Bisphenol S in Urine from the United States and Seven Asian Countries: Occurrence and Human Exposures

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, United States.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 05/2012; 46(12):6860-6. DOI: 10.1021/es301334j
Source: PubMed


As concern regarding the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) grows, BPA in many consumer products is gradually being replaced with compounds such as bisphenol S (BPS). Nevertheless, data on the occurrence of BPS in human specimens are limited. In this study, 315 urine samples, collected from the general populations in the United States, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, were analyzed for the presence of total BPS (free plus conjugated) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPS was detected in 81% of the urine samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ; 0.02 ng/mL) to 21 ng/mL (geometric mean: 0.168 ng/mL). The urinary BPS concentration varied among countries, and the highest geometric mean concentration [1.18 ng/mLor 0.933 μg/g creatinine (Cre)] of BPS was found in urine samples from Japan, followed by the United States (0.299 ng/mL, 0.304 μg/g Cre), China (0.226 ng/mL, 0.223 μg/g Cre), Kuwait (0.172 ng/mL, 0.126 μg/g Cre), and Vietnam (0.160 ng/mL, 0.148 μg/g Cre). Median concentrations of BPS in urine samples from the Asian countries were 1 order of magnitude lower than the median concentrations reported earlier for BPA in the same set of samples, with the exception of samples from Japan. There were no significant differences in BPS concentrations between genders (male versus female), or among age groups (categorized as ≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), or races (Caucasian versus Asian). The daily intake (EDI) of BPS was estimated on the basis of urinary concentrations using a simple pharmacokinetic approach. The median EDI values of BPS in Japan, China, United States, Kuwait, Vietnam, Malaysia, India, and Korea were 1.67, 0.339, 0.316, 0.292, 0.217, 0.122, 0.084, and 0.023 μg/person, respectively. This is the first study to report the occurrence of BPS in human urine.

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    • "A solid phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of eight BPs, as reported elsewhere (Liao et al., 2012b) with some modifications. An Oasis HLB (6 mL, Waters, Milford, MA, USA) SPE cartridge was used for extraction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including BPA, BPS, and BPF were determined in surface waters collected from select rivers in Japan, Korea, China, and India. BPA was found at a concentration in the range of several tens to several hundreds of nanograms per liter in most of the rivers surveyed and some of the highest concentrations (54-1950ng/L) were found in rivers in Chennai, India. Concentrations of BPF were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of BPA in river and sea waters collected from Japan, Korea and China, which suggested that BPF is a major contaminant in surface waters in several Southeast Asian countries. BPF concentrations as high as 2850ng/L were found in the Tamagawa River in Japan. The flux of BPs through riverine discharges into Tokyo Bay was calculated to be approximately 5.5t per year. Based on the flux estimates and the mass of BPF found in water column and sediment in Tokyo Bay, it was found that BPF degrades faster than BPA in the environment. Elevated concentrations of BPF found in surface waters suggest the need for further studies to determine the fate and toxicity of this compound.
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    • "Due to the adverse health effects of BPA in excessive doses noted in animals (Tsai 2006, Willhite et al. 2008; Rochester 2013; Robledo et al. 2013; Kasper-Sonnenberg et al. 2012, Yoon et al. 2014; Weber et al. 2015) and the potential for certain human subpopulations to be exposed to high concentrations of this chemical, its use is now regulated in some countries. However, BPA is being replaced by a new analogue, " bisphenol S " (BPS, 4,4 sulfonyldiphenol ) (Figure 1) (Liao et al. 2012a; 2012b). However, some recent studies showed that BPS in vitro at excessive concentrations activated human estrogen receptors (Molina- Molina et al. 2013) and was cytotoxic and genotoxic to chicken DT40 cells (Lee et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor commonly employed as a color developer in thermal papers. Consequently, BPA derived from thermal papers has been considered an important source of exposure for humans, since this chemical may migrate from paper to skin upon contact. Further, due to recent restrictions on BPA use in some countries, it has been replaced by a new analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). The aim of the present study was to determine levels of BPA and BPS in 190 different thermal receipts, randomly collected from different locations in São Paulo State, Brazil, including receipts from supermarkets, general and fast-food restaurants, gas stations, bus and airplane tickets, and credit card and bank accounts. BPA and/or BPS were detected in 98% of samples at concentrations ranging from below the quantification limit to 4.3% (mg/100 mg paper). The obtained values were higher than amounts previously reported in other countries. The estimated daily intake through dermal absorption from handling of thermal receipt papers was estimated on the basis of concentrations and frequencies of handling of papers by humans in both the general population and occupationally exposed individuals. Fifth percentile, median, and 95th percentile daily intakes by the general population were 0.44, 1.42, and 2 μg/d, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for occupationally exposed population are 21.8, 71 and 101 μg/d. The potential adverse consequences of elevated occupational exposure are currently being examined.
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    • "BPA has been detected in the urine of the USA population in the concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 149 ng/ml (Calafat et al., 2008). In Canadian population, Bushnik et al. (2010) determined BPA (mean 1.16 μg/dm 3 ) in 90.7% of urine samples, while Liao et al. (2012b) detected BPS in 81% of urine samples (from trace to 21 μg/dm 3 ) of the populations of the USA, China, India and other Asian countries. In occupational survey, significant mean BPA concentration (mean—approximately 5 μg/ml; 5.4 μg/g creatinine) was determined in the urine of Chinese workers employed in the production of epoxy resins (He et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) in human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500 μg/ml for 1, 4 and 24 h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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