3,3 '-Dihydroxyisorenieratene and isorenieratene prevent UV-induced DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Faculty of Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.Free Radical Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.74). 05/2012; 53(3):457-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.05.022
Skin cancer is among the most frequent neoplastic malignancies and exposure to UV irradiation is a major risk factor. In addition to topical sunscreens, photoprotection by dietary antioxidants such as carotenoids or polyphenols has been suggested as a means of prevention. Isorenieratene (IR) and dihydroxyisorenieratene (DHIR) are aromatic carotenoids with particular antioxidant properties produced by Brevibacterium linens. The aim of this study was to investigate the photoprotective and antioxidant activities of DHIR and IR in comparison to the nonaromatic carotenoid lutein in human dermal fibroblasts. Incubation of the cells with DHIR and IR significantly decreased the UV-induced formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and formation of DNA strand breaks. Lipid oxidation was lowered as determined by the formation of malondialdehyde as a biomarker. Both aromatic carotenoids also prevented oxidatively generated damage to DNA as demonstrated by a decrease in DNA strand breaks associated with the formation of oxidized DNA bases. These data highlight the multifunctional photoprotective properties of aromatic carotenoids, which may be suitable natural compounds for the prevention of skin cancer.
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- "When comparing the antioxidant potential of carotenoids including astaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and the microbial 3,3′-dihydroxyisore- nieratene (DHIR), the latter proved to be superior, ranking on " top of the list " regarding the radical scavenging and singlet-oxygen quenching activity (Wagener et al., 2012). The experimental data obtained based on various antioxidant assays suggest that DHIR acts as a bifunctional radical scavenger owing to its polyenic and phenolic substructures (Martin et al., 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Pigments producing microorganisms and microalgae are quite common in Nature. However, there is a long way from the Petri dish to the market place. Ten years ago, scientists wondered if such productions would be scientific oddity or industrial reality. Answer is dual as processes using fungi, bacteria or microalgae already provide carotenoids or phycocyanin at an industrial level. Another production is peculiar as Monascus red coloured food is consumed by more than one billion Asian people; however, still banned in many other countries. European and American consumers will follow as soon as toxin-free strains have been developed. For other pigmented biomolecules, some laboratories and companies invest a lot of money as any combination of new source and/or new pigment requires a lot of experimental work, process optimization, toxicological studies, and regulatory approval. Time will tell whether investments in pigments such as azaphilones or anthraquinones were justified. Future trends involve combinatorial engineering, gene knock-out, and the production of niche pigments not found in plants such as C50 carotenoids or aryl carotenoids.
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- "Moreover, this compound also suppressed MMP-9 expression triggered by UV irradiation (Figure 2(c)) without altering the viability of HaCaT cells (Figure 2(d) right panel), indicating that lutein is also able to protect against UV irradiation-mediated skin irritation. It has been previously reported that lutein can decrease the edematous cutaneous response as illustrated by the reduction of the UVB-induced increase of ear bifold thickening , that aromatic carotenoids can prevent UV-induced DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts , and that lutein can suppress melanogenesis . In agreement with these studies, our data further confirm that lutein can be used as a skin protective agent with anti-inflammatory functions. "
ABSTRACT: Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL-) 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 from interferon- γ /tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF-) α -treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP-) 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin.
Conference Paper: Microbial carotenoids as bioactive food ingredients[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microbial aryl carotenoids as bioactive food ingredients. Dufossé L. 1st MDPI e-Conference on Foods: Bioactives, Processing, Quality and Nutrition. 10-12 April 2013. http://www.sciforum.net/conf/bpqn2013/. Cite this paper as: Dufossé, L. Microbial aryl carotenoids as bioactive food ingredients. In Proceedings of the F. Bioact. Process. Qual. & Nutr., 10-12 April 2013; Sciforum Electronic Conferences Series, 2013.
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