Article

Bisphenol S in Urine from the United States and Seven Asian Countries: Occurrence and Human Exposures

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, United States.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 05/2012; 46(12):6860-6. DOI: 10.1021/es301334j
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

As concern regarding the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) grows, BPA in many consumer products is gradually being replaced with compounds such as bisphenol S (BPS). Nevertheless, data on the occurrence of BPS in human specimens are limited. In this study, 315 urine samples, collected from the general populations in the United States, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, were analyzed for the presence of total BPS (free plus conjugated) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPS was detected in 81% of the urine samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ; 0.02 ng/mL) to 21 ng/mL (geometric mean: 0.168 ng/mL). The urinary BPS concentration varied among countries, and the highest geometric mean concentration [1.18 ng/mLor 0.933 μg/g creatinine (Cre)] of BPS was found in urine samples from Japan, followed by the United States (0.299 ng/mL, 0.304 μg/g Cre), China (0.226 ng/mL, 0.223 μg/g Cre), Kuwait (0.172 ng/mL, 0.126 μg/g Cre), and Vietnam (0.160 ng/mL, 0.148 μg/g Cre). Median concentrations of BPS in urine samples from the Asian countries were 1 order of magnitude lower than the median concentrations reported earlier for BPA in the same set of samples, with the exception of samples from Japan. There were no significant differences in BPS concentrations between genders (male versus female), or among age groups (categorized as ≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), or races (Caucasian versus Asian). The daily intake (EDI) of BPS was estimated on the basis of urinary concentrations using a simple pharmacokinetic approach. The median EDI values of BPS in Japan, China, United States, Kuwait, Vietnam, Malaysia, India, and Korea were 1.67, 0.339, 0.316, 0.292, 0.217, 0.122, 0.084, and 0.023 μg/person, respectively. This is the first study to report the occurrence of BPS in human urine.

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    • "A solid phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of eight BPs, as reported elsewhere (Liao et al., 2012b) with some modifications. An Oasis HLB (6 mL, Waters, Milford, MA, USA) SPE cartridge was used for extraction. "
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    • "BPA has been detected in the urine of the USA population in the concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 149 ng/ml (Calafat et al., 2008). In Canadian population, Bushnik et al. (2010) determined BPA (mean 1.16 μg/dm 3 ) in 90.7% of urine samples, while Liao et al. (2012b) detected BPS in 81% of urine samples (from trace to 21 μg/dm 3 ) of the populations of the USA, China, India and other Asian countries. In occupational survey, significant mean BPA concentration (mean—approximately 5 μg/ml; 5.4 μg/g creatinine) was determined in the urine of Chinese workers employed in the production of epoxy resins (He et al., 2009). "
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