Pseudoephedrine induces sperm abnormalities, lower sperm counts and increased apoptosis in rat testis
Pseudoephedrine, an over-the-counter drug, is commonly used for the treatments of asthma, nasal congestion, and obesity. Furthermore, it can be used as a psychostimulant drug if taken in large doses; however, there have been no reports on its effects on reproduction. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of pseudoephedrine administration on sperm morphology, sperm concentration and apoptotic activity in the rat testis. Rats were administered intraperitoneally (IP) with pseudoephedrine at 120 mg/kg for the acute group and 80 mg/kg, IP, once daily for 15 days for the chronic group, while a control group was treated with vehicle. The percentages of normal sperm morphology were significantly decreased in both acute and chronic groups when compared with controls while the total sperm count was significantly decreased in the acute group. Apoptotic activities were increased significantly in both pseudoephedrine-treated groups. The results indicate that pseudoephedrine can induce sperm abnormalities, decrease sperm numbers and increase apoptotic activity in the testis of rats if taken at high doses. The results of this study suggest that the users of pseudoephedrine in medical treatments need to be aware of its potential toxicity involving spermatogenesis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudoephedrine, a decongestant found in many cough-and-cold and allergy medications, has been associated with deaths and adverse events in young children; however, the absolute risks of pediatric pseudoephedrine use are difficult to assess because the number of children exposed on a population basis and typical patterns of use are unknown. In addition, use may be changing because of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, which limited pseudoephedrine availability. We sought to describe the prevalence and patterns of pseudoephedrine use among US children and to assess any change since the 2005 law took effect. We analyzed data on pseudoephedrine use among 4267 children who were aged 0 to 17 years and enrolled from 1999 to 2006 in the Slone Survey, a national random-digit-dial telephone survey of medication use in the US population. Overall, 214 children took pseudoephedrine in a given week. Use was highest for children who were younger than 2 years. Sixteen children (7.5% of users) took >1 pseudoephedrine-containing product within the same week, including 6 children who were younger than 2 years. Of the pseudoephedrine products used, most were multiple-ingredient liquids (58.9%) and multiple-ingredient tablets (24.7%). Fifty-two children (25.0% of users) took pseudoephedrine for >1 week, including 7 children who were younger than 2 years. Use in 2006 (2.9%) was significantly lower than in 1999-2005 (5.2%). Pseudoephedrine exposure, mostly in the form of multiple-ingredient products, is common among US children, especially children who are younger than 2 years, who are at the highest risk for toxicity and for whom safe dosing recommendations are lacking. Concerning patterns of use include taking >1 pseudoephedrine-containing product concurrently and using pseudoephedrine for extended periods. Pediatric pseudoephedrine use seems to be declining since the institution of the 2005 Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act.0Comments 13Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensitivity to the vasoconstricting actions of adrenergic agents is altered during pregnancy and is drug-, regional vascular bed-, and endothelium-dependent. To examine whether the uterine perfusion-sparing property of ephedrine is due to local actions, we examined the effects in vitro of ephedrine and the alpha-adrenergic agonist metaraminol (10(-10)-10(-3) M) in uterine and femoral vessels, with and without functional endothelium, from nonpregnant and pregnant ewes. Both agents produced dose-dependent contractions in all vascular rings. In all cases metaraminol was more potent (by analysis of the concentration producing a 50% maximal response [EC50]) and efficacious (by maximal effect). Pregnancy increased constriction from both agents in femoral arterial rings, whereas pregnancy decreased constriction from both agents in uterine arterial rings. However, the ratio of maximal effect at femoral versus uterine rings during pregnancy was greater for ephedrine (5.2 +/- 0.6) than metaraminol (1.9 +/- 0.3). This difference was further accentuated by endothelium removal. Constriction to both agents was abolished by phentolamine (10(-5) M). These data suggest that both ephedrine and metaraminol constrict uterine and systemic vessels by actions on alpha adrenoceptors, and that ephedrine may spare uterine perfusion during pregnancy due to more selective constriction of systemic vessels than that caused by metaraminol.0Comments 52Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent physiological studies have indicated an autonomic influence on the secretion of testosterone from Leydig cells in humans and laboratory animals. Furthermore, a few studies have shown enhanced autonomic control of Leydig cell function in immature, relative to mature, laboratory animals. In the current ultrastructural study of the human testicular interstitium the morphology of autonomic components is described from neonatal, childhood and pubertal ages. Autonomic nerve fibers and varicosities with neurotransmitter vesicles are described in proximity to Leydig cells. The observed autonomic terminals are classified by vesicle morphology into three general types: (1) Type I with predominantly small agranular vesicles (30-60 nm) and occasional larger granular vesicles (100 nm). This type is morphologically consistent with being cholinergic. (2) Type II with predominantly small granular vesicles (30-60 nm), as well as sporadic large granular vesicles. These are morphologically consistent with adrenergic terminals. (3) Type III which exhibit numerous large granular vesicles of mixed size. Evidence of autonomic terminals is encountered most frequently in childhood biopsies, age 3 to 10 years. The neonatal specimen (4 months) is noteworthy in that many of the Schwann cells appear immature and no adrenergic terminals are observed. In contrast, terminals morphologically consistent with being adrenergic are common in the childhood series of biopsies. Although the vast majority of the autonomic terminals are associated with Leydig cells indirectly as "boutons en passant", separated by approximately 150 nm to more than a micron, evidence of direct contact (20 nm) of autonomic terminals with Leydig cells is presented.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)0Comments 44Citations