Article

Delivery by caesarean section and risk of obesity in preschool age children: A prospective cohort study

Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Archives of Disease in Childhood (Impact Factor: 2.9). 05/2012; 97(7):610-6. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2011-301141
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To examine whether delivery by caesarean section is a risk factor for childhood obesity.
Prospective prebirth cohort study (Project Viva).
Eight outpatient multi-specialty practices based in the Boston, Massachusetts area.
We recruited women during early pregnancy between 1999 and 2002, and followed their children after birth. We included 1255 children with body composition measured at 3 years of age.
BMI score, obesity (BMI for age and sex ≥95th percentile), and sum of triceps plus subscapular skinfold thicknesses at 3 years of age.
284 children (22.6%) were delivered by caesarean section. At age 3, 15.7% of children delivered by caesarean section were obese compared with 7.5% of children born vaginally. In multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusting for maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and other covariates, birth by caesarean section was associated with a higher odds of obesity at age 3 (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.23), higher mean BMI z-score (0.20 units, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33), and higher sum of triceps plus subscapular skinfold thicknesses (0.94 mm, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.51).
Infants delivered by caesarean section may be at increased risk of childhood obesity. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to explore mechanisms underlying this association.

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    • "D'ailleurs, certains praticiens préconisent un ensemencement du tube digestif du nouveau-né dès la naissance avec le microbiote de la mère pour les enfants nés par césarienne car on connaît les différences très importantes dans leur microbiote en comparaison d'enfants nés par voie naturelle [27]. Certaines publications ont relevé des conséquences possibles néfastes en termes de santé [28]. Le transfert de microbiote apparaît ainsi être un médicament dont on pressent le potentiel dans nombre d'indications. "
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    ABSTRACT: (PAPER IN FRENCH) The gut microbiota (or gut flora) is a set of bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Strictly associated with the intestinal tract and interacting with it, the gut microbiota is not a tissue nor an organ, but a supra-organism. A disruption of dialogue between bacteria and human cells is a risk factor or a possible cause of various diseases. The restoration of this dialogue, thanks to the transfer of the gut microbiota of a healthy individual to a patient whose balance of gut flora has been broken, is a new therapeutic approach. If its exact effect still eludes scientific understanding, its clinical benefit is well established for an indication, and is recently being tested for many others. The proven contribution of gut microbiota in the human physiological balance calls for intensifying research throughout the world about the state of knowledge and technologies, as well as on the legal and ethical dimension of fecal microbiota transfer. This didactic paper updates the questions in relation with this therapeutic act.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
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    • "In contrast, we analysed BMI as a continuous variable and found that mean values were higher among those subjects born by caesarean section. Two other studies have also reported that mean body mass index was higher among subjects who were born by caesarean section [16,17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Conflicting findings on the risk of obesity among subjects born by caesarean section have been published. Caesarean section should also increase the risk of obesity related cardiovascular risk factors if type of delivery is associated with obesity later in life. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of type of delivery on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood. In 1982, maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city have been followed. In 2000, when male subjects undertook the Army entrance examination (n=2200), fat mass and fat free mass were estimated through bioimpedance. In 2004-2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort (n=4297), and the following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose, C-reactive protein, waist circumference and body mass index. The estimates were adjusted for the following confounders: family income at birth; maternal schooling; household assets index in childhood; maternal skin color; birth order; maternal age; maternal prepregnancy weight; maternal height; maternal smoking during pregnancy; birthweight and family income at early adulthood. In the crude analyses, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) and body mass index were higher among subjects who were delivered through caesarean section. After controlling for confounders, systolic blood pressure was 1.15 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.05; 2.25) higher among subjects delivered by caesarean section, and BMI 0.40 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.71). After controlling for BMI the effect on systolic blood pressure dropped to 0.60 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.47; 1.67). Fat mass at 18 years of age was also higher among subjects born by caesarean section. Caesarean section was associated with a small increased in systolic blood pressure, body mass index and fat mass.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Further studies have raised controversy regarding the association between CS and obesity. In addition to our study [15], other cohort studies identified CS as a significant risk factor for obesity [18-21]. Nonetheless, this same risk of obesity in adulthood was not detected in other Brazilian birth cohort studies, but only among boys aged 4 years [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have raised controversy regarding the association between cesarean section and later obesity in the offspring. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of cesarean section with increased body mass index (BMI) and obesity in school children from two Brazilian cities with distinct socioeconomic backgrounds. Two birth cohorts respectively born in 1994 in Ribeirao Preto, a wealthy city in Southeast, and in 1997/98 in Sao Luis, a less wealthy city in Northeast of Brasil, were evaluated. After birth, 2,846 pairs of mothers-newborns were evaluated in Ribeirao Preto and 2,542 in Sao Luis. In 2004/05, 790 children aged 10/11 years were randomly reassessed in Ribeirao Preto and 673 at 7/9 years in Sao Luis. Information on type of delivery, maternal and child characteristics, socioeconomic position and anthropometric measurements were collected after birth and at school age. Obesity was defined as BMI >= 95th percentile at school age. Obesity rate was 13.0% in Ribeirao Preto and 2.1% in Sao Luis. Cesarean section was associated with obesity and remained significant after adjustment only in Ribeirao Preto [OR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.04; 2.92)]. The association between cesarean section and BMI remained significant after adjustment for maternal schooling, maternal smoking during pregnancy, duration of breastfeeding, gender, birth weight and gestational age, type of school and, only in Sao Luis, pre-pregnancy maternal weight. In Ribeirao Preto children born by cesarean section had BMI 0.31 kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.11; 0.51) higher than those born by vaginal delivery. In Sao Luis BMI of children born by cesarean section was 0.28 kg/m2 higher (95%CI: 0.08; 0.49) than those born by vaginal delivery. A positive association between cesarean section and increased BMI z-score was demonstrated in areas with different socioeconomic status in a middle-income country.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Nutrition Journal
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