Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 05/2012; 96(1):24-9. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.036863
Source: PubMed


Vitamin D intake may play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
We evaluated associations of dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake with the 20-y incidence of metabolic syndrome.
Data from 4727 black and white young men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study were used to examine relations of dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (as defined by Adult Treatment Panel, third report, guidelines) and the prevalence of its components, including abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, and high glucose, low HDL, and high triglyceride concentrations.
The intake of vitamin D from dietary and supplemental sources was inversely related to the 20-y cumulative prevalence of abdominal obesity (P = 0.05) and high glucose (P = 0.02) and low HDL (P = 0.004) concentrations after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, center, and energy intake. In comparison with the lowest intake quintile (quintile 1), HRs (95% CIs) of developing incident metabolic syndrome for quintiles 2-5 of vitamin D intake were 0.82 (0.67, 1.00), 0.84 (0.68, 1.03), 0.70 (0.56, 0.88), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.02), respectively (P-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors.
In young adults, the dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake was inversely related to the development of incident metabolic syndrome over 20 y of follow-up. These findings support the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to increase intakes of vitamin D-rich foods, such as milk and fish.

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    • "Some cross-sectional studies have found a relationship between serum concentration of vitD and insulin resistance and secretion in healthy adults [12] [13] [14] and those with diabetes [15] [16]; moreover, a prospective study with healthy adults found the same relationship [17]. An association between vitD intake and insulin sensitivity in premenopausal women [18] has been reported as well as the incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome [19] [20] and T2DM [21]. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between vitD intake and insulin secretion and resistance in LADA patients has not been studied. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D (vitD) intake and serum concentrations and insulin secretion (assessed by C-peptide serum concentration)/insulin resistance (determined by estimated glucose disposal rate [eGDR]) in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C-peptide, serum vitD, lipid profile, insulin, glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assessed; vitD intake was determined; and eGDR was calculated. Groups were compared using the Student t or Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations were performed between insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and vitD, and linear regression models were adjusted for confounding variables. Of 107 patients included, age was 55.3 ± 11.84 years old, and time since diabetes diagnosis was 13.23 ± 5.96 years. There were significant intergroup differences in age, body mass index (BMI), hip measurements, glucose, and HbA1c. The correlation between vitD intake and C-peptide for the whole group was significant (r = 0.213; P = .032) as well as for vitD deficiency/sufficiency in T2DM (P = .042), whereas neither was significant in eGDR. After adjustment for age, HbA1c, disease progression, physical activity, solar exposure, sex, and BMI, vitD intake was only significant in T2DM (P = .028). In serum vitD, only the correlation between eGDR and vitD in T2DM was significant and intragroup when comparing vitD sufficiency. After adjustments, significance was lost. Patients with LADA had lower intake of vitD, poorer metabolic control, lower BMI, and younger age compared to T2DM patients. There was no association between serum vitD or vitD intake and insulin secretion when analyzed by group, although vitD intake was associated with insulin resistance in T2DM, but not LADA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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    • "Calcium promotes fat oxidation and increases fecal fat excretion[52,53], which represent potential mechanisms for the reduction in body fat[54], WC[51], and the lowering of circulating TG[44]that is seen with additional calcium intake. Multiple studies have found a positive association between low vitamin D status and MetS risk[55,56]; however, results do not always take adiposity changes into account[22,56](Table 1). It has been suggested that vitamin D exerts its positive influence on MetS via IS effects[55,57,58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global public health issue of increasing magnitude. The Asia-Pacific region is expected to be hardest hit due to large population numbers, rising obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). This review assessed the protective effects of dietary patterns and their components on MetS. A literature search was conducted using prominent electronic databases and search terms that included in combination: diet, dietary components, dietary patterns, and metabolic syndrome. Articles were restricted to prospective studies and high quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were conducted on humans, reported in the English language, and within the time period of 2000 to 2012. Traditional factors such as age, gender, physical activity (PA), and obesity were associated with risk of MetS; however, these potential confounders were not always accounted for in study outcomes. Three dietary patterns emerged from the review; a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP), dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet (DASH), and the Nordic Diet (ND). Potential contributors to their beneficial effects on prevalence of MetS or reduction in MetS components included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy and dairy components, calcium, vitamin D, and whey protein, as well as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and omega-3 fatty acids. Additional prospective and high quality RCT studies that investigate MDP, the DASH diet, and the ND would cement the protective benefits of these diets against the MetS.
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    • "There is evidence of aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects [1], such as increases in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary cyclic adenosine 3,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and circulating 1α, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25OHD3) and a decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) levels. In young adults, the dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake was inversely related to the development of incident metabolic syndrome over 20 years of follow-up [2]. Vitamin D deficiency is common in children in West Virginia and is associated with increasing age and obesity [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are considered an important public issue in the United States, and both of these conditions are increasing among both children and adults. There is evidence of aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with obesity, and many studies have demonstrated the significant effect of calcitriol on adipocytes. Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to determine which proteins link vitamin D to obesity pathology, including the vitamin D receptor, toll-like receptors, the renin-angiotensin system, apolipoprotein E, vascular endothelial growth factor, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Vitamin D also exerts its effect on obesity through cell-signaling mechanisms, including matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, prostaglandins, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, vitamin D may have a role in obesity. The best form of vitamin D for use in the obese individuals is calcitriol because it is the active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite, its receptors are present in adipocytes, and modulates inflammatory cytokine expression.
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