Article

Chlamydial and gonococcal testing during pregnancy in the United States

Quest Diagnostics, West Norriton, PA, USA.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology (Impact Factor: 4.7). 04/2012; 207(1):55.e1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.04.027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to estimate the rates of testing, prevalence, and follow-up testing for chlamydial and gonococcal infection in a nationally based population that is comparable with the US pregnant population in terms of age and race.
We extracted laboratory results for 1,293,423 pregnant women tested over a 3-year period.
During pregnancy, 59% (761,315 of 1,293,423) and 57% (730,796 of 1,293,423) of women were tested at least once for Chlamydia trachomatis or for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, respectively. Of those women tested, 3.5% (26,437 of 761,315) and 0.6% (4605 of 730,796) tested positive for chlamydial and gonococcal infection, respectively, at least once during pregnancy. Of those women who were initially positive for the given infection, 78% (16,039 of 20,489) and 76% (2610 of 3435) were retested, of whom 6.0% (969 of 16,039) and 3.8% (100 of 2610) were positive on their last prenatal test for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, respectively.
Many pregnant women are not tested for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae despite recommendations to test. Follow-up testing to monitor the effectiveness of treatment is also not always performed.

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    ABSTRACT: Received: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of the bacterial agents Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae), Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum) and the conditions which may play a role in the development of female infertility, in the county of Iapi in North-Eastern Romania. Cervical and blood samples were collected from 176 infertile women and 45 pregnant women in the third trimester. Classical methods and real time PCR were applied to each cervical sample to detect the presence of these sexually transmitted microorganisms; the ELISA method was applied to blood samples to detect C. trachomatis antibodies (IgA, IgM and IgG). The proportion of C. trachomatis IgG was significantly higher in the infertile group (23.8%) than in the pregnant group (4.4%), p < 0.05. For C. trachomatis antigen (Ag) and N. go-norrhoeae Ag no differences were observed between the two groups. The prevalence of mycoplasma genital infections was higher in the pregnant group (U. urealyticum – 53.3% and M. hominis – 20%) than in the infertile group (U. urealyticum – 39.7% and M. hominis – 7.3%). Higher rate of co-infection with C. trachomatis and mycoplasma were observed among the infertile women (25.7%) than among the pregnant women (7.7%). This combination could be involved in the appearance of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its sequela, including infertility. C. trachomatis IgG determination still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of PID and should be used as a screen-ing test for the prediction of tubal damage in infertile women. In view of the large number of cases involving the co-existence of genital infections with C. trachomatis, 1217-8950/$20.00 © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest
    No preview · Dataset · Mar 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Received: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of the bacterial agents Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae), Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum) and the conditions which may play a role in the development of female infertility, in the county of Iapi in North-Eastern Romania. Cervical and blood samples were collected from 176 infertile women and 45 pregnant women in the third trimester. Classical methods and real time PCR were applied to each cervical sample to detect the presence of these sexually transmitted microorganisms; the ELISA method was applied to blood samples to detect C. trachomatis antibodies (IgA, IgM and IgG). The proportion of C. trachomatis IgG was significantly higher in the infertile group (23.8%) than in the pregnant group (4.4%), p < 0.05. For C. trachomatis antigen (Ag) and N. go-norrhoeae Ag no differences were observed between the two groups. The prevalence of mycoplasma genital infections was higher in the pregnant group (U. urealyticum – 53.3% and M. hominis – 20%) than in the infertile group (U. urealyticum – 39.7% and M. hominis – 7.3%). Higher rate of co-infection with C. trachomatis and mycoplasma were observed among the infertile women (25.7%) than among the pregnant women (7.7%). This combination could be involved in the appearance of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its sequela, including infertility. C. trachomatis IgG determination still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of PID and should be used as a screen-ing test for the prediction of tubal damage in infertile women. In view of the large number of cases involving the co-existence of genital infections with C. trachomatis, 1217-8950/$20.00 © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest
    No preview · Dataset · Mar 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of the bacterial agents Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae), Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum) and the conditions which may play a role in the development of female infertility, in the county of Iapi in North-Eastern Romania. Cervical and blood samples were collected from 176 infertile women and 45 pregnant women in the third trimester. Classical methods and real time PCR were applied to each cervical sample to detect the presence of these sexually transmitted microorganisms; the ELISA method was applied to blood samples to detect C. trachomatis antibodies (IgA, IgM and IgG). The proportion of C. trachomatis IgG was significantly higher in the infertile group (23.8%) than in the pregnant group (4.4%), p < 0.05. For C. trachomatis antigen (Ag) and N. go- norrhoeae Ag no differences were observed between the two groups. The prevalence of mycoplasma genital infections was higher in the pregnant group (U. urealyticum – 53.3% and M. hominis – 20%) than in the infertile group (U. urealyticum – 39.7% and M. hominis – 7.3%). Higher rate of co-infection with C. trachomatis and mycoplasma were observed among the infertile women (25.7%) than among the pregnant women (7.7%). This combination could be involved in the appearance of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its sequela, including infertility. C. trachomatis IgG determination still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of PID and should be used as a screen- ing test for the prediction of tubal damage in infertile women. In view of the large number of cases involving the co-existence of genital infections with C. trachomatis, M. hominis and U. urealyticum, it is clearly necessary to perform screening for all three microorganisms among all women of reproductive age but especially those who are infertile.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
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