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Principles of Marketing

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... In the traditional format, advertisements are strictly known for providing factual information (Ekstrom & Gustafsson, 2012). With time, advertisement has evolved from a mere source of cognitive information to a source of promotion, entertainment as well as social guidance (Philip et al., 2018). Literary studies define advertisements as a paid weapon used by marketers to convince customers to choose their product (Richards & Curran, 2002). ...
... Promotional events through advertisements either persuade customers to take action or prepare a future customer-base depending on the informative content (Richards and Curran, 2002). Furthermore, many researchers asserted that advertisement design should be mainly focused on developing positive thoughts in the customers' minds about the offered product (Philip et al., 2018). Advertisement creation and promotion require a huge financial investment. ...
... Advertising design model was initiated by Moriarty (2009) through AIDA modal development, which combines the effect of attention and interest with desire and action. Since then, many different models have been developed (Philip et al., 2018) to ensure advertising motive accomplishment (Lou & Yuan, 2019). In order to design a perfect model for advertisement, there is a need to change design patterns along with changing customers' behavior (Philip et al., 2018). ...
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This research paper aims to examine the impact of social media advertisement attributes, including informativeness, trust, and irritation, and internet users' motivational factors; namely investigation, customization, opportunity seeking, interaction, and entertainment on individuals' attitude towards advertisements over social media sites in Jordan. A conceptual research model was proposed based on the relevant literature to be empirically tested. Data was collected using an online questionnaire survey administered to 256 participants. Hypotheses were tested using single and multiple linear regression analyses. Results show that advertisement design factors along with internet users' motives were all significant factors affecting the attitude towards advertisements on social media sites with entertainment, interaction and informativeness had the highest impact. Based on the research findings, recommendations were reported for academicians and practitioners. Limitations and promising areas for further research were discussed.
... To know the position of the company in the market, STP (Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning) analysis is the appropriate tool for it. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into smaller segments of buyers with distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviors that might require separate marketing strategies or mixes [5]. To be more focused, the company must arrange the target market that suit with the price of the product. ...
... To be more focused, the company must arrange the target market that suit with the price of the product. market Targeting is evaluating the market segment's attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter [5]. Based on the segmentation statement and defining the market segment, the company evaluates and identifies the market segment and targeting the right market according to the product. ...
... Next step, the company must arrange the most suitable facility or value offers according to the product's price. the step is the Positioning is arranging a product or service to occupy a clear, distinctive and desirable place relative to competing for product or service in the minds of the target market [5]. Kotler and Armstrong stated that the positioning strategy can be determined by value proposition. ...
... Menurut Tjiptono (Putra et al., 2017) kualitas mencerminkan semua dimensi penawaran produk yang menghasilkan manfaat bagi pelanggan. Menurut Kotler & Armstrong (2010), menyatakan bahwa kualitas produk (product quality) adalah kemampuan suatu produk untuk melaksanakan fungsinya meliputi, daya tahan, kehandalan, ketepatan, kemudahan operasi dan perbaikan. ...
... Untuk meningkatkan kualitas produk perusahaan dapat menerapkan program "Total Quality Manajemen (TQM)". Selain mengurangi kerusakan produk, tujuan pokok kualitas total adalah untuk meningkatkan nilai konsumen, Kotler & Armstrong (2010). ...
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This study aims to examine and to The Effect of Quality Product and After Sales Service on Purchase Decision of Yamaha Motorcycle, either simultaneously or partially at PT. Suraco Jaya Abadi Motor. The samples used in this research were 75 people with the method using Slovin formula with the number of respondents of 305 people. This research uses Multiple Regression Analysis. Based on the results of data analysis and hypothesis testing, this research shows that the F test results show that Product Quality and After Sales Service simultaneously influence the purchase decision. The result of t test also shows that the variable of product quality partially has positive and significant influence toward the purchase decision. Coefficient of determination of 0.327 which means that the role given by the variables combination of product quality and after sales service toward the purchase decision of 32.70% while the remaining 67.30% was influenced by the other factors which were not examined by the researcher.
... A report conducted by Pricewaterhouse Coopers (2010) revealed that Gen-Y group makes up approximately 62% of the Malaysia workforce in 2009. Gen-Y or referred to as 'the millenials' by Kotler and Armstrong (1999) are the most financially strapped and facing high unemployment and burdened with more debt (Kotler et al., 2016). However, they make up a large and attractive market because of their numbers. ...
... Different studies classified Gen-Y differently. This study follows Kotler and Armstrong (2016) categorization of Gen-Y, using the following birth dates from 1977 to 2000. This Gen-Y customer was chosen as the experimental units because they have their own unique characteristics that may be the factor that influence of Gen-Y saving consumption patterns. ...
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The Centre for Business, Research, Industrial Linkages & Consultancy (BRIC) of Universiti Selangor (UNISEL) acts as an entity that is responsible for making efforts to make research and innovation excellence an important agenda that “meets the needs of our stakeholders and the future generations. It is long overdue that the linkages between Business, Research, and Industries are to be established. These linkages are also in line with the noble realm of the Selangor State Executive Councilor (EXCO) for Education, Human Capital Development, Science, Technology and Innovation. The compilation of Unisel Bestari Research Projects (UBRP) 2016 was initiated by BRIC and it is part of the “Transformation Agenda” led by Prof. Dato' Dr. Mohammad Redzuan Othman, the President & Vice-Chancellor of Universiti Selangor. The proceedings, being divided into seven (7) sections, provide an opportunity for the audience to engage with academic papers that were yielded from UNISEL Bestari Grant in 2016. The publication of the proceedings aims to stimulate academic research and to jointly advance the research and innovation agenda of the Selangor State through excelling research and innovation activities in Universiti Selangor. This is a fruitful beginning and it may constitute a foundation for future scholarly works in this institution. Last but not least, the audience will discover that the articles published in the proceedings present both the challenges and creative solutions that emerged from the academic endeavours of the faculty members in UNISEL. It is also a manifestation of collaborative works amongst academics from various academic disciplines in UNISEL. The editors wish to thank all the paper contributors, the administrative staff of BRIC and the top management of UNISEL for their excellent support given in the publication of the proceedings.
... Edmodo is a private social network for teachers and students with a secure social platform. With a tweet model like social networking sites in general, Edmodo can create a special network for teachers and students to share ideas, files, events, and assignments (Gary, Kotleri, & Philip, 2010). Edmodo is a social network and micro blogging service specially designed for the world of education, which can be operated like Twitter. ...
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This study aims to improve students' motivation and learning outcomes by applying Edmodo-based e-learning model in the Biology Education Study Program of Medan State University. The research method used is class action research with the application of two cycles. The subjects of this study were 17 students who took basic accounting courses and research objects of activities that took place during the learning process. Data analysis techniques used are descriptive quantitative with percentages used to measure the level of motivation of students, for the results of learning is evaluated at the end of each learning. The results of class action research obtained by the application of Edmodo can improve students' motivation and learning outcomes. This is evident from the implementation of actions starting from pre-action, cycle I, and cycle II. Student learning motivation is said to succeed with an average of 75-100%. The results obtained in cycle action I were 84.11% and 88.11% in cycle II. While the percentage of student learning outcomes also increased. The increase in pre-action from 50.75 to 73.53 in cycle I increased by 22.77, from 73.53 to 87.35 in cycle II which means an increase of 13.82.
... Price can be defined by the amount of money paid by customers to exchange for services or products (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). It can also refer to the monetary costs for consumers and represent as a key influencing factor to consumer behavioral intention (Huang, Bai, Zhang, & Gong, 2019). ...
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With the advancement of technology in this 21st century, food delivery services have emerged as a new wave in the food and beverage industry. People can now order the food with a simple click of a button. This study analyzes the factors influencing consumers’ behavioral intention to use the food delivery apps-Foodpanda. Both primary and secondary data were collected through various sources. An online survey form was prepared to collect information from 100 respondents. The results indicated that factors including price, information quality and the perceived usefulness of the Foodpanda application have significant influences toward the consumer behavioral intention to use the food delivery service.
... The term 'advertisement' refers to any paid form of presentation and promotion of the ideas, goods, or services of an identified sponsor. Over time, advertising has evolved from being a mere source of cognitive information to a source of promotion, entertainment, Asian Journal of Business and Accounting 15(1), 2022 and social instruction (Philip et al., 2018). Theoretical studies have identified advertising as a weapon used by marketers to persuade customers to choose their products (Richards & Curran, 2002). ...
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Manuscript type: Research paper Research aims: This study aims to: 1) determine the factors driving consumers' attitudes towards Facebook advertisements in Vietnam; 2) examine the impact of genders and Generation Z attitudes towards Facebook advertisement in Vietnam. Methodology/Approach: This study employs a quantitative approach. Data were gathered from a sample of 477 Facebook users who are exposed to Facebook advertisements and resided in Ho Chi Minh City. Research findings: The findings of this study show that personalisation, entertainment, interactivity, informativeness, and credibility have positive effects on attitudes towards advertising while irritation and privacy concerns appear to be negatively related.
... ‫بتوجيه‬ ‫يقوموا‬ ‫بدورهم‬ ‫وهم‬ ‫للمدراء‬ ‫فقط‬ ‫رفة‬‫التنافسية‬ ‫الميزة‬ ‫بتحقيق‬ ‫وعالقته‬ ‫العاملين‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫في‬ ‫الفندقي‬ ‫التسويق‬ ‫دور‬ ‫سالم‬ ‫يوضح‬ ( 1997 ) ‫الداخلي‬ ‫التسويق‬ ‫أهمية‬ ‫للمبتكرات‬ ‫العاملين‬ ‫قبول‬ ‫كسب‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫من‬ ‫الفندق‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫أو‬ ‫جديدة‬ ‫منتجات‬ ‫إدخال‬ ‫حالة‬ ‫في‬ ‫اإل‬ ‫بين‬ ‫التنسيق‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫من‬ ‫إعتراضهم‬ ‫او‬ ‫مقاومتهم‬ ‫عدم‬ ‫وضمان‬ ‫الجديدة‬ ‫ك‬ . ‫والعاملين‬ ‫دارة‬ ‫ما‬ ‫أ‬ ‫من‬ ‫العاملين‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫بتطوير‬ ‫الداخلي‬ ‫التسويق‬ ‫يهتم‬ ‫حل‬ ‫جل‬ ‫بس‬ ‫العمالء‬ ‫مشاكل‬ ‫أل‬ ‫تصل‬ ‫أن‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫وبسرعة‬ ‫ومرونة‬ ‫السة‬ ‫اإل‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫من‬ ‫زمة‬ ‫هتما‬ ‫بإ‬ ‫وذلك‬ ‫للعاملين‬ ‫السلطة‬ ‫بتفويض‬ ‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫والمسؤ‬ ‫الحرية‬ ‫احة‬ ‫و‬ ‫في‬ ‫لهم‬ ‫لية‬ ‫إ‬ ،‫القرارات‬ ‫تخاذ‬ ‫األ‬ ‫تحسين‬ ‫على‬ ‫يساعد‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫مر‬ ‫اإل‬ ‫العامل‬ ‫وإعطاء‬ ، ‫الخدمة‬ ‫جودة‬ ‫ح‬ ‫والتحفيز‬ ‫بالتدريب‬ ‫إال‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫يتاتى‬ ‫ولن‬ ، ‫بالمسؤلية‬ ‫ساس‬ ‫ومن‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫فتفويض‬ ‫التسويقية‬ ‫الناحية‬ ‫ال‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫الثقة‬ ‫زيادة‬ ‫على‬ ‫يساعد‬ ‫للعاملين‬ ‫لسلطة‬ ‫من‬ ‫جزء‬ ‫كونهم‬ ‫في‬ ‫وإحساسهم‬ ‫الوظيفي‬ ‫األداء‬ ‫على‬ ‫وقدرتهم‬ ‫عاملين‬ ‫المنظمة‬‫أ‬ ‫تحقيق‬ ‫في‬ ‫تأثير‬ ‫لهم‬ ، ‫الفند‬ ‫هداف‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫من‬ ، ‫مبيعاته‬ ‫حجم‬ ‫وزيادة‬ ‫ق‬ ‫إ‬ ‫الفندق‬ ‫خدمات‬ ‫تسويق‬ ‫في‬ ‫لهم‬ ‫الحرية‬ ‫تاحة‬( Buchanan & Huzynski, 1997 ;Kotler & Armstrong , 1999; ‫و‬ Bateman &snell , 2004 .) ‫ويضيف‬ Kotler et al., (2005) ‫س‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫زيادة‬ ‫في‬ ‫العاملين‬ ‫على‬ ‫الضغط‬ ‫عدم‬ ‫فيجب‬ ، ‫العاملين‬ ‫من‬ ‫مميز‬ ‫وظيفي‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫على‬ ‫للحصول‬ ‫الى‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫يؤدي‬ ‫قد‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫اعات‬ ‫إ‬ ‫إهتمامهم‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫من‬ ‫سيقلل‬ ‫مما‬ ، ‫عليهم‬ ‫النفسي‬ ‫الظغط‬ ‫وزيادة‬ ‫العاملين‬ ‫رهاق‬ .‫بالعمالء‬ ...
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في ظل التطورات وزيادة حدة المنافسة، أصبحت المنظمات الفندقية تبحث عن الميزة التنافسية من خلال العديد من الطرق المختلفة والجديدة، ومنها الإهتمام بالأفراد كعنصر رئيسي من عناصر المزيج التسويقي الخدمي، فجودة الخدمات تتأثر بالعاملين وإلمامهم بالمعلومات التسويقية، وهنا يأتي دور التسويق في توجيه العاملين بمتطلبات احتياجات السوق ويعد ذلك المرحلة الأولى في تطوير اداء العاملين ، معتمدا على التسويق من الخارج للداخل. أما المرحلة الثانية فهي الإهتمام بالأفراد ومعاملتهم كعملاء داخليين " التسويق الداخلي"، فرضاء العملاء الخارجيين يتأثر بالرضاء الداخلي للعاملين. والهدف في كلتا الحالتين هو رفع قدرات العاملين مع التحسين المستمر لادائهم على أساس دراسة متطلبات الأسواق المستهدفة والاهتمام الداخلي بالعاملين، محققا بذلك ميزة تنافسية للعنصر البشري بالفندق . وتتمثل مشكلة البحث في وجود اختلافات واضحة في الدراسات السابقة حول تحديد علاقة أداء العاملين بالتسويق الفندقي ، مع وجود فجوة واضحة حول كيفية تحقيق الميزة التنافسية في أداء العامل الموجه أداؤه تسويقيا، ولذلك يهدف هذا البحث الى تحديد دور التسويق الفندقي في تطوير أداء العاملين، مع توضيح أثر تطوير أداء العاملين في تحقيق الميزة التنافسية. وخلصت نتائج البحث الى وجود دور مهم للتسويق الفندقي في تطوير الجوانب الفنية والوظيفية في أداء العاملين ، الأمر الذي يساعد في تحقيق ميزة تنافسية تفردية بشكل قوي. وفي ضوء النتائج تم التوصية بأهمية البحث عن الميزة التنافسية في أداء العاملين عن طريق تكامل الجودة الوظيفية والجودة الفنية في أداء العاملين من خلال رؤية التسويق الخارجي والداخلي " متطلبات العميل الداخلي والخارجي"
... Kotler menyatakan bahwa Citra (image) ialah kepercayaan ide dan impressi seseorang terhadap sesuatu (Kotler, 2000). Crompton menyatakan bahwa Citra merupakan kesan, impressi, perasaan atau konsepsi yang ada pada publik mengenai perusahan, mengenai suatu objek, orang atau lembaga. ...
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The result of model test in this study is capable of explaining the relationship between the application of information technology and on-line academic information system on service quality and private unversity image in East Java. Using proportional random sampling, structural equation model (SEM) analysis and with the assistance of Amos software, the study shows that the application of Information Technology (IT) System on on-line academic information system increases service quality for student (0.514), particularly on information accuracy, information transfer, efficiency and real time. Information technology system may also indirectly increase the university image by service quality (0.399). With communication technology, information distribution and spread may be done in rapid and accurate manner, without boundary of time and space. PENDAHULUAN Perusahaan yang memiliki tingkat kualitas layanan tinggi secara khusus mengembangkan dua sistem informasi yang sangat meningkatkan kemampuan layanan mereka yaitu: sistem informasi yang mengumpulkan informasi kinerja layanan untuk keperluan manajemen dan motivasi karyawan dan sistem informasi yang menyebarkan informasi yang dinilai berguna bagi para pelanggan Dengan memanfaatkan teknologi informasi pada sistem informasi akademik on line, maka kualitas layanan yang diterima mahasiswa akan meningkat, terutama dalam hal keakuratan informasi, transfer informasi, efisiensi dan real time. It System juga akan menaikkan citra perguruan tinggi. Melalui teknologi komunikasi, pendistribusian dan penyebaran informasi dapat dilakukan dengan cepat, akurat tanpa batas waktu dan ruang. Ingleson (2000), menyatakan bahwa melalui IT System dapat dibangun hubungan komunikasi antara konsumen (mahasiswa) dan pihak manajemen perguruan tinggi. Layanan distribusi informasi dua arah dapat dilakukan dengan cepat, sehingga setiap konsumen berkesempatan menyampaikan evaluasi, aspirasi (kritik saran), yang kemudian membangkitkan presepsi bahwa setiap konsumen perguruan tinggi dapat bertemu dengan pimpinan perguruan tinggi (pihak manajemen) secara langsung, tanpa birokrasi yang rumit dan panjang. Daya tarik yang ditawarkan oleh masing-masing perguruan tinggi swasta pada umumnya berkaitan dengan kualitas layanan, yang dalam penerapannya berbeda-beda antara satu perguruan tinggi dengan perguruan tinggi swasta lainnya. Dengan tingginya kualitas layanan, diharapkan akan dapat mempengaruhi citra perguruan tinggi swasta. Citra suatu perguruan tinggi swasta terbentuk dari kesan, impresi, dan perasaan berdasarkan pengalaman tentang kualitas layanan yang dialami oleh seseorang terhadap perguruan tinggi tersebut Berdasarkan uraian di depan maka permasalahan penelitian ini dapat dirumuskan sebagai berikut: 1. Apakah penggunaan teknologi informasi dalam sistem informasi akademik yang on line berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap kualitas layanan perguruan tinggi swasta ?
... Brand image is a positive or negative feeling that a consumer has about a brand, confidence in the brand, or a psychological structure of the consumer, and is defined as a set of beliefs that the consumer has about the brand [73]. Low and Lamb [74] insisted that brand image is a belief about the function and symbol of a brand' and is composed of a symbolic, social, and psychological image. ...
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Brand equity is a valuable intangible asset for companies, yet is increasingly difficult in managing in an era with hard to control social media. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of social media usage characteristics on electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM), trust, and brand equity by dividing the characteristics to personality, social, and information. A survey was administered to 430 respondents who had experience of using airline social media and the collected data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that the personality and informational characteristics from social media usage had statistically significant effects on e-WOM. It was found that the e-WOM had significant effects on trust and also on brand awareness. The trust was shown to have a statistically significant effect on brand awareness and brand image. Therefore, this study categorizes social media usage characteristics into three characteristics: personality characteristics, social characteristics, and information characteristics, and each of these usage characteristics present a strategy to improve actual brand equity of airline through e-WOM and trust in empirical methods. The findings of this study are expected to provide fundamental data for the development of strategies related to airline social media. In addition, this study has implications for suggesting to improve brand equity through e-WOM and trust.
... Emotional appeal refers to the psychological, social, or symbolic feelings that motivate consumers to purchase the product (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). People often show their emotions by their sentiments, states of mind and affections. ...
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Bu makale, çevrimiçi web sayfasının görsel ve duygusal çekiciliğinin tüketicilerin davranışsal niyetleri üzerindeki etkisini analiz etmektedir. Ayrıca duygusal çekiciliğin görsel çekiciliğin davranışsal çekicilik üzerindeki etkisinde aracılık rolü de test edilmiştir. Araştırma amacı doğrultusunda online perakendecilikte alışveriş yapan 208 katılımcıya anket yöntemi kullanılarak ulaşılmıştır. Araştırma modelinin geçerliği ve hipotezlerin test edilmesi process macro analizi ile yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre görsel çekicilik, duygusal çekicilik ve davranışsal niyet üzerinde olumlu ve anlamlı bir etkiye sahiptir. Duygusal çekiciliğin davranışsal niyet üzerinde olumlu ve anlamlı bir etkisi bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, görsel çekiciliğin davranışsal niyet üzerindeki dolaylı etkisinde duygusal çekiciliğin de aracı bir role sahip olduğu görülmüştür.
... Public relations is one of the methods for increasing public awareness. Public relations, according to Kotler and Armstrong (2006), can have a significant impact on public awareness at a far lesser cost than advertising. To achieve this goal, public relations microblogging. ...
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Abstract The outbreak of the novel coronavirus escalated myriad of health and social crises that government at all levels had to battle with to ensure the safety of the citizenry. The effective management of these crises is highly dependent on the resources at the disposal of these government institutions and their ability to appropriately employ and deploy the various public relations strategies that will effectively address the fabric of the crises escalated by the pandemic. Thus, this study therefore, evaluated how the Anambra State Government managed COVID-19 related crises through the use of public relations strategies. The study looked at the actions and inactions taken by the Anambra State government geared towards managing all the COVID-19 related crises, their use of the various channels of communication and how effective these PR strategies were in managing the crises. The study made use of liberary research method in carrying out the study where the researchers depended on secondary data in carrying out the investigation. It was found that the Anambra State Government used public relations strategies like press releases, press conferences, announcements, town hall meetings with critical stakeholders like the market unions, transport unions, town unions etc. in disseminating appropriate information and behavior that helped in managing the various COVID-19 related crises in Anambra State. It was also found that the state government employed various media platforms like ABS Radio and Television, Newspapers, Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter. The study recommended that the state government should employ such PR strategies in handling other issues of concern in Anambra state owning to its effectiveness in handling COVID-19 pandemic related crises. Keywords: Evaluating, Public Relations Strategies, COVID-19, Pandemic-Related Crises, Anambra State Government
... We note from the figure "3", that the goals, which carry numbers (1,2,4,7,9,10,11,12). Located in the area (Maintained to perform of work well), while the goals that carry numbers "3, 5, 6, 8, 13, 14" located in the area (Attempt to improve). ...
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This study aims to identify and assess the objectives of participation in international trade fairs by the Jordanian companies in the food sector, and identify the problems which faced by the participation process. This study consists of four chapters, which included the first chapter on the frame of the study and contains the problem of the study and its importance and objectives and then view the assumptions and methodology of the study, then comes the second chapter, which shows the theoretical side on the ethics of the study, the third chapter was included to assess the participation of companies Jordan in international trade fairs, which contains the results of the study and analysis to identify its determinants, and then test the validity of hypotheses, either the fourth and final chapter has included the conclusions and proposals.
... Hotel industry is considered as a service sector industry (Siddiqi, 2011). Service is defined as an activity or benefit that can be offered by one party to another as well as it is primarily intangible and does not result in the proprietorship of anything (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). Also, it might be bounded as an intangibly provided offer by one party to another party in exchange for money (Solomon, 2009). ...
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Human capital is professed a critical factor and a special resource which can elevate firm's performance, generally, in most of the organizations, and specifically, in labor intensive organizations. It is considered a special resource in hotel industry where employees have direct interaction with customers. Although a lot of research has been done, however the question of how much and what type of human capital is required by the organization to fight in recent rivalry is still unanswered. This study is an effort to answer the aforesaid question about human capital in hospitality sector in Pakistan (involving five star, four star and three star hotels separately). A theoretical framework and a research conceptual model is developed on the bases of an in-depth literature. A cross sectional field survey was conducted through an adopted and valid research instrument. Questionnaires were administered to 300 respondents selected by stratified random sampling, 275 were received and 250 were perfect for further use in SPSS version 22. Statistical analysis shows the results which clearly identify the strong and significant relationship between human capital and organizational performance. Moreover, micro analysis of components of human capital depicts that innovation and creation has the most significant impact
Chapter
The hotel market operates in a particular competitive environment. In this context it is necessary for the tourism enterprises through the Human Resources Department to identify and use the appropriate staff to achieve their goals. The Human Resources management of the hotels has as its main functions the staffing, education, evaluation, motivation, as well as the remuneration policies of the company’s personnel. Businesses confirm the conclusion that the human factor plays a leading role in achieving their goals, but this requires human resources management to use the right people in the right place. In this context, the effectiveness of the Human Resources Department helps to satisfy the employees, which is of major importance as it ultimately affects customer satisfaction. In this literature review, the authors have made a number of suggestions on how the HRM can intervene so to improve the internal marketing operations by investing into the human capital of the Greek hotels. Of course, there is plenty of space for future research on this field.
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1 | P a g e Ph.D. ABSTRACT “ADAPTABILITY OF CONSUMER FOR NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCE OF ENERGY AS COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL REGULAR SOURCE OF ENERGY IN AND AROUND PUNE CITY” A ABSTRACT SUBMITTED TO SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY FOR AWARD OF DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D.) IN MARKETING MANAGEMENT UNDER THE FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SUBMITTED BY MAHESHKUMAR SHANKAR KEDAR UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF DR. JOE LOPEZ CAJETAN RESEARCH CENTER SINHGAD INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, VADGAON (BK), PUNE (MS)-411041 AUGUST 2016 2 | P a g e Abstract of the Ph.D. Thesis „Adaptability of Consumers for Non-Conventional Source of Energy as compared to Conventional regular source of Energy in and around Pune City.‟ CHAPTER SCHEMES 1. Introduction 2. Overview of Energy Scenario 3. Review of the Literature 4. Research Methodology 5. Hypothesis Testing 6. Finding of the Study 7. Suggestions 8. Conclusion 9. Chapter Schemes for the Thesis 1. Introduction:- In last 10 years, the Non-Conventional energy source has become essential part of our daily lives. As world is facing problem of energy crunch need of non-conventional energy is arising on daily basis. We all have facing problem of Energy shortage, Light cut off, Load shading need is arising on daily basis. Non-Conventional energy source becoming essential requirement of our day to day life. The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. Depends on its capacity. There are two types of Energy Sources as Follows, Non-Conventional and Conventional Source:- Non-Conventional source of energy is energy sources obtained from sources that are essentially infinite. Examples of Non-Conventional sources include Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Tidal, Hydroelectric and Biomass. Previously these were Conventional energy source before James Watt invented the steam engine in the eighteenth century. In fact, the New World was explored by man using wind-powered ships only. The non-conventional sources are available free of cost, pollution-free and inexhaustible. Man has used these sources for many centuries in propelling ships, driving windmills for grinding corn and pumping water, etc. Because of the poor technologies then existing, the cost of harnessing energy from these sources was 3 | P a g e quite high. Also because of uncertainty of period of availability and the difficulty of transporting this form of energy, to the place of its use are some of the factors which came in the way of its adoption or development. Conventional energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as Coal, Oil, Gas and Nuclear energy which are likely to reduce with time. The use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy replaced totally the non-conventional methods because of inherent advantages of transportation and certainty of availability; however these have polluted the atmosphere to a great extent. In fact, it is feared that nuclear energy may prove to be quite hazardous in case it is not properly controlled. India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water and biomass. Enthusiastic efforts during the past two decades are now bearing fruit as Consumer in all walks of life are more aware of the benefits of Non-Conventional energy source, especially decentralized energy where required in villages and in urban or semi-urban centers. India has the world‟s largest programme for Non-Conventional source of energy. Adoption Process: - It focuses on the stages through which individual consumer passes when deciding to accept or reject a new product. In case of Non-Conventional energy sources consumer not easily adopting as compared to Conventional regular Energy source. It is true that as Invention come true new technology like Bulb invention by Thomas Edison consumer started adopting new Technology. It was ancient time when consumer were using Non-Conventional energy sources as days passes consumer started using Conventional energy sources. These Convention sources become Non-Conventional. But now days as cost of adoption of conventional energy sources goes on increase Consumer is attracted towards Non-Conventional energy Sources. Scarcity of Conventional energy source is there in market so consumer started using Non-Conventional energy source. Non-Conventional source of energy help to save time, money and energy. Consumer is king in today‟s Marketing world so for that we have to keep studying on consumer Adaptability for the process of selecting and rejecting the product, consumer always follow the consumer adaptability process. Research shows that even with the best brands and best of the business rehearses, you still need strong relationships building with consumer to flourish in the marketplace. Consumer Adaptability It focuses on the stages through which individual consumer passes when deciding to accept or reject a new product. There are following stages of consumer adaptability Awareness, Interest, Evolution, Trial and last but least adoption or rejection. It is ability of an entity or organism to alter itself or its responses to the changed circumstances or 4 | P a g e environment. Adaptability shows the ability to learn from experience, and improve the fitness of the learner as competitors. Adopter having five categories as follows Innovators, Early Adopter, Early Majority, Late Majority and Laggards. This study present awareness and adaptability of non-conventional source of energy to consumers. What are the important factors which have considered responsible for the adaptability of non-conventional source of energy. Creation of awareness and making consumer adaptability is important one. Creation of awareness about government subsidy schemes and making consumers to take benefit of it. Pune city has been selected for this research because: it is one of India‟s largest city with a metro area population of over 5 million people. Pune is fastest growing city and for growth of it, one of the most important factor is energy i.e. power. Pune city has very good infrastructure and industry growth rate is very fast whose requirement of energy is full-filled by use of non-conventional source of energy. 2. Overview of Energy Scenario:- Solar power in India is a fast developing industry, with a cumulative installed grid connected solar power capacity of 8,062 MW (8 GW) as of 31 July 2016, In January 2015 the Indian government significantly expanded its solar plans, targeting US$100 billion of investment and 100 GW of solar capacity (including 40 GW from rooftop solar) by 2022. Large scale solar power deployment began only as recently as 2010, yet the ambitious targets would see India installing more than double that achieved by world leaders China or Germany in all of the period up to 2015 year end. The rapid growth in new deployments of solar power are recorded and updated monthly on the Indian Government's Ministry of New and (Renewable) Non-Conventional Energy website. In addition to the ambitious large scale grid connected solar PV initiative India is also continuing to develop the use of solar power for off grid and localised energy needs. By the end of 2015 only 55% of all rural households had access to electricity and 85% of rural households depended on solid fuel for cooking. Solar products have increasingly helped to meet rural needs, by the end of 2015 a cumulative total of just under 1 million solar lanterns had been sold in the country reducing the need for expensive kerosene. In addition a cumulative total of 30,256 solar powered water pumps for agriculture and drinking water had been installed. During 2015 alone 118,700 solar home lighting systems were installed and 5 | P a g e 46,655 solar street lighting installations were provided under a national programme. The same year saw just over 1.4 million solar cookers distributed or sold in India. In January 2016 the Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi, and the President of France Mr. François Hollande laid the founding stone for the headquarters of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in Gwalpahari, Gurgaon. The ISA will focus on promoting and developing solar energy and solar products for countries lying wholly or partially between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The alliance of over 120 countries was announced at the Paris COP21 climate summit. One of the hopes of the ISA is that wider deployment will reduce production and development costs and so facilitate increased deployment of solar technologies, including in poorer and more remote regions. India is ranked number one in terms of solar electricity production per watt installed, with an insolation of 1700 to 1900 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak (kWh/KWp). On 16 May 2011, India‟s first solar power project with a capacity of 5 MW was registered under the Clean Development Mechanism. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched on the 11th January, 2010 by the Prime Minister. The Mission has set the ambitious target of developing MW grid connected solar power by 2020 is aimed at reducing the cost of solar power generation in the country through long term policy, large scale development goals, aggressive research and development and domestic production of critical raw materials, components and products, as a result to achieve grid tariff parity by 2022. Mission will create an enabling policy framework to achieve this objective and make India a global leader in solar energy. 3. Review of the Literature:- The researcher has studied and analyzed around 198 research papers, journals and books with respect to Consumer Adaptability for Non-Conventional Source energy as compared to Conventional energy source and related to Consumer Adaptability, from National, International Journals, conferences and various report of TERI, MSEB, MEDA, Maha-Urja, Maha-Jenco and MNRE . The Researcher has also taken extensive data from the websites and blogs of many organizations who are connected with Consumer adaptability for Non-Conventional source of energy in different ways like Training, consultancy and Research. The literature Reviewed can be classified into Books, Research Papers from India, Research paper and journals from overseas, case studies and articles available on websites and blogs. 6 | P a g e “Products and the process by which they are adopted are among the most actively researched topic in marketing and the social sciences in terms of the number of publications”, Explained by Rogers, 1983. “Such attention appears well warranted given the role which new product diffusion plays changes in both consumer consumption activity and in society itself”, described by Schumpeter, 1934. Furthermore, “new product diffusion plays critical role in the performance of individual firms, a stream of successful new products is essential for business continued prosperity in a free economy”. The Adoption process is the “mental and behavioral sequences through which the consumer progress and which may result in acceptance and continued use of a product or Brand”, Said by Rogers, 1974. “It Encompass four components: 1) an Innovation, 2) which is communicated through certain channels, 3) over time, 4) among members of a social system”, described by, Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971. “Although component of time has received minimal attention in this body of research”. Mittelstaedt, Grossbart, Curtis and DeVere noted that since “time is of Paramount concern, it would seem that the most obvious question is not „Who passes through the adoption process‟ But How do individuals vary in their decision behavior over time”. India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. India is already a leader in wind power generation. In the solar energy sector, some large projects have been proposed. In India to overcome energy crunch various initiative have been taken to overcome this energy crunch problem. Government of India is drafting various policy and plans for the non-conventional energy problem, as it is environmental friendly and pollution free option. Government aims to install various Solar power projects, planned to install the solar rooftop schemes in urban and rural India to overcome this problem. Government is providing various state specific schemes to promote non-conventional schemes in India. Government aims to providing the various subsidy schemes for the non-conventional energy source especially for Solar Water heater and solar roof-top schemes. Solar Source is abundant and pollution free need to utilize and upgrade as per requirement of society. India is planning to promote non-conventional energy source to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020. Under the plan, the use of solar-powered equipment and applications would be made compulsory in all government buildings, as well as hospitals and hotels. It was 7 | P a g e reported that India was ready to launch its National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, with plans to generate 10,000 MW of power. Year on year new plan are prepared from ministry of non-conventional (renewable) sources and prime minister of India to promote the non-conventional energy source in India. India is facing a perfect storm of factors that will drive solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption at a „furious pace over the next five years and beyond‟. The falling prices of PV panels, mostly from China but also from the US, have overlapped with the growing cost of grid power in India. Government support and ample solar resources have also helped to increase solar adoption, but perhaps the biggest factor has been need. India, „as a growing economy with a surging middle class, is now facing a severe electricity deficit that often runs between 10 and 13 percent of daily need‟. India is planning to install World's largest Solar Power Plant. Few important literatures from each of the above groups have taken for this abstract preparation. 4. Research Methodology:- 4.1. Nature of the Research Work Sampling has been carried out by researcher to concentrate upon a well segmented number of Consumers and hence devote more energy. The information collected from them is accurate and technique used for the sampling is Simple Random Sampling Technique (Purposive Sampling). In this technique proportionate allocation pattern has been used where a sampling fraction in each of the sample that is proportional to that of the total respondents who have mainly the Household Consumer and Corporate Consumer. There are large numbers of consumer in and around Pune city who are using Conventional Source of Energy. Many of them are using Conventional and Non-Conventional Source of Energy. As Compared to Conventional Source of Energy users Non-Conventional Energy Source User are quite less in number. In this research work, the Sample size is 400 out of those 200 corporate consumers and 200 household consumers. 8 | P a g e 4.2. Objectives of the Study Research Objectives as Follows Objective 1 To Study Adaptability of Consumer for Non-Conventional Source of Energy as a Best Option for Conventional Source of Energy. Objective 2 To Study Extent of Awareness Created by Non-Conventional Source of Energy for Urban and Rural Electrification as an Energy Conservation Option. Objective 3 To Study Extent of Awareness on Household Energy Efficiency Improvement. Objective 4 To Study Direct and Indirect Employment/ Entrepreneur Opportunities Especially Created by Non-Conventional Energy Sources in Rural and Backward Areas. Objective 5 To Study the Energy Option as Green and Environment Helpful Option. Objective 6 To Study the Awareness about State and Central Government Subsidy Schemes of Non-Conventional Energy Source Schemes, and making their utilization and Adaptability to Consumers. 4.3. Hypothesis of the Study The Research Hypothesis as follows Hypothesis 1 “Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy.” Hypothesis 2 “Selection of Proper & appropriate Non-Conventional energy source is up to the Awareness of Consumer.” Hypothesis 3 “Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy.” 9 | P a g e Hypothesis 4 “Consumers have awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source.” Hypothesis 5 “Consumers those have awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies.” 4.4. Scope of the Study Geographical scope of this research is limited to Pune city of Maharashtra in India. All major areas/ parts of City, newly constructed apartments, newly based townships and few Thasils and villages within Pune district including Warje, Narhe, Malawadi, Shindewadi, Pirangut, Nanded city, Sanghavi, Wakad, Urali Kanchan, Talegaon Dhabahade, Sudumbare, Chikali, Bhosari, Nigadi, Sadashiv Peth, Deccan, Shivaji Nagar, Kothrud, Karve Nagar, Camp, Aundh, Sanghvi, Baramati, lonavala, and many more places…... In this research work, the Sample size is 400 out of those 200 corporate consumers and 200 household consumers. 4.5. Sampling Design Different types of research designs have different advantages and disadvantages. The design is the structure of any scientific work. It gives direction and systematizes the research. The methods we choose affect our results and how we conclude the findings. Most scientists are interested in getting reliable observations that can help the understanding of a phenomenon. Since this piece of research has study available large number of consumers for using the conventional and non-conventional energy sources. For study purposed used Exploratory Research Design. 4.6. Sources and Methods of Data Collection After preparing the details of the information required, the investigation will be done and the main tools of collecting the information will be as worked out as follows. a) Secondary data:- 10 | P a g e Journals, brouchers, internet sites etc. Newspaper articles, Media, Reports, Publications Primary information collected from websites and company broachers MITCON, Chamber of commerce offices were visited to get more information b) Primary data: - i) Questionnaire: - It is the list of research or survey questions asked to respondents, and designed to extract specific information. It serves four basic purposes: to (a) collect the appropriate data, (b) make data comparable and amenable to analysis, (c) minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and (d) to make questions engaging and varied. ii) Personal Interview: - It is a Market research technique for gathering information through face-to-face contact with individuals. This type of research is relatively costly, because it requires a staff of interviewers, but it provides the best opportunity to obtain information through probing for clearer explanations. The personal style (tone of voice, rewording of a question) and biases of each interviewer can affect how the participants respond and how the responses are recorded. It is the best technique to use early on in the research process when the researcher is not yet sure which questions need to be asked, because new and better questions can come out of the dialogue. iii) Observation: - Observation Method is method of obtaining marketing research data by watching human behavior & mechanical monitoring devices closely are also used commonly. Observation is a complex research method because it often requires the researcher to play a number of roles and to use a number of techniques; including her/his five senses, to collect data. In addition, despite the level of involvement with the study group, the researcher must always remember her/his primary role as a researcher and remain detached enough to collect and analyze data relevant to the problem under investigation. Visits will be made to various places where conventional and Non-Conventional energy source are using by Consumer. Contacted approximately more than 400 consumers who are using conventional and Non-conventional energy sources. To get detail information from them and filling up questionnaire, interview and live observation; this helped to gather reliable information regarding subject of the survey. 11 | P a g e 4.7. Analysis of the Data The collected data was analyzed with simple percentile analysis. The variables were analyzed based on their frequency of occurrence. The cross tabulation analysis of various variables is done to understand the association between the respective variables. T test is used for the Hypothesis testing. SPSS 2.0 updated version was used for analysis of and Microsoft Office Excel 2013 is used to generate graphs based on frequency distribution tables. 4.8. Limitation of the Study In this research researcher has prepared questionnaire for the corporate consumer and household consumer only it‟s taken in to consideration only in and around Pune city. Only Pune in and around area geography is limitation. Corporate customer number is very less. As a solar energy source has used by limited corporate consumer and household consumers so limitation is there. As most of the household consumers are using only Solar Water heater and limited products so there is no scope for the other solar products. The most of corporate consumer are using only primary MSEB energy source they are not using solar energy source. Now they were started adopting and utilizing solar energy source. The cost for Solar Photovoltaic cell and cost of inverter battery is very high most of the clients are not thinking to install it. In this case cost is very important factor. Most of the consumer having lack of knowledge regarding government subsidy schemes for solar photovoltaic cell, even they are unaware about exemption of VAT and GST. Adoption as most of the consumer is habitual of MSEB they do not want to invest on Solar Energy. Area is limited only Pune city is selected for the Study. It is very difficult to obtain information from the consumers and disclose information. 5. Hypothesis Testing:- 5.1 Hypothesis 1: “Most of the consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy.” H0: Consumers are not aware of Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ=1) H1: Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ>1) Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy 12 | P a g e 5.2 Hypothesis 2: Selection of Proper & appropriate Non-Conventional energy source is up to the awareness of Consumer. H0: There is no difference in opinion of Respondents about their willingness to use Non-conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy If they are aware about it. (μ=3) H1: Respondents are willing to use Non-conventional and Conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy, If they are aware about it. (μ>3) Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Respondents are willing to use Non-conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy, if they are aware about it. 5.3 Hypothesis 3: “Consumer having Awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy.” H0: Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have not started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ=1) H1: Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ>1) Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy. 5.4 Hypothesis 4: “Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source.” H0: Consumers don‟t have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source. (μ=1) 13 | P a g e H1: Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source. (μ>1) Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source. 5.5 Hypothesis 5: “Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies.” H0: Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are not taking benefit of government Subsidies. H1: Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies. Interpretation: As per the analysis of independent sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies. 6. Finding of the Study: - Study shows that Majority of Consumer (Household as well as Corporate) have awareness about Conventional as well as Non-Conventional Source of Energy Sources, and as a best source of Energy option is non-Conventional source of energy. It shows that Most of the consumers (Household as well as Corporate) have adaptability of both sources. In urban as well as rural electrification option non-conventional source is a best energy conservation option, and Consumer have good experience about it. It results that Conventional source of energy is generating employment opportunity like that Non-Conventional energy source is also generating employment opportunity in urban as well as rural areas. The Bill generated by using Conventional source energy and average monthly billing by It consumes are not satisfied. Due to that Consumer are attracting towards Non-Conventional energy source option. It results that majority of consumer are using Non-Conventional source energy i.e. Solar Energy Source for the consumption. 14 | P a g e It illustrate that there are various sources of Non-Conventional Energy Sources available majority of Consumer using Solar Water Heater, Solar Street Light System, Solar Calculator, Solar Home Lighting System, Solar Lantern, Solar Cooker, and Solar Pumps and for other there is less scope. Examples Solar Power Pack, Solar Modular kitchen, Solar Power Battery, Solar Cooker, Solar Electric Power Generation, Solar Vehicle, Solar Charge Controller, Solar Inverter, Solar Educational Kits, Solar Refrigerator, Solar Furnace, Solar Watch, Solar Mobile Battery. Up-gradation and new technology brining good results and it‟s accepted by consumers. It shows that consumer have started adopting different strategies for adopt Solar Energy. Solar energy contributes for household energy efficiency improvement programme. Solar energy is green and environment friendly energy option in urban and rural India. Most of consumers are switching from Conventional energy to Non-Conventional Energy. Solar Energy generate employment and entrepreneurial opportunity in Urban and Rural India. Government is providing various subsidy schemes for Solar Photovoltaic cell Installation. Consumers have knowledge about it and consumers are taking benefit of it. Consumers pass from various Adoption phases starting from Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial and last adoption or rejection. Consumer passes from various adopter categories from Innovators, Early Adopter, Early majority, Late Majority, Laggards. Product with best quality, 7 P‟s, after sales services, Durability, Convenience these factors keep more impact for Solar Energy Usage. Marketing decision of solar energy adoption have influenced by the solar is abundant source of energy & most of consumer has agreed on this. Government have giving various Subsidy schemes and consumers adopting it, getting benefit on billing, exemption from VAT, GST and ST. Consumer having good awareness and experience about Solar Energy Adoption and they satisfied with their energy requirement. Solar energy Installation is one time investment options where consumers invests it once get benefit for more than 25 years and lifetime also. There are various brands of solar energy sources available and most of the consumers are using following brands, Tata Power Solar System Ltd., Photon Moser-bear, Madhuri, Swellect, Emvee, and many more domestic and international brands are available. Few Chinese brands are captured market. With this all brands consumers are started using Solar energy Source Adoption for their daily life Energy requirement full-fillment. 7. Suggestions: - Non-Conventional Source of Energy includes wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal power and hydroelectric power, for study purpose I have selected Only Solar Energy 15 | P a g e Sources. As all of you know very well Solar is abundant source of energy which will not finish till existence human being/Sun, so there is a huge scope for study and Innovation on Solar Energy Sources is needed for better utilization. Researcher suggest here that people will start adopting non-conventional source of energy in all level of life. As we all know we are facing problem of load shading, overload, light cutting, electricity shortage and many other problems for that we have solar is best option as it is abundant source. As most of the Consumer are unaware about non-conventional energy source need to create awareness by study. Need to create more and more awareness by promotional activities which results into more adaptability of solar energy source. We option of non-conventional energy sources as option for conventional energy source we have to adopt it. Entrepreneurial and Employment opportunity helps to build nation which helps to create more and more employment opportunities in urban and rural area which reduce unemployment ration we need to focus on it. As company start work start it is full filled by Manpower by generating entrepreneurial and employment opportunity. Government giving various subsidies and incentive schemes need to concentrate benefits of government subsidy, consumer need to focus on it and start taking benefit of it. As government is giving benefits need to take benefit of it state as well as central government. As it is pollution free option need to create more and more awareness. Need to install more and more power grids in India by Installation of various Solar power projects in India. Non-Conventional energy source is environmental friendly and Pollution free option need to concentrate and get benefit of it. By adapting non-conventional energy source of energy. Non-Conventional Energy help to save time and money and energy. Need to analyze and study the role of society and government for supporting and promoting Non-Conventional Source of Energy. Need to promote for the use of non-conventional energy source in India. 8. Conclusion: - The Study Shows that Majority of Male Consumers adopt the non-conventional energy source they are the decision makers. Consumer of age group 31 to 45 take decision of non-conventional energy source usage. Higher qualified people take decision regarding non-conventional energy source usage and adoption. Higher Profile background consumers are aware, use and adopt non-conventional energy source. It is observed that consumer having higher income group only can offered the cost of non-conventional energy sources in India. 16 | P a g e Study shows that awareness and adaptability of non-conventional energy source is up-to level need to create more awareness and adaptability of it by advertisement. There are various types of conventional and non-conventional energy source need to create awareness about the types of market place to promote the non-conventional energy sources. Need to create awareness about the entrepreneurial and employment opportunity by the non-conventional energy source in India. Need to focus attention on it. Non-Conventional energy source is environment friendly and green energy option which one is abundant. We solve energy problem with use of this energy source. Majority of customers have habit of using conventional energy as they have facility of getting energy source at doorstep. These consumers have facility of easiness of availability. Need not to take more efforts for the getting energy. Tradition energy source which consumers get at their doorstep by MSEB connection. But as times goes on world is facing problem of energy scarcity. People in society facing problem of energy shortage, load shedding, light cutting need to find out alternative for conventional energy. Option is available of non-conventional energy. Non-conventional energy source is available abundant there is no scarcity of it. Non-conventional sources are Solar, Wind, Water, Biomass, geothermal energy source. It is alternative source of energy by using this we remove problem of energy scarcity. If you take example of Indian household and industrial requirement of energy we are facing major problem. In urban area we are facing higher level deficient and in rural area it is higher side than the urban area. The major problems are light cutting, load shading, shortage of energy. For this problem of energy what is best answer that is finding the best or possible suitable alternative is start using the non-conventional energy. Non-conventional energy sources are Solar, Wind, Water, biomass and geothermal source of energy. These sources are environmental friendly/ eco-friendly, pollution free abundant source of energy. Company and Government has create more and more awareness about it in the society, about government subsidy and benefit of it. How it is beneficial to us & society at all level of walk. 9. Chapter Schemes for the Thesis Chapter scheme is so designed as to provide a persuasive presentation of the topics included in this study, care has also been taken to maintain clarity, lucidity and flow of the presentation without sacrificing the depth and core of the study. The study is represented with seven chapters excluding Appendix and References. 17 | P a g e The Chapter scheme for this thesis is as follows- Chapter No. Description 1. Introduction and Background of the Study 2. Overview of the Energy Scenario 3. Review of the Literature 4. Research Design and Methodology 5. Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing 6. Finding and Observations 7. Conclusion, Suggestions and Direction for future research ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Keywords: - Non-Conventional, Solar Photovoltaic, Consumer Awareness, Consumer Adaptability. Maheshkumar Shankar Kedar Dr. Joe Lopez Research Student Research guide Sinhgad Institute of Management & Research Center, Wadgaon (Bk), Pune. Savitribai Phule Pune University.
Thesis
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1 | P a g e Ph.D. ABSTRACT “ADAPTABILITY OF CONSUMER FOR NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCE OF ENERGY AS COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL REGULAR SOURCE OF ENERGY IN AND AROUND PUNE CITY” A ABSTRACT SUBMITTED TO SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY FOR AWARD OF DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D.) IN MARKETING MANAGEMENT UNDER THE FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SUBMITTED BY MAHESHKUMAR SHANKAR KEDAR UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF DR. JOE LOPEZ CAJETAN RESEARCH CENTER SINHGAD INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, VADGAON (BK), PUNE (MS)-411041 AUGUST 2016 2 | P a g e Abstract of the Ph.D. Thesis „Adaptability of Consumers for Non-Conventional Source of Energy as compared to Conventional regular source of Energy in and around Pune City.‟ CHAPTER SCHEMES 1. Introduction 2. Overview of Energy Scenario 3. Review of the Literature 4. Research Methodology 5. Hypothesis Testing 6. Finding of the Study 7. Suggestions 8. Conclusion 9. Chapter Schemes for the Thesis 1. Introduction:- In last 10 years, the Non-Conventional energy source has become essential part of our daily lives. As world is facing problem of energy crunch need of non-conventional energy is arising on daily basis. We all have facing problem of Energy shortage, Light cut off, Load shading need is arising on daily basis. Non-Conventional energy source becoming essential requirement of our day to day life. The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. Depends on its capacity. There are two types of Energy Sources as Follows, Non-Conventional and Conventional Source:- Non-Conventional source of energy is energy sources obtained from sources that are essentially infinite. Examples of Non-Conventional sources include Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Tidal, Hydroelectric and Biomass. Previously these were Conventional energy source before James Watt invented the steam engine in the eighteenth century. In fact, the New World was explored by man using wind-powered ships only. The non-conventional sources are available free of cost, pollution-free and inexhaustible. Man has used these sources for many centuries in propelling ships, driving windmills for grinding corn and pumping water, etc. Because of the poor technologies then existing, the cost of harnessing energy from these sources was 3 | P a g e quite high. Also because of uncertainty of period of availability and the difficulty of transporting this form of energy, to the place of its use are some of the factors which came in the way of its adoption or development. Conventional energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as Coal, Oil, Gas and Nuclear energy which are likely to reduce with time. The use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy replaced totally the non-conventional methods because of inherent advantages of transportation and certainty of availability; however these have polluted the atmosphere to a great extent. In fact, it is feared that nuclear energy may prove to be quite hazardous in case it is not properly controlled. India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water and biomass. Enthusiastic efforts during the past two decades are now bearing fruit as Consumer in all walks of life are more aware of the benefits of Non-Conventional energy source, especially decentralized energy where required in villages and in urban or semi-urban centers. India has the world‟s largest programme for Non-Conventional source of energy. Adoption Process: - It focuses on the stages through which individual consumer passes when deciding to accept or reject a new product. In case of Non-Conventional energy sources consumer not easily adopting as compared to Conventional regular Energy source. It is true that as Invention come true new technology like Bulb invention by Thomas Edison consumer started adopting new Technology. It was ancient time when consumer were using Non-Conventional energy sources as days passes consumer started using Conventional energy sources. These Convention sources become Non-Conventional. But now days as cost of adoption of conventional energy sources goes on increase Consumer is attracted towards Non-Conventional energy Sources. Scarcity of Conventional energy source is there in market so consumer started using Non-Conventional energy source. Non-Conventional source of energy help to save time, money and energy. Consumer is king in today‟s Marketing world so for that we have to keep studying on consumer Adaptability for the process of selecting and rejecting the product, consumer always follow the consumer adaptability process. Research shows that even with the best brands and best of the business rehearses, you still need strong relationships building with consumer to flourish in the marketplace. Consumer Adaptability It focuses on the stages through which individual consumer passes when deciding to accept or reject a new product. There are following stages of consumer adaptability Awareness, Interest, Evolution, Trial and last but least adoption or rejection. It is ability of an entity or organism to alter itself or its responses to the changed circumstances or 4 | P a g e environment. Adaptability shows the ability to learn from experience, and improve the fitness of the learner as competitors. Adopter having five categories as follows Innovators, Early Adopter, Early Majority, Late Majority and Laggards. This study present awareness and adaptability of non-conventional source of energy to consumers. What are the important factors which have considered responsible for the adaptability of non-conventional source of energy. Creation of awareness and making consumer adaptability is important one. Creation of awareness about government subsidy schemes and making consumers to take benefit of it. Pune city has been selected for this research because: it is one of India‟s largest city with a metro area population of over 5 million people. Pune is fastest growing city and for growth of it, one of the most important factor is energy i.e. power. Pune city has very good infrastructure and industry growth rate is very fast whose requirement of energy is full-filled by use of non-conventional source of energy. 2. Overview of Energy Scenario:- Solar power in India is a fast developing industry, with a cumulative installed grid connected solar power capacity of 8,062 MW (8 GW) as of 31 July 2016, In January 2015 the Indian government significantly expanded its solar plans, targeting US$100 billion of investment and 100 GW of solar capacity (including 40 GW from rooftop solar) by 2022. Large scale solar power deployment began only as recently as 2010, yet the ambitious targets would see India installing more than double that achieved by world leaders China or Germany in all of the period up to 2015 year end. The rapid growth in new deployments of solar power are recorded and updated monthly on the Indian Government's Ministry of New and (Renewable) Non-Conventional Energy website. In addition to the ambitious large scale grid connected solar PV initiative India is also continuing to develop the use of solar power for off grid and localised energy needs. By the end of 2015 only 55% of all rural households had access to electricity and 85% of rural households depended on solid fuel for cooking. Solar products have increasingly helped to meet rural needs, by the end of 2015 a cumulative total of just under 1 million solar lanterns had been sold in the country reducing the need for expensive kerosene. In addition a cumulative total of 30,256 solar powered water pumps for agriculture and drinking water had been installed. During 2015 alone 118,700 solar home lighting systems were installed and 5 | P a g e 46,655 solar street lighting installations were provided under a national programme. The same year saw just over 1.4 million solar cookers distributed or sold in India. In January 2016 the Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi, and the President of France Mr. François Hollande laid the founding stone for the headquarters of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in Gwalpahari, Gurgaon. The ISA will focus on promoting and developing solar energy and solar products for countries lying wholly or partially between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The alliance of over 120 countries was announced at the Paris COP21 climate summit. One of the hopes of the ISA is that wider deployment will reduce production and development costs and so facilitate increased deployment of solar technologies, including in poorer and more remote regions. India is ranked number one in terms of solar electricity production per watt installed, with an insolation of 1700 to 1900 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak (kWh/KWp). On 16 May 2011, India‟s first solar power project with a capacity of 5 MW was registered under the Clean Development Mechanism. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched on the 11th January, 2010 by the Prime Minister. The Mission has set the ambitious target of developing MW grid connected solar power by 2020 is aimed at reducing the cost of solar power generation in the country through long term policy, large scale development goals, aggressive research and development and domestic production of critical raw materials, components and products, as a result to achieve grid tariff parity by 2022. Mission will create an enabling policy framework to achieve this objective and make India a global leader in solar energy. 3. Review of the Literature:- The researcher has studied and analyzed around 198 research papers, journals and books with respect to Consumer Adaptability for Non-Conventional Source energy as compared to Conventional energy source and related to Consumer Adaptability, from National, International Journals, conferences and various report of TERI, MSEB, MEDA, Maha-Urja, Maha-Jenco and MNRE . The Researcher has also taken extensive data from the websites and blogs of many organizations who are connected with Consumer adaptability for Non-Conventional source of energy in different ways like Training, consultancy and Research. The literature Reviewed can be classified into Books, Research Papers from India, Research paper and journals from overseas, case studies and articles available on websites and blogs. 6 | P a g e “Products and the process by which they are adopted are among the most actively researched topic in marketing and the social sciences in terms of the number of publications”, Explained by Rogers, 1983. “Such attention appears well warranted given the role which new product diffusion plays changes in both consumer consumption activity and in society itself”, described by Schumpeter, 1934. Furthermore, “new product diffusion plays critical role in the performance of individual firms, a stream of successful new products is essential for business continued prosperity in a free economy”. The Adoption process is the “mental and behavioral sequences through which the consumer progress and which may result in acceptance and continued use of a product or Brand”, Said by Rogers, 1974. “It Encompass four components: 1) an Innovation, 2) which is communicated through certain channels, 3) over time, 4) among members of a social system”, described by, Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971. “Although component of time has received minimal attention in this body of research”. Mittelstaedt, Grossbart, Curtis and DeVere noted that since “time is of Paramount concern, it would seem that the most obvious question is not „Who passes through the adoption process‟ But How do individuals vary in their decision behavior over time”. India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. India is already a leader in wind power generation. In the solar energy sector, some large projects have been proposed. In India to overcome energy crunch various initiative have been taken to overcome this energy crunch problem. Government of India is drafting various policy and plans for the non-conventional energy problem, as it is environmental friendly and pollution free option. Government aims to install various Solar power projects, planned to install the solar rooftop schemes in urban and rural India to overcome this problem. Government is providing various state specific schemes to promote non-conventional schemes in India. Government aims to providing the various subsidy schemes for the non-conventional energy source especially for Solar Water heater and solar roof-top schemes. Solar Source is abundant and pollution free need to utilize and upgrade as per requirement of society. India is planning to promote non-conventional energy source to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020. Under the plan, the use of solar-powered equipment and applications would be made compulsory in all government buildings, as well as hospitals and hotels. It was 7 | P a g e reported that India was ready to launch its National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, with plans to generate 10,000 MW of power. Year on year new plan are prepared from ministry of non-conventional (renewable) sources and prime minister of India to promote the non-conventional energy source in India. India is facing a perfect storm of factors that will drive solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption at a „furious pace over the next five years and beyond‟. The falling prices of PV panels, mostly from China but also from the US, have overlapped with the growing cost of grid power in India. Government support and ample solar resources have also helped to increase solar adoption, but perhaps the biggest factor has been need. India, „as a growing economy with a surging middle class, is now facing a severe electricity deficit that often runs between 10 and 13 percent of daily need‟. India is planning to install World's largest Solar Power Plant. Few important literatures from each of the above groups have taken for this abstract preparation. 4. Research Methodology:- 4.1. Nature of the Research Work Sampling has been carried out by researcher to concentrate upon a well segmented number of Consumers and hence devote more energy. The information collected from them is accurate and technique used for the sampling is Simple Random Sampling Technique (Purposive Sampling). In this technique proportionate allocation pattern has been used where a sampling fraction in each of the sample that is proportional to that of the total respondents who have mainly the Household Consumer and Corporate Consumer. There are large numbers of consumer in and around Pune city who are using Conventional Source of Energy. Many of them are using Conventional and Non-Conventional Source of Energy. As Compared to Conventional Source of Energy users Non-Conventional Energy Source User are quite less in number. In this research work, the Sample size is 400 out of those 200 corporate consumers and 200 household consumers. 8 | P a g e 4.2. Objectives of the Study Research Objectives as Follows Objective 1 To Study Adaptability of Consumer for Non-Conventional Source of Energy as a Best Option for Conventional Source of Energy. Objective 2 To Study Extent of Awareness Created by Non-Conventional Source of Energy for Urban and Rural Electrification as an Energy Conservation Option. Objective 3 To Study Extent of Awareness on Household Energy Efficiency Improvement. Objective 4 To Study Direct and Indirect Employment/ Entrepreneur Opportunities Especially Created by Non-Conventional Energy Sources in Rural and Backward Areas. Objective 5 To Study the Energy Option as Green and Environment Helpful Option. Objective 6 To Study the Awareness about State and Central Government Subsidy Schemes of Non-Conventional Energy Source Schemes, and making their utilization and Adaptability to Consumers. 4.3. Hypothesis of the Study The Research Hypothesis as follows Hypothesis 1 “Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy.” Hypothesis 2 “Selection of Proper & appropriate Non-Conventional energy source is up to the Awareness of Consumer.” Hypothesis 3 “Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy.” 9 | P a g e Hypothesis 4 “Consumers have awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source.” Hypothesis 5 “Consumers those have awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies.” 4.4. Scope of the Study Geographical scope of this research is limited to Pune city of Maharashtra in India. All major areas/ parts of City, newly constructed apartments, newly based townships and few Thasils and villages within Pune district including Warje, Narhe, Malawadi, Shindewadi, Pirangut, Nanded city, Sanghavi, Wakad, Urali Kanchan, Talegaon Dhabahade, Sudumbare, Chikali, Bhosari, Nigadi, Sadashiv Peth, Deccan, Shivaji Nagar, Kothrud, Karve Nagar, Camp, Aundh, Sanghvi, Baramati, lonavala, and many more places…... In this research work, the Sample size is 400 out of those 200 corporate consumers and 200 household consumers. 4.5. Sampling Design Different types of research designs have different advantages and disadvantages. The design is the structure of any scientific work. It gives direction and systematizes the research. The methods we choose affect our results and how we conclude the findings. Most scientists are interested in getting reliable observations that can help the understanding of a phenomenon. Since this piece of research has study available large number of consumers for using the conventional and non-conventional energy sources. For study purposed used Exploratory Research Design. 4.6. Sources and Methods of Data Collection After preparing the details of the information required, the investigation will be done and the main tools of collecting the information will be as worked out as follows. a) Secondary data:- 10 | P a g e Journals, brouchers, internet sites etc. Newspaper articles, Media, Reports, Publications Primary information collected from websites and company broachers MITCON, Chamber of commerce offices were visited to get more information b) Primary data: - i) Questionnaire: - It is the list of research or survey questions asked to respondents, and designed to extract specific information. It serves four basic purposes: to (a) collect the appropriate data, (b) make data comparable and amenable to analysis, (c) minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and (d) to make questions engaging and varied. ii) Personal Interview: - It is a Market research technique for gathering information through face-to-face contact with individuals. This type of research is relatively costly, because it requires a staff of interviewers, but it provides the best opportunity to obtain information through probing for clearer explanations. The personal style (tone of voice, rewording of a question) and biases of each interviewer can affect how the participants respond and how the responses are recorded. It is the best technique to use early on in the research process when the researcher is not yet sure which questions need to be asked, because new and better questions can come out of the dialogue. iii) Observation: - Observation Method is method of obtaining marketing research data by watching human behavior & mechanical monitoring devices closely are also used commonly. Observation is a complex research method because it often requires the researcher to play a number of roles and to use a number of techniques; including her/his five senses, to collect data. In addition, despite the level of involvement with the study group, the researcher must always remember her/his primary role as a researcher and remain detached enough to collect and analyze data relevant to the problem under investigation. Visits will be made to various places where conventional and Non-Conventional energy source are using by Consumer. Contacted approximately more than 400 consumers who are using conventional and Non-conventional energy sources. To get detail information from them and filling up questionnaire, interview and live observation; this helped to gather reliable information regarding subject of the survey. 11 | P a g e 4.7. Analysis of the Data The collected data was analyzed with simple percentile analysis. The variables were analyzed based on their frequency of occurrence. The cross tabulation analysis of various variables is done to understand the association between the respective variables. T test is used for the Hypothesis testing. SPSS 2.0 updated version was used for analysis of and Microsoft Office Excel 2013 is used to generate graphs based on frequency distribution tables. 4.8. Limitation of the Study In this research researcher has prepared questionnaire for the corporate consumer and household consumer only it‟s taken in to consideration only in and around Pune city. Only Pune in and around area geography is limitation. Corporate customer number is very less. As a solar energy source has used by limited corporate consumer and household consumers so limitation is there. As most of the household consumers are using only Solar Water heater and limited products so there is no scope for the other solar products. The most of corporate consumer are using only primary MSEB energy source they are not using solar energy source. Now they were started adopting and utilizing solar energy source. The cost for Solar Photovoltaic cell and cost of inverter battery is very high most of the clients are not thinking to install it. In this case cost is very important factor. Most of the consumer having lack of knowledge regarding government subsidy schemes for solar photovoltaic cell, even they are unaware about exemption of VAT and GST. Adoption as most of the consumer is habitual of MSEB they do not want to invest on Solar Energy. Area is limited only Pune city is selected for the Study. It is very difficult to obtain information from the consumers and disclose information. 5. Hypothesis Testing:- 5.1 Hypothesis 1: “Most of the consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy.” H0: Consumers are not aware of Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ=1) H1: Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ>1) Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers are aware of Non-Conventional source of energy 12 | P a g e 5.2 Hypothesis 2: Selection of Proper & appropriate Non-Conventional energy source is up to the awareness of Consumer. H0: There is no difference in opinion of Respondents about their willingness to use Non-conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy If they are aware about it. (μ=3) H1: Respondents are willing to use Non-conventional and Conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy, If they are aware about it. (μ>3) Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Respondents are willing to use Non-conventional source of energy compare to Conventional source of energy, if they are aware about it. 5.3 Hypothesis 3: “Consumer having Awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy.” H0: Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have not started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ=1) H1: Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy. (μ>1) Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumer having awareness of Non-Conventional energy source have started Adaptability of the Non-Conventional source of energy. 5.4 Hypothesis 4: “Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source.” H0: Consumers don‟t have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source. (μ=1) 13 | P a g e H1: Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source. (μ>1) Interpretation: As per the analysis of one sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers have Awareness about government subsidies for Non-Conventional Energy Source. 5.5 Hypothesis 5: “Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies.” H0: Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are not taking benefit of government Subsidies. H1: Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies. Interpretation: As per the analysis of independent sample t test used to test the hypothesis, sig value with 95% of confidence level is (0.000) is less than 0.05. So test fail to accept the null hypothesis and it interpreted that Consumers those have Awareness of Government subsidies are taking benefit of government Subsidies. 6. Finding of the Study: - Study shows that Majority of Consumer (Household as well as Corporate) have awareness about Conventional as well as Non-Conventional Source of Energy Sources, and as a best source of Energy option is non-Conventional source of energy. It shows that Most of the consumers (Household as well as Corporate) have adaptability of both sources. In urban as well as rural electrification option non-conventional source is a best energy conservation option, and Consumer have good experience about it. It results that Conventional source of energy is generating employment opportunity like that Non-Conventional energy source is also generating employment opportunity in urban as well as rural areas. The Bill generated by using Conventional source energy and average monthly billing by It consumes are not satisfied. Due to that Consumer are attracting towards Non-Conventional energy source option. It results that majority of consumer are using Non-Conventional source energy i.e. Solar Energy Source for the consumption. 14 | P a g e It illustrate that there are various sources of Non-Conventional Energy Sources available majority of Consumer using Solar Water Heater, Solar Street Light System, Solar Calculator, Solar Home Lighting System, Solar Lantern, Solar Cooker, and Solar Pumps and for other there is less scope. Examples Solar Power Pack, Solar Modular kitchen, Solar Power Battery, Solar Cooker, Solar Electric Power Generation, Solar Vehicle, Solar Charge Controller, Solar Inverter, Solar Educational Kits, Solar Refrigerator, Solar Furnace, Solar Watch, Solar Mobile Battery. Up-gradation and new technology brining good results and it‟s accepted by consumers. It shows that consumer have started adopting different strategies for adopt Solar Energy. Solar energy contributes for household energy efficiency improvement programme. Solar energy is green and environment friendly energy option in urban and rural India. Most of consumers are switching from Conventional energy to Non-Conventional Energy. Solar Energy generate employment and entrepreneurial opportunity in Urban and Rural India. Government is providing various subsidy schemes for Solar Photovoltaic cell Installation. Consumers have knowledge about it and consumers are taking benefit of it. Consumers pass from various Adoption phases starting from Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial and last adoption or rejection. Consumer passes from various adopter categories from Innovators, Early Adopter, Early majority, Late Majority, Laggards. Product with best quality, 7 P‟s, after sales services, Durability, Convenience these factors keep more impact for Solar Energy Usage. Marketing decision of solar energy adoption have influenced by the solar is abundant source of energy & most of consumer has agreed on this. Government have giving various Subsidy schemes and consumers adopting it, getting benefit on billing, exemption from VAT, GST and ST. Consumer having good awareness and experience about Solar Energy Adoption and they satisfied with their energy requirement. Solar energy Installation is one time investment options where consumers invests it once get benefit for more than 25 years and lifetime also. There are various brands of solar energy sources available and most of the consumers are using following brands, Tata Power Solar System Ltd., Photon Moser-bear, Madhuri, Swellect, Emvee, and many more domestic and international brands are available. Few Chinese brands are captured market. With this all brands consumers are started using Solar energy Source Adoption for their daily life Energy requirement full-fillment. 7. Suggestions: - Non-Conventional Source of Energy includes wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal power and hydroelectric power, for study purpose I have selected Only Solar Energy 15 | P a g e Sources. As all of you know very well Solar is abundant source of energy which will not finish till existence human being/Sun, so there is a huge scope for study and Innovation on Solar Energy Sources is needed for better utilization. Researcher suggest here that people will start adopting non-conventional source of energy in all level of life. As we all know we are facing problem of load shading, overload, light cutting, electricity shortage and many other problems for that we have solar is best option as it is abundant source. As most of the Consumer are unaware about non-conventional energy source need to create awareness by study. Need to create more and more awareness by promotional activities which results into more adaptability of solar energy source. We option of non-conventional energy sources as option for conventional energy source we have to adopt it. Entrepreneurial and Employment opportunity helps to build nation which helps to create more and more employment opportunities in urban and rural area which reduce unemployment ration we need to focus on it. As company start work start it is full filled by Manpower by generating entrepreneurial and employment opportunity. Government giving various subsidies and incentive schemes need to concentrate benefits of government subsidy, consumer need to focus on it and start taking benefit of it. As government is giving benefits need to take benefit of it state as well as central government. As it is pollution free option need to create more and more awareness. Need to install more and more power grids in India by Installation of various Solar power projects in India. Non-Conventional energy source is environmental friendly and Pollution free option need to concentrate and get benefit of it. By adapting non-conventional energy source of energy. Non-Conventional Energy help to save time and money and energy. Need to analyze and study the role of society and government for supporting and promoting Non-Conventional Source of Energy. Need to promote for the use of non-conventional energy source in India. 8. Conclusion: - The Study Shows that Majority of Male Consumers adopt the non-conventional energy source they are the decision makers. Consumer of age group 31 to 45 take decision of non-conventional energy source usage. Higher qualified people take decision regarding non-conventional energy source usage and adoption. Higher Profile background consumers are aware, use and adopt non-conventional energy source. It is observed that consumer having higher income group only can offered the cost of non-conventional energy sources in India. 16 | P a g e Study shows that awareness and adaptability of non-conventional energy source is up-to level need to create more awareness and adaptability of it by advertisement. There are various types of conventional and non-conventional energy source need to create awareness about the types of market place to promote the non-conventional energy sources. Need to create awareness about the entrepreneurial and employment opportunity by the non-conventional energy source in India. Need to focus attention on it. Non-Conventional energy source is environment friendly and green energy option which one is abundant. We solve energy problem with use of this energy source. Majority of customers have habit of using conventional energy as they have facility of getting energy source at doorstep. These consumers have facility of easiness of availability. Need not to take more efforts for the getting energy. Tradition energy source which consumers get at their doorstep by MSEB connection. But as times goes on world is facing problem of energy scarcity. People in society facing problem of energy shortage, load shedding, light cutting need to find out alternative for conventional energy. Option is available of non-conventional energy. Non-conventional energy source is available abundant there is no scarcity of it. Non-conventional sources are Solar, Wind, Water, Biomass, geothermal energy source. It is alternative source of energy by using this we remove problem of energy scarcity. If you take example of Indian household and industrial requirement of energy we are facing major problem. In urban area we are facing higher level deficient and in rural area it is higher side than the urban area. The major problems are light cutting, load shading, shortage of energy. For this problem of energy what is best answer that is finding the best or possible suitable alternative is start using the non-conventional energy. Non-conventional energy sources are Solar, Wind, Water, biomass and geothermal source of energy. These sources are environmental friendly/ eco-friendly, pollution free abundant source of energy. Company and Government has create more and more awareness about it in the society, about government subsidy and benefit of it. How it is beneficial to us & society at all level of walk. 9. Chapter Schemes for the Thesis Chapter scheme is so designed as to provide a persuasive presentation of the topics included in this study, care has also been taken to maintain clarity, lucidity and flow of the presentation without sacrificing the depth and core of the study. The study is represented with seven chapters excluding Appendix and References. 17 | P a g e The Chapter scheme for this thesis is as follows- Chapter No. Description 1. Introduction and Background of the Study 2. Overview of the Energy Scenario 3. Review of the Literature 4. Research Design and Methodology 5. Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing 6. Finding and Observations 7. Conclusion, Suggestions and Direction for future research ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Keywords: - Non-Conventional, Solar Photovoltaic, Consumer Awareness, Consumer Adaptability. Maheshkumar Shankar Kedar Dr. Joe Lopez Research Student Research guide Sinhgad Institute of Management & Research Center, Wadgaon (Bk), Pune. Savitribai Phule Pune University.
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IntroductionTraditionally, the pharmaceutical industry has used ‘promotional personal engagement’ activities, which involve interactions between sales forces and prescribers, in order to generate ‘sales’—or prescriptions—of their new medicinal product(s). There appears to be now a favouring of ‘non-personal engagement’ (external information sources or activities existing outside the direct control of the company) and ‘non-promotional personal engagement’ activities (focused around creating peer-to-peer relationships between prescribers and pharmaceutical physicians).Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of non-personal engagement and non-promotional personal engagement activities on the prescribing habits of British healthcare professionals, using the traditional promotional personal engagement activities as a comparator.MethodsA questionnaire was distributed to 122 prescribers (physicians, nurses and pharmacists) working with two selected products for pulmonary arterial hypertension. The participants were asked to rate the influence that the listed activities had on their decision to prescribe each of the two products using a scale of 0–10, where 0 = ‘no influence’ and 10 = ‘most important influence’.ResultsOf the 122 targeted healthcare professionals who received the questionnaire, 34 (27.9%) responded within the 2-week time limit (24 physicians, 5 nurse prescribers and 5 pharmacists). The findings of the survey had a confidence level of 90% and a margin of error of 12%, given that 34 of 122 people responded. All proposed activities were scored by the respondents as having some influence on their prescribing. Personal engagement activities are effective for influencing prescribing, but non-promotional personal engagement activities may be more influential than promotional personal engagement activities. Furthermore, non-personal engagement activities may be more effective in influencing prescriptions of a product than either non-promotional or promotional personal engagement activities.Conclusions All personal engagement activities affect HCP prescribing behaviours; however, they appear to be more influential when performed on a non-promotional basis by representatives of the company’s medical department.
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Businesses seek to analyse their customer feedback to compare their brand's popularity with the popularity of competing brands. The increasing use of social media in recent years is producing large amounts of textual content, which has become rich source of data for brand popularity analysis. In this article, a novel hybrid approach of classification and lexicon based methods is proposed to assess brand popularity based on the sentiments expressed in social media posts. Two different classification models using Naïve Bayes (NB) and SVM are built based on Twitter messages for 9 different brands of 3 cosmetic products. In addition, sentiment quantification have been performed using a lexicon-based approach. Based on the overall comparison of the proposed models, the SVM classifier has the highest performance with 78.85% accuracy and 94.60% AUC, compared to 73.57% and 63.63% accuracy, 80.63% and 69.38% AUC of the NB classifier and the sentiment quantification approach respectively. Specific indices based on classification and lexicon approaches are proposed to assess the brand popularity.
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The acceleration of technological advances has significantly improved sectoral efficiency and provided service providers the opportunity to produce an unprecedented variety of products and services. As a result, more supply has started to form in a growing number of sectors than demand. As the liberalization rate in trade increased with the influence of global organizations such as the World Trade Organization and regional organizations such as the European Union, the brand addiction and product price differences decreased, and the logic of monopoly began to disappear with the effective competition of those who challenged the markets and leading organizations. For this reason, although the importance of strategy and innovation is emphasized in the study, it focuses on the strategic importance and technological innovation capabilities of innovation, and criticisms are made in terms of strategic management.
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Healthcare systems face challenges posed by internal and external factors, including economic crises or pandemic outbreaks. In the COVID-19 pandemic, particular attention was focused on the financing activities to mitigate its impact, strengthening emergency medicine, healthcare human and technical resources. At the same time, it becomes noticeable that the proposed solutions and significant financial resources are not sufficient or appropriate to resolve potential and existing challenges. Consequently, the question arises as to whether there are any hidden obstructions in the healthcare system itself that hinder its operation. Therefore, this research aimed to identify areas in which the in-depth research would contribute to the performance of healthcare systems, alongside the allocation of funding. To achieve the goal of the study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify the views of scientists on healthcare systems' operation in the COVID-19 spread period. The results of the performed literature review indicated several obstructions and potentials of the healthcare systems. Dominant attention is dedicated to shifting from the hierarchical structural governance principles to the people-centered approach, towards collaborative, inclusive, and participative practices of engagement and involvement of healthcare professionals and patients, moving from fragmentation to adaptive self-organization, creating well-integrated, equitable, and prosperous societies, by redesigning health policy thinking and respecting the principles of democracy and human rights. Further theoretical research could strengthen the practical implementation of more sustainable and inclusive healthcare systems.
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An “enterprise” is, essentially, people with different abilities, experiences, and skills working together as employees to reach common goals. Once an organization has left its startup stage, a company defines and assigns work (tasks) to the individuals whose skills and strengths can best handle them. This requires cooperation amongst the people and functions towards common company goals. The disparate work efforts and roles need management to ensure harmonious operation and synchronization of efforts. We will use the language and metaphor of a musical orchestra to describe these tasks.
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Product management has become an established discipline in many industries since Procter and Gamble introduced it in 1931. During recent decades, most software product companies—like Microsoft, IBM, and Google—implemented Software Product Management (SPM). So did some corporate information technology organizations across essentially all industries, as well as some companies that produce software embedded in software-intensive products and services. The role of software product manager has emerged during this time as being of strategic value since it is crucial to the economic success of a product. This chapter puts software product management into the context of software as a business. It outlines the historical context, defines relevant terms and characteristics, looks at software from a business perspective, introduces ISPMA’s SPM Framework, and discusses the role of SPM and its positioning in a software organization. The business context, definitions, and scenarios will help the reader to understand how to implement the many practices that a software product manager has available to him to ensure the success of his product.
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Modanisa is a global E-commerce company which provide modest fashion products. Since each country has different currency and different economic conditions, purchasing capacity of the residents change. As a result, the price that the market is willing to pay vary among the countries. Price sensitivity is the degree to which demand changes when the cost of a product or service changes. Price sensitivity is commonly measured using the price elasticity of demand, which states that some consumers won’t pay more if a lower-priced option is available. In this study, a decision support system is proposed based on price sensitivity of products. To this end, first previous data is processed to obtain the price sensitivity. At the second step, a mathematical model, which aims to maximize the profit, is proposed. In order to show the efficiency of the approach a mathematical model is also provided.KeywordsPrice sensitivityE-commercePricing system
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ملخص البحث: يلعب نظام المعلومات التسويقية دوراً أساسياً في رفع كفاءة الأداء الاقتصادي للشركات في الأسواق التنافسية حيث تساهم في تحسين الأداء الاقتصادي بها من خلال توفير المعلومات اللازمة للمستويات الإدارية المختلفة ، وتعمل إدارة التسويق في الوقت الحالي في بيئة ديناميكية تتطلب اليقظة من جانب القائمين على هذه الإدارة لتعدد وتشابك المتغيرات الداخلية والخارجية التي تؤثر في النشاط التسويقي ، ولكي تتعامل إدارة التسويق مع هذه المتغيرات لابد أن تتوافر لها المعلومات التسويقية الدقيقة وفي الوقت المطلوب ولن يتحقق ذلك إلا بوجود نظام للتعامل مع هذا النوع من المتغيرات من أجل الأهداف التسويقية وهو ما يعرف بنظام المعلومات التسويقية. اهتم البحث الحالي بتوصيف أبعاد نظم المعلومات التسويقية والمزايا التنافسية المستدامة في شركات الإتصالات الكويتية ، بالإضافة إلى تحديد نوع وقوة العلاقة بين أبعاد نظم المعلومات التسويقية والمزايا التنافسية المستدامة ، ولتحقيق ذلك تم الاعتماد على قائمة الاستقصاء لجمع البيانات الأولية باستخدام عينة قوامها 345 موظف من موظفي شركات الإتصالات الكويتية، وقد أظهرت نتائج البحث أن واقع نظم المعلومات التسويقية متوسط على المستوى الإجمالي وبالنسبة لكل بعد من أبعادها، ووجد أن مستوى المزايا التنافسية المستدامة كان متوسطاً على المستوى الإجمالي وبالنسبة لكل بعد من أبعادها ، وبينت نتائج البحث عدم وجود اختلافات ذات دلالة احصائية بين إدراك المستقصي منهم حول مستوي نظم المعلومات التسويقية باختلاف الخصائص الديموجرافية، وعدم وجود اختلافات بين إدراك المستقصي منهم حول مستوي المزايا التنافسية المستدامة باختلاف الخصائص الديموجرافية، وكشفت النتائج أن هناك علاقة طردية ذات دلالة احصائية بين أبعاد نظم المعلومات التسويقية والمزايا التنافسية المستدامة ، وتوصل الباحثان إلى مجموعة من التوصيات لتدعيم المزايا التنافسية المستدامة في شركات الإتصالات الكويتية من خلال الإهتمام بنظم المعلومات التسويقية . الكلمات المفتاحية: نظم المعلومات التسويقية ، المزايا التنافسية المستدامة. Research Summary: The marketing information system plays a key role in increasing the efficiency of the economic performance of companies in competitive markets where they contribute to improving their economic performance by providing the necessary information to different management levels, marketing management is currently working in a dynamic environment that requires vigilance on the part of the administrators to multiple and interconnect internal and external variables that affect marketing activity, and in order for marketing management to deal with these variables must have accurate marketing information and at the time This will only be achieved by having a system to deal with this type of variable for marketing objectives, which is known as the marketing information system. The current research was concerned with describing the dimensions of marketing information systems and sustainable competitive advantages in Kuwaiti telecommunications companies, in addition to determining the type and strength of the relationship between the dimensions of marketing information systems and sustainable competitive advantages, and to achieve this was relied upon the survey list to collect preliminary data using a sample of 345 employees of Kuwaiti telecommunications companies, the results of the research showed that the reality of marketing information systems is average at the overall level and for each dimension of its dimensions, and found that the level of sustainable competitive advantages It was average at the overall level and for each dimension of its dimensions, the results of the research showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the perception of the surveyed about the level of marketing information systems with different demographic characteristics, the absence of differences between the perception of the surveyed about the level of sustainable competitive advantages by different demographic characteristics, and the results revealed that there is a statistically significant expulsion relationship between the dimensions of marketing information systems and sustainable competitive advantages, and the researchers reached a set of recommendations to strengthen competitive advantages Sustainable in Kuwaiti telecommunications companies through interest in marketing information systems. Keywords: marketing information systems, sustainable competitive advantages.
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The primary purpose of a public library is to educate, give society something to think about and help people improve their skills by reading and exploring the wisdom of others recorded in its collection. Thus, this descriptive-correlational research was conducted to provide the regional library of Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Regional Library with valuable information. Specifically, this research determined the participants' assessment of the quality of library information resources, librarians' research assistance, satisfaction of their information needs. It examined the significant association between the quality of information resources and librarians' assistance and satisfaction of information needs. Data were collected using validated and pilot-tested questionnaires. Responses were processed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on the findings, the quality of information resources and librarians' assistance were to a great extent. Moreover, the participants' academic and non-academic information needs were satisfied. The library information resources and librarian's assistance significantly influence the users' satisfaction with information needs. The study points to the need to keep information resources updated and continue to give a high level of librarians' assistance to achieve maximum satisfaction of the academic and non-academic needs of library users.
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Education is considered to be a cultural and value-driven matter where any intervention in this field requires certain tools in order to describe the status quo. The current study, while taking into account the contextual texts related to Islamic mentoring, seeks to develop a tool to quantify this concept, as well as introduce the respective psychometric properties. A 113 items questionnaire was designed after reviewing the literature, the recommended guidelines concerning Islamic mentor and mentee, and reviewing available international tools. Content validity of the questionnaire was evaluated based on several criteria of clarity, fitness, and comprehensiveness by a survey of 10 experts and the necessary corrections were made. In the primary phase of this study, the psychometric properties of this questionnaire were evaluated by collecting the data from a random sample of 213 Iranian Ph.D. students in Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences. The factors analysis results show that 70 items, in the form of nine factors, construct the Islamic monitoring. Furthermore, The Cronbach’s α coefficient was determined for each factor and the entire questionnaire. Total reliability of the scale was obtained at 0.97. Considering the confirmed validity and reliability of the questionnaire, this tool can be highly beneficial for the experts and education professionals, particularly in the field of medicine, for the assessment and establishment of mentoring.
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The relationship between ‘CSR and Brands to the sustainable business environment coupled with climatic changes and environmental issues; ‘while emphasizing the potentials of ‘CSR from brand reputation translation to equity as a tool for mitigating climate change mitigation and enhancing corporate financial performances has been extensively presented. A value – based dimension becomes clear realizing the link and connection between ‘CSR, brand and brand association recognizing the key constructs and the translation of brand reputation to equity. The high R – value of 0.9753 between brand reputation and financial performances implies by adopting ‘CSR which enhances brand reputation and translates to equity; corporations, companies and organizations can use ‘CSR as a strategic tool for increased profitability and returns. It is extremely significant for companies, firms and corporations to take cognizance of ‘CSR and recognize its key roles as brand promoter, gaining increased customer and brand loyalty, and translation of brand reputation to brand equity. Finally, relevant models and novel proposed models have been presented extensively; ‘giving insightful delineation of this crucial subject emphasizing and stressing the need to also look beyond the models rather giving a complimentary treatment and consideration. ‘CSR as a strategic tool built and imbibed in business model becomes crucial and can be the key driver and tool to abate climate change, gain increased brand loyalty and enhance financial performances.
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