Effects of 30 Hz Theta Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the primary motor cortex
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.Journal of Neuroscience Methods (Impact Factor: 2.05). 05/2012; 208(2):161-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.05.014
Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) is a relatively new form of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) used to probe neuroplasticity in the human cortex. Thirty-Hz TBS, a variation of the originally described 50Hz TBS, has been shown to induce cortical changes in several nonmotor regions. However, its effects over the primary motor cortex have not been examined. Due to TMS device mechanical properties, 30Hz TBS is advantageous over 50Hz TBS in that it can be delivered at higher stimulation intensities. The goal of this pilot study is to examine the neurophysiologic effects of 30Hz TBS on the primary motor cortex (M1) of healthy adults. Eighteen right-handed adults (33±9.0 years; M:F=8:10) completed intermittent TBS (iTBS) or continuous TBS (cTBS) over left M1. TBS was performed with Magstim® SuperRapid2 with stimulation bursts (3 pulses at 30Hz) repeating every 200ms. For iTBS, each 2-s stimulation train was separated by 8s but there was no pause between trains for cTBS. Each TBS consisted of a total of 600 pulses delivered at an intensity of 90%*Resting Motor Threshold. Motor-Evoked Potentials (MEP) in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle were measured before, and one and ten minutes after TBS. Pre/post-TBS MEP amplitudes were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. MEP amplitudes increased after 30Hz iTBS and decreased after 30Hz cTBS (TBS-Type*Time effect p=0.009). In conclusion, 30Hz TBS induced similar neurophysiologic effects over M1 as conventional 50Hz TBS.
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ABSTRACT: Background The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is important for hand function and has direct connectivity with the primary motor cortex (M1). Much of our present knowledge of this connectivity and its relevance to hand function is based on animal research. In humans, less is known about the neural mechanisms by which SI influences motor circuitry that outputs to the muscles controlling the hand. Objective The present study investigated the influence of SI on corticospinal excitability, and inhibitory and excitatory intracortical neural circuitry within M1 before and after continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (RFDI) muscle of the right hand following 30 Hz cTBS over left-hemisphere SI and M1 delivered in separate sessions. Results CTBS over SI facilitated MEPs and did not alter ICF or SICI. CTBS delivered over M1 suppressed MEPs and ICF and did not alter SICI. Conclusions These findings indicate that SI influences corticospinal output to the hand, possibly via corticocortical projections, and may be one mechanism by which somatosensory information influences hand control.
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ABSTRACT: Background Open label studies have shown repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to be effective in reducing tics. Objectives To determine whether 8 sessions of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over supplementary motor area (SMA) given over 2 days may reduce tics and motor cortical network activity in Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorders. Methods This was a randomized (1:1), double-blind, sham-controlled trial of functional MRI (fMRI)-navigated, 30 Hz cTBS at 90% of resting motor threshold (RMT) over SMA in 12 patients ages 10–22 years. Comorbid ADHD (n = 8), OCD (n = 8), and stable concurrent medications (n = 9) were permitted. Neuro-navigation utilized each individual's event-related fMRI signal. Primary clinical and cortical outcomes were: 1) Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) at one week; 2) fMRI event-related signal in SMA and primary motor cortex (M1) during a finger-tapping motor task. Result Baseline characteristics were not statistically different between groups (age, current tic/OCD/ADHD severities, tic-years, number of prior medication trials, RMT). Mean YGTSS scores decreased in both active (27.5 ± 7.4 to 23.2 ± 9.8) and sham (26.8 ± 4.8 to 21.7 ± 7.7) groups. However, no significant difference in video-based tic severity rating was detected between the two groups. Two-day post-treatment fMRI activation during finger tapping decreased significantly in active vs. sham groups for SMA (P = 0.02), left M1 (P = 0.0004), and right M1 (P < 0.0001). No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Active, fMRI-navigated cTBS administered in 8 sessions over 2 days to the SMA induced significant inhibition in the motor network (SMA, bilateral M1). However, both groups on average experienced tic reduction at 7 days. Larger sample size and protocol modifications may be needed to produce clinically significant tic reduction beyond placebo effect.
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