Improved osteoblast compatibility of medical-grade polyetheretherketone using arc ionplated rutile/anatase titanium dioxide films for spinal implants

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Xitun District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan, ROC.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A (Impact Factor: 3.37). 10/2012; 100(10):2787-92. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.34215
Source: PubMed


Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), known to exhibit good biocompatibility, is applied in this study as a thin film formed onto polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate, which has been widely used in spinal interbody fusion cages. For successful deposition, an arc ionplating (AIP) technique was applied to deposit TiO(2) at low deposition temperature without damaging PEEK substrate, while providing satisfactory film adhesion. This study systematically investigates the effects of TiO(2) thin film phase composition and surface characteristics, controlled by using different target current and substrate bias, on osteoblast compatibility. Experimental results showed that anatase phase (A-TiO(2)) and/or rutile phase (R-TiO(2) ) TiO(2) coatings, respectively, can be prepared in appropriate deposition conditions. Overall, the TiO(2)-coated PEEK presented better osteoblast compatibility than the bare PEEK material in terms of cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation abilities, as well as osteogenesis performance (as determined by levels of osteopontin, osteocalcin, and calcium content). Surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the AIP-TiO(2) films were found to be responsible for significant osteoblast cell growth. It is also noticeable that the R-TiO(2) exhibited better osteoblast compatibility than the A-TiO(2) due to the presence of negatively charged hydroxyl groups on R-TiO(2) (110) surface in nature.

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    • "The interaction of hepatocytes and osteoblasts with rutile was already reported by some authors [32] [38]. On rutile-rich films produced on β-Ti alloys by the micro-arc oxidation technique , an improved osteogenesis performance was observed [34] [40]. The crystallographic lattice matching of rutile with that of apatite was referred as a possible mechanism for this behavior, resulting in an excellent apatite-forming ability of rutile surfaces [33] [41]. "
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