as they have facility of getting energy source at doorstep. These consumers have facility of easiness of availability. Need not to take more efforts for the getting energy. Tradition energy source which consumers get at their doorstep by MSEB connection. But as times goes on world is facing problem of energy scarcity. People in society facing problem of energy shortage, load shedding, light cutting need to find out alternative for conventional energy. Option is available of non-conventional energy. Non-conventional energy source is available abundant there is no scarcity of it. Non-conventional sources are Solar, Wind, Water, Biomass, geothermal energy source. It is alternative source of energy by using this we remove problem of energy scarcity.
If you take example of Indian household and industrial requirement of energy we are facing major problem. In urban area we are facing higher level deficient and in rural area it is higher side than the urban area. The major problems are light cutting, load shading, shortage of energy. For this problem of energy what is best answer that is finding the best or possible suitable alternative is start using the non-conventional energy. Non-conventional energy sources are Solar, Wind, Water, biomass and geothermal source of energy. These sources are environmental friendly/ eco-friendly, pollution free abundant source of energy.
Company and Government has create more and more awareness about it in the society, about government subsidy and benefit of it. How it is beneficial to us & society at all level of walk.
9. Chapter Schemes for the Thesis
Chapter scheme is so designed as to provide a persuasive presentation of the topics included in this study, care has also been taken to maintain clarity, lucidity and flow of the presentation without sacrificing the depth and core of the study. The study is represented with seven chapters excluding Appendix and References.
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The Chapter scheme for this thesis is as follows-
Chapter No. Description
1. Introduction and Background of the Study
2. Overview of the Energy Scenario
3. Review of the Literature
4. Research Design and Methodology
5. Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing
6. Finding and Observations
7. Conclusion, Suggestions and Direction for future research
Keywords: - Non-Conventional, Solar Photovoltaic, Consumer Awareness, Consumer
Maheshkumar Shankar Kedar Dr. Joe Lopez
Research Student Research guide
Sinhgad Institute of Management & Research Center, Wadgaon (Bk), Pune.
Savitribai Phule Pune University.