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Familias campesinas y variación fenotípica de poblaciones nativas de maíz en la región de Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca

Desarrollo, Ambiente y Cultura 11/2011; 1(1):28-38.
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Available from: Jose Luis Chavez-Servia
    • "En la Mixteca oaxaqueña, el ambiente y selección humana ejercen fuertes presiones sobre las poblaciones cultivadas de maíz hasta definir poblaciones con adaptaciones específicas, como al estrés hídrico en los maíces de " cajete " (Muñoz et al., 2002; Hayano-Kanashiro et al., 2009), cambios en morfología de planta y mazorca distintivas como en la raza Mixteco, denominada por Benz (1997) y en diversos grupos poblacionales o complejos raciales (Chávez-Servia et al., 2011; Chávez y Diego, 2011). También es de esperar que las fuertes presiones de selección humana y natural hayan influenciado la composición del grano en los maíces cultivados en diferentes micronichos de la Mixteca, ya que se cultivan en suelos de baja fertilidad, ligeros, de alta erosión y con bajo o nulo uso de insumos (Contreras-Hinojosa et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The landrace diversity of maize (Zea mays L.) in the Mixteca Oaxaqueña region in México is a response to natural and human selection pressures. In order to evaluate the protein, lysine and tryptophan content in the native Mixteca maizes, a collection of 70 population samples at 51 farmer communities belonging to 13 municipalities of the Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca district was determined. Populations were planted during the 2008 Spring - Summer agricultural cycle under a complete randomized blocks design with four replications at San Martín Huamelulpam. At harvest, a random 300 g kernel sample per experimental plot was taken and the protein, lysine and tryptophan contents were assessed. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed among and within groups of accessions of Mixteca maizes with different kernel color (yellow, blue, white, red and color combinations) for the protein, lysine and tryptophan content in the whole kernel. Control and evaluated evaluated accessions of yellow, white, red kernel and color combinations of kernel color showed no significant differences in lysine and tryptophan content. In protein, 10 accessions surpassed the QPM control. Accession CIIDIR-185 is promissory since it presented similar values in tryptophan and lysine, and higher values in protein content in relation to the control.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Revista fitotecnia mexicana publ. por la Sociedad Mexicana de Fitogenética