ArticlePDF Available

The Effect of Prayer on Depression and Anxiety: Maintenance of Positive Influence One Year After Prayer Intervention

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

To investigate whether the effect of direct contact person-to-person prayer on depression, anxiety, and positive emotions is maintained after 1 year. One-year follow-up of subjects with depression and anxiety who had undergone prayer intervention consisting of six weekly 1-hour prayer sessions conducted in an office setting. Subjects (44 women) completed Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Life Orientation Test, and Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale after finishing a series of six prayer sessions and then again a month later in an initial study. The current study reassessed those subjects with the same measures 1 year later. One-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare findings pre-prayer, immediately following the six prayer sessions, and 1 month and again 1 year following prayer interventions. Evaluations post-prayer at 1 month and 1 year showed significantly less depression and anxiety, more optimism, and greater levels of spiritual experience than did the baseline (pre-prayer) measures (p < 0.01 in all cases). Subjects maintained significant improvements for a duration of at least 1 year after the final prayer session. Direct person-to-person prayer may be useful as an adjunct to standard medical care for patients with depression and anxiety. Further research in this area is indicated.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Advertisement

Full-text (1)

INT’L. J. PSYCHIATRY IN MEDICINE, Vol. 43(1) 85-98, 2012
THE EFFECT OF PRAYER ON DEPRESSION AND
ANXIETY: MAINTENANCE OF POSITIVE INFLUENCE
ONE YEAR AFTER PRAYER INTERVENTION*
PETER A. BOELENS, MD, MPH
University of Mississippi, Jackson; and
Executive Director of Shalom Prayer Ministry
ROY R. REEVES, DO, PHD
Jackson VA Medical Center; and University of Mississippi, Jackson
WILLIAM H. REPLOGLE, PHD
University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson
HAROLD G. KOENIG, MD
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; and
King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
ABSTRACT
Objective: To investigate whether the effect of direct contact person-to-
person prayer on depression, anxiety, and positive emotions is maintained
after 1 year. Design, Setting, and Participants: One-year follow-up of sub-
jects with depression and anxiety who had undergone prayer intervention
*The design and conduction of the study, collection, management, analysis, manuscript
preparation, and review were provided by the authors who received no financial or any other
support for their involvement in this study. The corresponding author, Peter A. Boelens, had
full access to all of the data in this study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data
and the accuracy of the data analysis.
This randomized cross-over trial was conducted between September 2005 and May 2010
in an outpatient setting in Vicksburg, Mississippi. The Institutional Review Board approval
was obtained through Copernicus Group IRB, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
85
Ó2012, Baywood Publishing Co., Inc.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/PM.43.1.f
http://baywood.com
consisting of six weekly 1-hour prayer sessions conducted in an office setting.
Subjects (44 women) completed Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and
Anxiety, Life Orientation Test, and Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale after
finishing a series of six prayer sessions and then again a month later in an
initial study. The current study reassessed those subjects with the same
measures 1 year later. One-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to
compare findings pre-prayer, immediately following the six prayer sessions,
and 1 month and again 1 year following prayer interventions. Results: Evalu-
ations post-prayer at 1 month and 1 year showed significantly less depression
and anxiety, more optimism, and greater levels of spiritual experience than
did the baseline (pre-prayer) measures (p< 0.01 in all cases). Conclusions:
Subjects maintained significant improvements for a duration of at least 1
year after the final prayer session. Direct person-to-person prayer may be
useful as an adjunct to standard medical care for patients with depression
and anxiety. Further research in this area is indicated.
(Int’l. J. Psychiatry in Medicine 2012;43:85-98)
Key Words: depression, anxiety, direct person-to-person prayer, emotions, neuroplasticity
Depression and anxiety are common disorders and are among the leading causes
of distress and impairment. At any given time, 10% of the UnitedStates population
has been affected by depression and 18% by an anxiety disorder in the previous
year [1, 2]. These disorders are associated with significant morbidity and are
often chronic and resistant to treatment, producing a significant burden of ill
health worldwide [3, 4].
Numerous studies have investigated the influence of religious practices serving
as a coping behavior in mental diseases such as depression and anxiety. In the
majority of these cases, the effect has been positive [5]. A systematic review of
23 trials involving 2,774 participants evaluating the efficacy of any form of
“distant healing” as treatment for any medical condition showed that 13 trials
(57%) yielded statistically significant treatment effects, 9 trials showed no effect
over control interventions and 1 showed a negative effect [6]. However, a meta-
analysis of 14 studies of distant prayer for healing suggested no discernable
effect [7] and a review of 10 studies (7,646 subjects) of intercessory prayer for a
variety of health conditions concluded that the results could not be interpreted
with any degree of confidence [8]. Direct contact prayer on a person-to-person
basis with the “laying on of hands,” however, has been associated with enhanced
participant well-being [9] and clinical improvement of individuals with chronic
rheumatoid arthritis [10].
In a recent study [11], we investigated the effect of direct person-to-person
prayer on depression, anxiety, positive emotions, and salivary cortisol levels.
After six weekly 1-hour prayer sessions, individuals receiving prayer showed
86 / BOELENS ET AL.
significant improvement of depression and anxiety as well as increases of daily
spiritual experiences and optimism compared to controls who did not receive
prayer (p< 0.01 in all cases). Cortisol levels did not differ significantly between
intervention and control groups, or between pre- and post-prayer conditions.
Subjects who received prayer maintained significant improvements (p< 0.01
in all cases) for at least 1 month after the final prayer session. Participants in the
control group did not show significant changes. The purpose of this study was
to investigate whether improvements were still maintained for a year following
these prayer interventions.
METHODS
This investigation involved assessment of participants who received prayer
in the above study at least 1 year after completion of the prayer sessions. The
original study was conducted in an outpatient setting in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained through Copernicus Group
IRB, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Methods have been previously
described for prayer intervention and collection of data at baseline, at completion
of prayer interventions, and 1 month after prayer intervention [11]. These methods
will be briefly reviewed here. In addition, described in this article will be an
extension of the original study involving completion of the same measures (except
cortisol measurement) 1 year after the prayer intervention.
Measurements
Severity of depression in subjects was measured utilizing the Hamilton
Depression Rating Scale (HDRS); scores of 10 or more were indicative of
depression [12]. Severity of anxiety was assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety
Rating Scales (HARS); scores of 17 or more were indicative of anxiety [13]. The
Life Orientation Test (LOT), an eight question instrument with a maximum
possible score of 32 (most optimistic) measured the effects of dispositional
optimism on self-regulation in a variety of circumstances [14]. The Daily Spiritual
Experiences Scale (DSES) used 16 questions with possible total scores ranging
from 16 to 94 to measure spiritual experiences such as joy, a sense of inner
peace, and closeness to God [15].
Participants
Participants were individuals 18 years or older who met DSM-IV-TR criteria
for depressive disorder [16]. Most also had symptoms of anxiety. Individuals
were excluded if they had any chronic disease or evidence of cognitive impair-
ment, if they had received steroidal medication within the preceding 2 months,
or if they had been treated with psychotherapy during the preceding year. If
subjects were taking antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications, the dosages of
EFFECT OF PRAYER ON DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY / 87
these medications remained unchanged through the 1-month post-prayer assess-
ment. In the ensuing year, medication could be discontinued if desired, but no
other changes in medications occurred.
Participants were recruited from medical physician offices through posters
placed in the waiting area and examination rooms. Some individuals also pre-
sented from the community requesting enrollment. Sixty females and three
males completed the prayer sessions and evaluation 1 month later. Of these, 44
females (average age 48 years-old; 57% African American, 43% Caucasian)
underwent evaluation at least 1 year after the end of the prayer intervention.
Study Design
In the initial study, after providing informed consent, participants were admin-
istered the HDRS, HARS, LOT, and DSES and samples for cortisol measure-
ments collected. Subjects were randomized into a prayer intervention group or
a control group (Figure 1). A series of six weekly prayer intervention sessions
were begun for the prayer intervention group. The control group received no
prayer or any other intervention during that time. After serving as controls for
the prayer intervention group, control subjects were eligible to cross over to
participate in prayer intervention and receive prayers following the same protocol
as the prayer intervention group.
After the six prayer sessions, there was no prayer intervention during the
following month or any other counseling, psychotherapy, or medication changes.
At the end of that month, subjects who received prayer and control subjects
were again administered the rating scales and salivary samples were collected
as before. In the current extension of that original study, four subjects moved
from the area and were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 44 subjects who had
received the six prayer sessions were reassessed after a year by the readminis-
tration of the HDRS, HARS, LOT, and DSES. There were no non-prayer
controls during this portion of the study; rather, prayer subjects were compared
at different points in time. Cortisols were not reassessed because no significant
changes were observed in the initial part of the study. During the year following
the prayer intervention, these subjects received no psychotherapy and no changes
in psychotropic medications except for decrease or discontinuance if desired.
At the conclusion of the prayer intervention, subjects had been encouraged to
participate in regular church attendance and Bible reading, but had no additional
prayer intervention by the investigators during that period of time.
Prayer Intervention
All prayer interventions were conducted by a single lay prayer minister who
was a non-denominational Caucasian college graduate in her late sixties with
prayer training by Christian Healing Ministries (Jacksonville, FL). A distance
was maintained from the client so as to avoid touching through a hand shake or any
88 / BOELENS ET AL.
EFFECT OF PRAYER ON DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY / 89
Figure 1. Prayer study profile.
other physical contact. A history was taken in order to delineate particular areas
for prayer. There was no psychotherapy, however, causing participants to gain
insights into their problems. Direct person-to-person prayer was the only inter-
vention. The prayers utilized were determined by the lay prayer minister and based
on the history of the participant. During the prayer sessions, the prayer minister
prayed and was often joined by the participant in praying various form prayers,
prayers releasing hurts, and prayers of blessings on those who had offended them.
The first prayer session was 90 minutes in duration and involved determina-
tion of the subject’s issues to be addressed by prayer. The remaining sessions
were 60 minutes each and were tailored to the individual participant’s needs.
Sessions included prayer about specific stressors and, when needed, for childhood
traumas and for repentance of behavior. In cases of emotional difficulty related
to traumatic memories, prayers asking that God come into the memories and
heal were provided.
Statistical Analysis
In the original study, we performed separately for the prayer intervention
group, the crossover prayer intervention group, and the combined prayer and
crossover prayer group a one-way repeated measures ANOVA with the baseline,
post-prayer intervention, and 1-month follow-up measures as the three dependent
variables. For the current study, we used the same procedure and included the
1-year follow-up measure as the fourth dependent variable. As in the original
study, significant ANOVAs were followed by Bonferroni adjusted pair-wise
comparisons of the four assessments. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine
statistical significance.
RESULTS
For the HDRS, HARS, LOT, and DSES, the repeated measures ANOVAs
indicated significant within-group differences, p< 0.01. Bonferroni adjusted
pair-wise comparisons of the four assessments revealed that post-treatment,
1-month follow-up, and the 1-year follow-up measures showed significantly
less depression and anxiety, more optimism, and greater levels of spiritual
experience than did the baseline (pre-prayer) measures. All other pair-wise com-
parisons, including the 1-year follow-up compared to the post-treatment and
1-month follow-up, were non-significant (Table 1, Figures 2-5).
DISCUSSION
The participants in this follow-up study maintained improvement of depres-
sion and anxiety 1 year following prayer intervention. They also maintained the
same level of optimism and spirituality. During this 1-year interim, there was no
90 / BOELENS ET AL.
additional prayer intervention, psychotherapy, or medicinal therapy. How these
levels of mental and spiritual health were maintained is not fully understood.
It was previously postulated [11] that feelings of self-reproach and guilt and
rumination over past errors created a milieu of self-devaluative negativity and
hopelessness which had the potential to cause and perpetuate depression and
anxiety [17]. We hypothesize that these thought patterns and their causes are
removed during prayers for specific stressors, childhood traumas, emotional
difficulty related to traumatic memories and, where applicable, repentance of
behavior. Following these prayers, when clients were asked to recall the hurtful
memories, the memories were now without emotional significance. This is
important in that the negative emotions linked to hurtful memories are per-
petuated throughout life. This persistent negative emotional presence adversely
affects the subconscious emotional appraisal system [18]. It is this compromised
appraisal system that produces detrimental thought patterns with corresponding
life decisions.
With the root causes for negative thought patterns removed, it becomes
important to replace the harmful thought patterns with positive ways of thinking.
This may be accomplished through a “decentering” process [17]. As old thoughts
are recognized by a client, they are immediately stopped. A prayer is breathed,
“God how do you want me to think and act.” If clients have been meditating on
Scriptures and praying them back to God, they are positioned to bring these new
Biblical thoughts to mind. This process not only produces new thought patterns
by removing the old, but new ways of thinking may begin to be established in the
EFFECT OF PRAYER ON DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY / 91
Table 1. Mean Response
Baseline
Mean (SD)
Post-treatment
Mean (SD)
1-Month
FU
1-Year
FU
Hamilton Depression
Scale (n= 44)
Hamilton Anxiety Scale
(n= 44)
Life Orientation Test
(n= 44)
Daily Spiritual
Experiences Scale
(n= 44)
23.1 (5.3)*
21.6 (8.3)*
16.7 (6.1)*
43.7 (15.2)*
6.2 (4.5)
3.9 (4.2)
24.2 (5.1)
28.3 (9.2)
5.5 (4.1)
3.7 (5.1)
24.6 (5.6)
28.6 (10.9)
6.9 (4.8)
5.0 (5.5)
24.5 (5.8)
29.3 (10.5)
*Baseline vs. post-treatment, 1-month FU and 1 year FU, p< 0.01.
92 / BOELENS ET AL.
Figure 2. Hamilton Depression Scale values.
< 10-13 Mild; 14-17 Mild to moderate; > 17 Moderate to severe.
EFFECT OF PRAYER ON DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY / 93
Figure 3. Hamilton Anxiety Scale values.
< 17 Mild or None; 18-24 Mild to moderate; 25-30 Moderate to severe.
94 / BOELENS ET AL.
Figure 4. Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale.
An increased numerical score correlates with a decrease in spirituality and closeness to God.
The highest score (least spiritual) is 94 and lowest score (most spiritual) is 16.
EFFECT OF PRAYER ON DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY / 95
Figure 5. Life Orientation Test.
An increase in the numerical score correlates with an increase in optimism.
The highest score (most optimism) is 32 and lowest 0.
brain through a process known as self-induced neuroplasticity [19]. The link
with the transcendent is reinforced through daily spiritual disciplines of Bible
reading, Scriptural meditation, and prayers. This discipline offers immediate
and positive reinforcement. It may enable clients to maintain their mental and
spiritual health.
It is well known that the treatment of depression does not lie exclusively
within the realm of antidepressant drug or other biological therapies, but involves
other modalities such as interpersonal support and psychotherapy. These other
modalities may also come in the form of various religious practices, the majority
of which may have positive effects [5], but there have been no published studies
of these practices in a peer reviewed journal documenting their effect on
depression and anxiety. It is for this reason that direct person-to person prayer
may be one such modality worthy of further investigation. It is interesting to
note that 7 of the 15 clients who originally entered the study on medication
discontinued their medication in the ensuing follow-up year without any negative
effects. The majority had maintained a strong devotional life, had improved
personal relationships and had become proactive in managing their life. These
positive effects transpired without any further prayer therapy or personal contact.
Their activities during this 1-year period were not monitored.
LIMITATIONS
This study is limited by the fact that it was not blinded and a sham control
group was not utilized. There was selection bias in the study in that individuals
desiring prayer were self referred through posters in physicians’ offices and by
word of mouth. Since this follow-up study involved only women, the findings
cannot be generalized to men. The study was conducted in the “Bible-belt” of
the United States and represented the demographics of the area (a denominational
mix of Christians) which may not allow the results of this study to be generalized
to other areas of the country or to other belief systems. The numbers of subjects
were insufficient for subgroup analysis of those receiving antidepressants. Data
on income and educational level was not collected. Other limitations include
difficulty comparing this study with other studies on interventions used to treat
depression or anxiety. Because of different methodologies among studies, it is not
possible to directly compare this study on the effectiveness of prayer with other
interventions such as recreational group therapy, psychotherapy, motivational
group therapy, art therapy, and other interventions that may have similar results.
CONCLUSION
This prayer intervention produced significant results in several domains of
mental health, and those benefits persisted for at least 1 year. Additional research
is needed to replicate these findings and, if replicated, to better understand how
96 / BOELENS ET AL.
person-to-person prayer has such effects. It is conceivable that clients activate
a form of prayerful self-directed neuroplasticity. With the effects of these
prayers maintained over time, it is possible that permanent structural changes in
the brain may have been induced. Direct person-to person prayer may provide
a modality of treatment, in addition to antidepressants for patients with mild to
moderate depression. The knowledge gained through this study may be a starting
point for a generation of future studies in this area.
REFERENCES
1. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, et al. Lifetime and twelve-month prevalence
of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National
Comorbidity Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 1994;51:8-19.
2. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, et al. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of
twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
(NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry 2005;62:617-627.
3. Murray CL, Lopez AD. The global burden of disease: A comprehensive assessment
of mortality and disability from disease, risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020.
Boston: Harvard University Press, 1998.
4. World Health Organization (WHO). The global burden of disease: 2004; Part 3,
Disease incidence, prevalence and disability, World Health Organization, 2004:36.
5. Koenig HG. Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. The
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2009;54(5):283-291.
6. Astin JA, Harkness E, Ernst E. The efficacy of “distant healing: A systematic review
of randomized trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000;132:903-910.
7. Masters KS, Spielmans GI, Goodson JT. Are there demonstrable effects of distant
intercessory prayer? A meta-analytic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2006;
32:21-26.
8. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 1. Art No.: CD000368. doi:
10.1002/14651858.CD000368.pub2
9. Beutler JJ, Attevelt JTM, Schouten S, et al. Paranormal healing and hypertension.
British Medical Journal 1988;296:1491-1492.
10. Matthews DA, Marlowe SM, MacNutt FS. Effects of intercessory prayer on patients
with rheumatoid arthritis. Southern Medical Journal 2000;93(12):1117-1186.
11. Boelens PA, Reeves RR, Replogle WH, Koenig HG. A randomized trial of the effect
of prayer on depression and anxiety. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
2009;39(4):377-392.
12. Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and
Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62.
13. Hamilton M. The assessment of anxiety states by rating. British Journal of Medical
Psychology 1959;32:50-55.
14. Scheier MF, Carver CS. Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications
of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology 1985;4(3):219-247.
15. Underwood LG, Teresi JA. The daily spiritual experiences scale: Development,
theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary
construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2002;
24:22-33.
EFFECT OF PRAYER ON DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY / 97
16. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders (4th Edition, Text Revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric
Association, 2000.
17. Teasdale JD, Zindel ZV, Soulsby JM, et al. Prevention of relapse/recurrence in
major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology 2000;68(4):615-623.
18. Kandel ER. In search of memory: The emergence of a new science of the mind.
New York: W. W. Norton Company, 2006:342.
19. Schwartz JM, Stapp HP, Beauregard M. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psy-
chology: A neurophysical model of mind-brain interaction. Philosophical Trans-
actions of The Royal Society London, B, Biological Sciences 2005;360:1309-1327.
Direct reprint requests to:
Peter A. Boelens, MD, MPH
1121 Grove Street
Vicksburg, MS 39180
e-mail: deltadoc@juno.com
98 / BOELENS ET AL.
... It is critical to advance evidence-based research on suicidality. Previous research with this age group found that prayer intervention was beneficial for participants' depression, anxiety, and positive emotions at a one-year follow-up (e.g., see Boelens, Reeves, Replogle, & Koenig, 2012). Our study highlights the potentially positive role of spirituality in reducing suicidal behaviors by lowering anxiety and depression. ...
Article
Full-text available
Burlaka, V., Kim, Y. J., Lee, N. Y., Kral, M., & Hong, J. S. (in press). Suicidal behaviors among college students at a Bible belt university: The role of childhood trauma, spirituality, anxiety and depression. Best Practices in Mental Health. Abstract Background Many child abuse survivors report lower spirituality as adults. However, for others, the use of spiritual coping is linked with improved mental health and lower suicide risk. Objective This study examined the relationship between childhood trauma (i.e., emotional and physical abuse, and witnessing mother’s abuse), spirituality, anxiety/depression, and suicidal behaviors. Participants and Settings Participants were 185 college students, aged 19 to 56 years (M = 26.19, SD = 8.69), who participated in social work (88%), health promotion, and counseling programs in the U.S. South. Method We tested a structural equation model to predict suicidal behaviors. Results Results showed significant direct paths from childhood trauma to adult spirituality (b = -.20, p < 0.05), from spirituality to anxiety/depression (b = -.31, p < 0.001) and from anxiety/depression to suicidal behaviors (b = .38, p < 0.001). Additionally, there was a significant indirect path from spirituality to suicidal behaviors, which was mediated by anxiety/depression (b = -.12, p < 0.01). The model provided a good fit for the data: χ2 (43, N = 177) = 64.13, p < 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.05. Conclusions The findings suggest that childhood trauma may be a distal risk factor that undermines the ability to engage in spiritual coping as a way to alleviate mental health problems and reduce suicidality.
... However, aggression, depression and humiliation may be associated with increase in cortisol and decline in serotonin resulting in to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction [9,10,16,30]. Other studies indicate that apart from happiness, other protective behaviors; prayer, religious service attendance, yoga therapy may be protective against psychological disorders as well as CMDs [32][33][34][35][36][37]. Thus, evidence from neuroscience, paired with evidence from the measurement of subjective well-being, or happiness, suggest that a scientific explanation of happiness is, in fact, possible [35]. ...
... Physical conditions (e.g., heart failure 25 ; severe nausea in pregnancy 26 An interesting observation of the aforementioned studies is that groups partnering with ministries/intercessors based upon research that showed positive results 33 have been able to replicate comparable findings. [36][37][38] There appears to be a trend such that for studies that observe prayer where healing is already occurring, the results reflect similar outcomes. [36][37][38] In contrast, studies that test prayer for the purpose of evaluating the concept tend to yield negative results. ...
Article
Full-text available
An 18-year-old female lost the majority of her central vision over the course of three months in 1959. Medical records from 1960 indicate visual acuities (VA) of less than 20/400 for both eyes corresponding to legal blindness. On fundus examination of the eye there were dense yellowish-white areas of atrophy in each fovea and the individual was diagnosed with juvenile macular degeneration (JMD). In 1971, another examination recorded her uncorrected VA as finger counting on the right and hand motion on the left. She was diagnosed with macular degeneration (MD) and declared legally blind. In 1972, having been blind for over 12 years, the individual reportedly regained her vision instantaneously after receiving proximal-intercessory-prayer (PIP). Subsequent medical records document repeated substantial improvement; including uncorrected VA of 20/100 in each eye in 1974 and corrected VAs of 20/30 to 20/40 were recorded from 2001 to 2017. To date, her eyesight has remained intact for forty-seven years.
... To be sure, there has been a considerable amount of quantitative research by Harold Koenig at Duke University and others indicating that the practice of prayer is associated with increased rapidity of physical healing, improved mental health in adults, and so on (Baldwin et al., 2016;Boelens et al., 2012;Koenig, 2005;Koenig et al., 2017). However, considerably less is known about the relationship between prayer and student outcomes (Jeynes, 2003). ...
Article
A meta-analysis, including 13 studies, was undertaken on the relationship between the exercise of student prayer and academic and behavioral outcomes in urban schools. Analyses both with and without sophisticated controls (e.g., socioeconomic status, race, and gender) were used. Additional analyses were done to determine whether the effects of prayer differed by the quality of the study. The results indicated that the exercise of prayer is associated with better levels of student outcomes. Moreover, the effects of prayer were greater for high-quality studies. The significance of these results is discussed.
... Religiosity and changes in disease-specific HRQOL Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that patients who prayed for their health experienced clinically meaningful increases in their disease-specific HRQOL. Praying for one's health during recovery from illness has been associated with high levels of optimism, making meaning of an illness experience, and fosters well-being [45]. Our results are consistent with reports from prior studies [46,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Religious beliefs and practices influence coping mechanisms and quality of life in patients with various chronic illnesses. However, little is known about the influence of religious practices on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among hospital survivors of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The present study examined the association between several items assessing religiosity and clinically meaningful changes in HRQOL between 1 and 6 months after hospital discharge for an ACS. Methods: We recruited patients hospitalized for an ACS at six medical centers in Central Massachusetts and Georgia (2011-2013). Participants reported making petition prayers for their health, awareness of intercessory prayers by others, and deriving strength/comfort from religion. Generic HRQOL was assessed with the SF-36®v2 physical and mental component summary scores. Disease-specific HRQOL was evaluated using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire Quality of Life subscale (SAQ-QOL). We separately examined the association between each measure of religiosity and the likelihood of experiencing clinically meaningful increase in disease-specific HRQOL (defined as increases by ≥10.0 points) and Generic HRQOL (defined as increases by ≥3.0 points) between 1- and 6-months post-hospital discharge. Results: Participants (n = 1039) were, on average, 62 years old, 33% were women, and 86% were non-Hispanic White. Two-thirds reported praying for their health, 88% were aware of intercessions by others, and 85% derived strength/comfort from religion. Approximately 42, 40, and 26% of participants experienced clinically meaningful increases in their mental, physical, and disease-specific HRQOL respectively. After adjustment for sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics, petition (aOR:1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.04) and intercessory (aOR:1.72; 95% CI: 1.12-2.63) prayers for health were associated with clinically meaningful increases in disease-specific and physical HRQOL respectively. Conclusions: Most ACS survivors in a contemporary, multiracial cohort acknowledged praying for their health, were aware of intercessory prayers made for their health and derived strength and comfort from religion. Patients who prayed for their health and those aware of intercessions made for their health experienced improvement in their generic physical and disease-specific HRQOL over time. Healthcare providers should recognize that patients may use prayer as a coping strategy for improving their well-being and recovery after a life-threatening illness.
... The 2014 Pew Forum Survey indicated that 55% of adults report engaging in daily prayer and that 71% of adults pray at least once a week (Religious Landscape Study, 2017). Multiple empirical studies indicate prayer plays a significant role in psychological well-being (Ai, Tice, Peterson, & Huang, 2005;Boelens, Reeves, Replogle, & Koenig, 2012;Francis & Robbins, 2009;Hebert, Dang, & Schulz, 2007;Lambert, Fincham, Marks, & Stillman, 2010;Rainville, 2017;You & Yoo, 2016). However, it is often the case that both public surveys and psychological studies do not distinguish between different styles of prayer. ...
Article
In recent years, there have been a number of studies exploring the positive and negative aspects of spirituality. While many studies have indicated spirituality has a generally positive influence in persons’ lives, people also experience negative effects associated with spiritual struggles. Studies have also suggested that spiritual practices such as prayer have the potential to mitigate the difficult and distressing aspects of spirituality. In this study, we explore the role of prayer in the relationship between disappointment in God and relational spirituality (i.e. how one relates to what they perceive to be sacred). Our results indicated that meditative prayer has a moderating effect, such that the negative relationship between disappointment in God and relational spirituality outcomes became less significant as subjects engaged in more frequent meditative prayer. Significant effects were not found for colloquial prayer or petitionary prayer.
... Since unhealthy behaviors and lifestyle factors are major determinants of dementia, it poses the possibility that modifications in the behaviors and lifestyle is the hallmark for prevention and treatment of dementia [71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88]. In the teaching of Buddhism, the Eight Fold Path determines the behavior of human beings [82,83]. ...
... It has been discovered that a mediating role on anxiety is played by religion -the prayer's positive effects persist one year after the spiritual process has ceased -but also by most of the therapies: cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, based on medication, mindfulness, as well as placebo [41,42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Our intention has been to review the literature addressing the anxiety phenomenon from as many points of view as possible. By searching in PubMed and Web of Science and by using multiple filters, we have included, of the over 1800 results, 93 studies with the aim of covering more aspects of life anxiety exerts its influence upon. We have discussed the connection between anxiety and physiological and psychological functioning, or its connection with the areas of family, religion, social life and behavior, as well as the cultural side, childhood, pregnancy and many others.
... For the six-month follow-up data, our study showed that NORA and IR buffered the effects of life events on symptom severity as an outcome. This is broadly in line with previous longitudinal studies [44,46] showing that non-organised religious activities such as prayer etc. impacted positively on the outcome for those who were depressed at baseline, although this was examined as a main effect only in these studies. The buffering impact of IR on symptom severity at follow-up in our study replicates the findings of Miller et al. [20] that high personal commitment to religion buffered the risk of recurrence in those who were at high risk, having had a prior episode. ...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies into the role of religiousness in relation to depression severity have mainly found an inverse relationship between greater religiousness and lower levels of depressive symptoms. There is reason to assume that religiousness has a buffering effect on the relationship between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of religiousness in moderating the impact of stressors on depressive symptoms. n = 348 patients with either a depressive episode or adjustment disorder were assessed at referral to the liaison psychiatry services in three Dublin hospitals and n = 132 patients were followed up six months later. We assessed depressive symptoms, life events, social support, and religiosity, and used hierarchical and multiple linear regression for data analysis. The interaction of organised religious activity and the amount of life events was significant (b = -0.19, p = 0.001) in the cross-sectional prediction of depressive symptoms while non-organised religious activity (b = -0.23, p = 0.001) and intrinsic religiousness (b = -0.15, p = 0.033) interacted significantly with life events in the longitudinal analysis. This study demonstrated that various dimensions of religiousness buffered the impact of life events on outcome.
Article
Errors in Byline, Author Affiliations, and Acknowledgment. In the Original Article titled “Prevalence, Severity, and Comorbidity of 12-Month DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication,” published in the June issue of the ARCHIVES (2005;62:617-627), an author’s name was inadvertently omitted from the byline on page 617. The byline should have appeared as follows: “Ronald C. Kessler, PhD; Wai Tat Chiu, AM; Olga Demler, MA, MS; Kathleen R. Merikangas, PhD; Ellen E. Walters, MS.” Also on that page, the affiliations paragraph should have appeared as follows: Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (Drs Kessler, Chiu, Demler, and Walters); Section on Developmental Genetic Epidemiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Md (Dr Merikangas). On page 626, the acknowledgment paragraph should have appeared as follows: We thank Jerry Garcia, BA, Sara Belopavlovich, BA, Eric Bourke, BA, and Todd Strauss, MAT, for assistance with manuscript preparation and the staff of the WMH Data Collection and Data Analysis Coordination Centres for assistance with instrumentation, fieldwork, and consultation on the data analysis. We appreciate the helpful comments of William Eaton, PhD, Michael Von Korff, ScD, and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, PhD, on earlier manuscripts. Online versions of this article on the Archives of General Psychiatry Web site were corrected on June 10, 2005.
Article
The arrival of a book for review usually gives rise to pleasant anticipation, and whatever criticisms have to be made, it is that almost always possible to find some pleasant things to say. But finding praise for this tome is a problem — it is a volume too far. It is to be hoped that the authors
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the effect of direct contact person-to-person prayer on depression, anxiety, positive emotions, and salivary cortisol levels. Cross-over clinical trial with depression or anxiety conducted in an office setting. Following randomization to the prayer intervention or control groups, subjects (95% women) completed Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Life Orientation Test, Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, and underwent measurement of cortisol levels. Individuals in the direct person-to-person prayer contact intervention group received six weekly 1-hour prayer sessions while those in the control group received none. Rating scales and cortisol levels were repeated for both groups after completion of the prayer sessions, and a month later. ANOVAs were used to compare pre- and post-prayer measures for each group. At the completion of the trial, participants receiving the prayer intervention showed significant improvement of depression and anxiety, as well as increases of daily spiritual experiences and optimism compared to controls (p < 0.01 in all cases). Subjects in the prayer group maintained these significant improvements (p < 0.01 in all cases) for a duration of at least 1 month after the final prayer session. Participants in the control group did not show significant changes during the study. Cortisol levels did not differ significantly between intervention and control groups, or between pre- and post-prayer conditions. Direct contact person-to-person prayer may be useful as an adjunct to standard medical care for patients with depression and anxiety. Further research in this area is indicated.
Article
In Search of Memory : the emergence of a new science of mind
Article
Religious and spiritual factors are increasingly being examined in psychiatric research. Religious beliefs and practices have long been linked to hysteria, neurosis, and psychotic delusions. However, recent studies have identified another side of religion that may serve as a psychological and social resource for coping with stress. After defining the terms religion and spirituality, this paper reviews research on the relation between religion and (or) spirituality, and mental health, focusing on depression, suicide, anxiety, psychosis, and substance abuse. The results of an earlier systematic review are discussed, and more recent studies in the United States, Canada, Europe, and other countries are described. While religious beliefs and practices can represent powerful sources of comfort, hope, and meaning, they are often intricately entangled with neurotic and psychotic disorders, sometimes making it difficult to determine whether they are a resource or a liability.
Article
A prospective randomised trial was carried out to see whether paranormal healing by laying on of hands might reduce blood pressure in essential hypertension and whether such an effect might be due to a paranormal, psychological, or placebo factor. Patients were randomised to three treatment groups: paranormal healing by laying on of hands (n = 40), paranormal healing at a distance (n = 37), and no paranormal healing (controls; n = 38). Healing at a distance and no paranormal healing were investigated double blind. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced in all three groups at week 15 (mean reduction (95% confidence interval) 17.1 (14.0 to 20.2)/8.3 (6.6 to 10.0) mm Hg). Only the successive reductions in diastolic blood pressures among the groups from week to week were significantly different. Each week diastolic pressure was consistently lower (average 1.9 mm Hg) after healing at a distance compared with control, but on paired comparison these differences were not significant. Probably week to week variations among the groups accounted for any differences noted. In this study no treatment was consistently better than another and the data cannot therefore be taken as evidence of a paranormal effect on blood pressure. Probably the fall in blood pressure in all three groups either was caused by the psychosocial approach or was a placebo effect of the trial itself.