Basic answers to complicated questions for the course of chronic hepatitis C treatment
Hepatitis C virus infection is a long-lasting disease, which causes chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, thus leading to liver-related death. Currently, the optimal treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection is the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The aim of this review is to assess the long-term clinical outcomes of interferons alone or in combination with ribavirin in the management of chronic hepatitis C.
Available from: Metin Basaranoglu
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ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an umbrella term that covers both a relatively benign condition, which is simple steatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by a chronic and progressive liver pathology that may progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. Despite the growing body of evidence, one of the important and unresolved problems is the pathogenesis of NASH. It might be a metabolic disturbance as a primary abnormality in NAFLD. Insulin resistance is at the center of these metabolic abnormalities. Then, hepatocyte injury might be induced by oxidative stress. This ongoing process progresses to NASH, even to cirrhosis in some patients. In addition to oxidative stress, possibilities for the next hit are lipid peroxidation, reactive metabolites, adipose tissue products, transforming growth factor-β1, Fas ligand, mitochondrial dysfunction, respiratory chain deficiency, and intestinal microbiota. Currently, there is no well-established and approved therapy. Recommendations are to improve existing co-morbidities, such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, or type 2 diabetes, and lifestyle modification with weight loss and exercise.
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