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Two-way communication between the heart and the brain: Significance of time within the cardiac cycle

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Abstract

Summarizes results of research dealing with time within the cardiac cycle as an experimental variable. In a variety of different experiments, meaningful sensorimotor events produced changes in heart rate that were systematically related to where in the cardiac cycle the events occurred. This function is proposed as a noninvasive measure in intact humans of cortically mediated effects on vagal control of the heart. Time within the cardiac cycle is also a dependent variable: Self-initiated responses are postponed to increasingly later times as momentary heart rate increases. It is hypothesized that this may result from visceral afferent feedback to the CNS via the baroreceptor nerves. Preliminary results are presented from acute cat experiments showing that changes in frequency of carotid sinus stimulation and differences in the direction of change affect the temporal pattern of discharge of the carotid sinus nerve. (19 ref)

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... There is a rapidly growing body of evidence suggesting that bodily and autonomic states affect perceptual and metacognitive decisions [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Much of this evidence emphasizes the dynamic aspect of our physiology; usually assessed in terms of how perceptual choice or subjective confidence depends upon the phase of some physiological cycle. ...
... Put simply, precise visual information is only available during certain parts of the cardiac cycle, which itself depends upon the state of arousal (i.e., the policy currently inferred and selected). This can be thought of as a simple approximation of cardiac and other bodily timing effects, expressed as a momentary occlusion or attenuation of sensory input by (for example) afferent inhibitory baroreceptor effects [3,7,8,12,17,32,[61][62][63], or by the Fig 2. The generative model. This schematic illustrates how hidden states cause each other and sensory outcomes in the interoceptive and exteroceptive domain. ...
... Far from being restricted to homeostatic function only, it was first reported (nearly a century ago) that afferent baroreceptor outputs induce a general inhibitory effect on cortical processing [3,12,97]. These findings were later extended by Lacey and Lacey [7] who proposed the "neurovisceral afferent integration hypothesis", positing that cardiac acceleration and deceleration serve to respectively disengage or engage with an exteroceptive stimulus via cortical inhibition. ...
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Article
A growing body of evidence highlights the intricate linkage of exteroceptive perception to the rhythmic activity of the visceral body. In parallel, interoceptive inference theories of affective perception and self-consciousness are on the rise in cognitive science. However, thus far no formal theory has emerged to integrate these twin domains; instead, most extant work is conceptual in nature. Here, we introduce a formal model of cardiac active inference, which explains how ascending cardiac signals entrain exteroceptive sensory perception and uncertainty. Through simulated psychophysics, we reproduce the defensive startle reflex and commonly reported effects linking the cardiac cycle to affective behaviour. We further show that simulated 'interoceptive lesions' blunt affective expectations, induce psychosomatic hallucinations, and exacerbate biases in perceptual uncertainty. Through synthetic heart-rate variability analyses, we illustrate how the balance of arousal-priors and visceral prediction errors produces idiosyncratic patterns of physiological reactivity. Our model thus offers a roadmap for computationally phenotyping disordered brain-body interaction.
... There is a rapidly growing body of evidence suggesting that bodily and autonomic states affect perceptual and metacognitive decisions [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Much of this evidence emphasizes the dynamic aspect of our physiology; usually assessed in terms of how perceptual choice or subjective confidence depends upon the phase of some physiological cycle. ...
... Put simply, precise visual information is only available during certain parts of the cardiac cycle, which itself depends upon the state of arousal (i.e., the policy currently inferred and selected). This can be thought of as a simple approximation of cardiac and other bodily timing effects, expressed as a momentary occlusion or attenuation of sensory input by (for example) afferent inhibitory baroreceptor effects [3,7,8,12,17,32,[61][62][63], or by the Fig 2. The generative model. This schematic illustrates how hidden states cause each other and sensory outcomes in the interoceptive and exteroceptive domain. ...
... Far from being restricted to homeostatic function only, it was first reported (nearly a century ago) that afferent baroreceptor outputs induce a general inhibitory effect on cortical processing [3,12,97]. These findings were later extended by Lacey and Lacey [7] who proposed the "neurovisceral afferent integration hypothesis", positing that cardiac acceleration and deceleration serve to respectively disengage or engage with an exteroceptive stimulus via cortical inhibition. ...
Full-text available
Article
A growing body of evidence highlights the intricate linkage of exteroceptive perception to the rhythmic activity of the visceral body. In parallel, interoceptive inference theories of affective perception and self-consciousness are on the rise in cognitive science. However, thus far no formal theory has emerged to integrate these twin domains; instead, most extant work is conceptual in nature. Here, we introduce a formal model of cardiac active inference, which explains how ascending cardiac signals entrain exteroceptive sensory perception and uncertainty. Through simulated psychophysics, we reproduce the defensive startle reflex and commonly reported effects linking the cardiac cycle to affective behaviour. We further show that simulated ‘interoceptive lesions’ blunt affective expectations, induce psychosomatic hallucinations, and exacerbate biases in perceptual uncertainty. Through synthetic heart-rate variability analyses, we illustrate how the balance of arousal-priors and visceral prediction errors produces idiosyncratic patterns of physiological reactivity. Our model thus offers a roadmap for computationally phenotyping disordered brain-body interaction.
... Systole also attenuates startle responses to acoustic stimuli (Schulz et al., 2009), and impairs the encoding of words into memory . This general inhibitory effect of cardiac systole on stimulus processing putatively reflects the primacy and attentional salience of internal (interoceptive) bodily sensations (Lacey and Lacey, 1978). However, this general model is now refuted by the demonstration of opposite, facilitatory effects of cardiac systole on the processing of specific types of emotional stimuli. ...
... This afferent channel thus represents the body-to-brain mechanism through which cardiovascular arousal is communicated to the brain. While stimulus processing has a tendency to dampen or inhibit most types of processing (Lacey and Lacey, 1978), these findings are consistent with a growing literature that suggests one noticeable exception is fear processing, which has the capacity to be facilitated at cardiac systole , an effect mediated by selective systolic enhancement of amygdala activity (Garfinkel et al., 2014b). This is the first study to examine the impact of systolic signals on fear conditioning, thereby extending evidence for cardiac enhancement of fear processing. ...
... This latter observation highlights the selective impact of cardiac afferent signals on attentional capture by emotionally salient threat stimuli, a process that is amygdala-dependent (Anderson and Phelps, 2001). This facilitating effect of fear processing at systole is an exception to predominantly inhibitory effects of systole on other kinds of sensory processing (Lacey and Lacey, 1978). Pain responses are reduced at systole (Dworkin et al., 1994;Edwards et al., 2002;McIntyre et al., 2006;Rau and Elbert, 2001), eye-blink startle is attenuated (Schulz et al., 2009), blood pressure response to shocks is dampened (Donadio et al., 2002;Wallin, 2007) and muscle sympathetic activity to shocks is reduced (Gray et al., 2009) (see Garfinkel and Critchley,28 CARDIAC SIGNALS ENHANCE FEAR MEMORIES 27 2016 for a review). ...
Article
Fear is coupled to states of physiological arousal. We tested how learning and memory of threat, specifically conditioned fear, is influenced by interoceptive signals. Forty healthy individuals were exposed to two threat (conditioned stimuli [CS+], paired with electrocutaneous shocks) and two safety (CS-) stimuli, time-locked to either cardiac ventricular systole (when arterial baroreceptors signal cardiovascular arousal to brainstem), or diastole (when these afferent signals are quiescent). Threat learning was indexed objectively using skin conductance responses (SCRs). During acquisition of threat contingencies, cardiac effects dominated: Stimuli (both CS+ and CS-) presented at systole evoked greater SCR responses, relative to stimuli (both CS+ and CS-) presented at diastole. This difference was amplified in more anxious individuals. Learning of conditioned fear was established by the end of the acquisition phase, which was followed by an extinction phase when unpaired CSs were presented at either the same or switched cardiac contingencies. One day later, electrocutaneous shocks triggered the reinstatement of fear responses. Subsequent presentation of stimuli previously encoded at systole evoked higher SCRs. Moreover, only those participants for whom stimuli had the same cardiac-contingency over both acquisition and extinction phases retained conditioned fear memory (i.e., CS+ > CS-). Our findings reveal two important cardiac afferent effects on threat learning and memory: 1) Cardiac signals bias processing toward threat; and 2) cardiac signals are a context for fear memory; altering this context can disrupt the memory. These observations suggest how threat reactivity may be reinforced and maintained by both acute and enduring states of cardiac arousal. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... The attitude towards the functional activity of the heart has been changing recently. While contracting the heart is supposed not only to guarantee bloodstream circulation but also to send nervous, hormonal and electromagnetic information, to interrelate the body, the mind, emotions and spirit (Lacey J., Lacey B., 1978; Armor, Ardel, 1994;Goleman, 1995;Childre, Martin, 1999). It was found that the heart rate and its variability sensitively responded to the mental load (Hjortskov et al., 2004; Wand et al., 2005). ...
... T he attitude towards the functional activity of the heart has been changing recently. While contracting the heart is supposed not only to guarantee bloodstream circulation but also to send nervous, hormonal and electromagnetic information, to interrelate the body, the mind, emotions and spirit (Lacey J., Lacey B., 1978;Armor, Ardel, 1994;Goleman, 1995;Childre, Martin, 1999). It was found that the heart rate and its variability sensitively responded to the mental load (Hjortskov et al., 2004;Wand et al., 2005). ...
... Pastaraisiais metais keičiasi požiūris į širdies veiklą. Laikoma, kad širdis ne tik užtikrina kraujotaką, bet taip pat siunčia nervinę, humoralinę, elektromagnetinę informaciją, sujungia kūno judesių, proto, emocijų ir dvasios bendravimą (Lacey J., Lacey B., 1978;Armour, Ardel, 1994;Goleman, 1995;Childre, Martin, 1999). Nustatyta, kad širdies ritmo greitis ir variabilumas jautriai reaguoja į protinį krūvį (Hjortskov et al., 2004;Wang et al., 2005). ...
Article
Pastaraisiais metais keičiasi požiūris į širdies veiklą. Laikoma, kad širdis ne tik užtikrina kraujotaką, bet taip pat siunčia nervinę, humoralinę, elektromagnetinę informaciją, sujungia kūno judesių, proto, emocijų ir dvasios bendravimą (Lacey J., Lacey B., 1978; Armour, Ardel, 1994; Goleman, 1995; Childre, Martin, 1999). Nustatyta, kad širdies ritmo greitis ir variabilumas jautriai reaguoja į protinį krūvį (Hjortskov et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2005). Tyrimų apie širdies pokyčius atliekant protinį darbą ir ryšį su fi ziniu krūviu neaptikome. Tyrimo tikslas — ištirti sportuojančių ir nesportuojančių merginų širdies ritmo dažnio ir variabilumo bei protinio darbingumo pokyčius po standartizuoto fi zinio krūvio. Tiriamąjį kontingentą sudarė dvi grupės: 10 sportuojančių ir 8 nesportuojančios merginos, kurių amžiaus vidurkis 23 metai. Tyrimas buvo atliekamas 2003 metais Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademijos Fizinių galimybių centre. Tyrimo trukmė 30 minučių. Visą tyrimo laiką registruota nenutrūkstamo ryšio elektrokardiograma- ritmograma, duomenis fi ksuojant pagal matematinio modelio programą kompiuteryje (Vainoras, 2002). Analizuoti šie širdies ritmo ir variabilumo parametrai: širdies ritmo medianas ms; standartinis ritmo variabilumas — dispersija RR ms; standartinis širdies ritmo variabilumas procentais — RR dispersija %; širdies ritmo variabilumas, lyginant vieno RRj ir kito širdies ciklo trukmę ms — RR (j + 1) dispersija ms; širdies ritmo variabilumas, lyginant vieno (RRj) ir kito širdies ciklo trukme procentais — RR (j + 1) dispersija %. Prieš standartizuotą fi zinį krūvį (150 W) ir po jo tiriamosios atlikdavo protinio darbingumo testą (Grinienė, Vaitkevičius, 1998). Analizuotas protinio darbo intensyvumas (peržiūrėtas ženklų skaičius per 4 min), darbo tikslumas (bendras padarytų klaidų skaičius — 500 ženklų) ir produktyvumo koefi cientas Q pagal formulę Q = (a / 10) 2 / (a / 10) + b, čia a — peržiūrėtų ženklų skaičius, b — padarytų klaidų skaičius. Širdies ritmo rodiklių analizė parodė, kad po standartizuoto fi zinio krūvio sportuojančių ir nesportuojančių merginų širdies susitraukimų dažnis ir variabilumas, nors ir pakluso bendram kaitos darbingumui, bet savo dydžiais skyrėsi. Širdies ritmo rodikliai prieš fi zinį krūvį abiejų grupių merginų buvo panašūs. Prieš fi zinį krūvį atlikus testą abiejų grupių merginų protinio darbingumo rodiklių pokyčiai nesiskyrė, jos dirbo panašiu intensyvumu, tikslumu ir produktyvumu. Po standartizuoto fi zinio krūvio sportuojančių merginų širdies ritmo dažnio ir variabilumo rodikliai grįžo į pradinį lygį greičiau nei nesportuojančiųjų. Sportuojančių merginų protinio darbo intensyvumas, tikslumas ir produktyvumas po standartizuoto fi zinio krūvio atliekant testą patikimai pagerėjo, o nesportuojančiųjų — nepakito. Po standartizuoto fi zinio krūvio sportuojančių merginų širdies ritmo ir variabilumo rodiklių grįžimas į pradinį lygį buvo susijęs su protinio darbo rodiklių pagerėjimu. Nesportuojančių merginų širdies darbo ir variabilumo lėtesnis rodiklių grįžimas į pradinį lygį po standartizuoto fi zinio krūvio jų protinio darbingumo neskatino. Raktažodžiai: tautinis tapatumas, socialinės nuostatos, kosmopolitizmas ir etnocentrizmas.
... Furthermore, Tallon-Baudry and colleagues have emphasized the impact of visceral signals on non-emotional information processing, suggesting they form the fundamental basis of subjectivity (Park and Tallon-Baudry, 2014). The notion of bidirectional communication between body and brain, with contribution also to perception and cognition, is not new (Lacey and Lacey, 1978), but in the past ten years the fragmented empirical findings have been increasingly integrated together and combined with theoretical concepts such as embodied cognition (Varga and Heck, 2017), active inference and predictive coding (e.g., Badcock et al., 2017). The emerging framework represents a powerful theoretical construction that has potential to critically advance our understanding of the nervous system basis of human behavior and experience. ...
... In humans, the findings have accumulated somewhat separately from these animal studies and have been motivated for example by finding evidence for visceral afferent cardiac signaling (cf. Lacey and Lacey, 1978), or testing hypotheses arising within the embodied cognition theory, or within the more recent proposal of the role of interoceptive prediction in health and disease (Quadt et al., 2018;Owens et al., 2018). ...
Article
The body is, in essence, an ensemble of interacting systems with biorhythms nested at multiple timescales. Traditionally, the focus in the study of body-brain interaction has been on clarifying the ways by which our brain orchestrates the functions of the body. During recent decades theories building on the opposite causal direction, namely how the different body systems influence the brain and mind, have been dramatically increasing. Despite influential theories, direct research evidence about the link between bodily rhythms, brain and cognition are scattered. Here, we review existing evidence on how the electrophysiological activity of the brain on one hand, and perception or cognition on the other hand depend on the phase of the physiological cycles of the body, specifically those of the heartbeat and respiration. We summarize the accumulated evidence from human and animal studies and their implication for the theoretical reasoning. Last, besides elaborating how the cycles of bodily rhythms influence brain signaling and perceptual cognitive functions, we present potential explanations and answers to why this link might exist.
... This can partially explain the increase in alpha activity observed in this review across the central sites of the brain, as these sites overlay regions of the sensorimotor cortex that receive afferent feedback during exercise (Crabbe & Dishman, 2004). Another possible reason for the increase in alpha activity concerns the cortical inhibition caused by brainstem and subcortical activation (Koriath et al., 1987;Lacey & Lacey, 1978). This might have a direct bearing on cardiovascular regulation during exercise. ...
... This mechanism is believed to then influence the reticular formation in a way that reduces the transmission of somatic afferents to the cortex, thereby reducing cortical activity. Another possible explanation for the post-exercise decreases in delta activity has been advanced by Lacey and Lacey (1978). Specifically, the notion that brain activation decreases during exercise due to neuro-regulatory feedback mechanisms that pertain to communication between the heart and brain. ...
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Article
Research on the effects of exercise on cortical activity has grown significantly, with a predominant focus on the technique of electroencephalography (EEG). Technological advancements in EEG render this technique suitable for studies that explore human movement. There is a noticeable gap in the literature concerning how EEG-recorded cortical oscillatory activity is affected by exercise. Accordingly, the aim of this review was to summarise studies that investigated the effects of exercise on brain activity using EEG. This was a systematic review of 47 studies, predicated on PRISMA guidelines. The results were, on the whole, equivocal in nature, with the exception that activity in the alpha and beta frequency bands increased both during and post-exercise across the frontal, central, and limbic regions. The reported increases could be attributed to a variety of neural processes, such as neuro-connectivity, cortical inhibition, and sensory feedback loops. Future researchers need to give careful consideration to exercise parameters (e.g. mode of exercise, intensity, duration) to facilitate their interpretation of experimental data. The present findings support the notion that exercise alters alpha and beta neural oscillations but more work is needed to provide a fuller picture of the brain processes that manifest during exercise. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... The cardiovascular system is powered by repeated muscular contractions of the heart, which are commonly measured by means of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and expressed in beats per minute or heart rate (HR). Different types of sensory stimuli are able to elicit changes in heart rate and this parameter has been used to characterize emotional responses (Agrafioti et al., 2012;Bensafi, 2002;Danner et al., 2014;He et al., 2017;Kreibig, 2010;Lacey & Lacey, 1978;Licon et al., 2018). The intake-rejection hypothesis of cardiac response states that, in general, reduced heart rate allows for more effective neural processing, such as when an experience is pleasant, and increased Exploring Emotions as a New Quality Parameter in Wine Wine Business Journal heart rate promotes rejection to intense and unpleasant stimuli (Lacey & Lacey, 1978). ...
... Different types of sensory stimuli are able to elicit changes in heart rate and this parameter has been used to characterize emotional responses (Agrafioti et al., 2012;Bensafi, 2002;Danner et al., 2014;He et al., 2017;Kreibig, 2010;Lacey & Lacey, 1978;Licon et al., 2018). The intake-rejection hypothesis of cardiac response states that, in general, reduced heart rate allows for more effective neural processing, such as when an experience is pleasant, and increased Exploring Emotions as a New Quality Parameter in Wine Wine Business Journal heart rate promotes rejection to intense and unpleasant stimuli (Lacey & Lacey, 1978). Some authors have found that HR decreases 5 -6 seconds after odorant stimulus, with a more intense decrease for pleasant rather than unpleasant odorants (Delplanque et al., 2009;. ...
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Emotions are a fundamental step in sensory evaluation and relate to how consumers make purchase decisions or express preference for specific wine styles. Despite their relevance, it is unclear if emotions can be used as a strategy to evaluate quality and preference in wine. This review aims to define the sensory and physiological processes underlying emotions, revise the current framework to measure emotions in wines, and explore the latest findings linking flavor and marketing actions with emotions and ultimately with wine quality.
... Some of the core biological mechanisms thought to be related to anxiety symptoms may explain the association between movement behaviors and anxiety symptoms. The visceral-afferent feedback model suggests that physical activity may increase the stimulation of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), responsible for arousal and the maintenance of wakefulness [54]. When the cortical excitation from physical activity reaches a point at which the inhibitory mechanism of ARAS is activated, the somatic afferent stimulation ultimately decreases [54,55]. ...
... The visceral-afferent feedback model suggests that physical activity may increase the stimulation of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), responsible for arousal and the maintenance of wakefulness [54]. When the cortical excitation from physical activity reaches a point at which the inhibitory mechanism of ARAS is activated, the somatic afferent stimulation ultimately decreases [54,55]. The currently available first- Note. ...
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Article
Background The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults was released in 2020. There is a dearth of evidence on the association between adherence to the 24 h movement guidelines and health indicators. This study aims to (a) explore the associations between potential correlates and meeting the 24 h movement guidelines using a sample of Chinese university students; and (b) examine if meeting 24 h movement guidelines is associated with the severity of anxiety symptoms. Methods Cross-sectional findings are based on 1846 Chinese university students (mean age = 20.7 years, 64.0% female). Movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep duration), possible correlates, and anxiety symptoms were measured through self-reported online questionnaires. Logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations. Results We found that male students and those who had a mother with a master’s degree or above, more close friends and higher perceived family affluence were more likely to meet the overall 24 h guidelines. Meeting all 24 h movement guidelines presented the lower odds for severe anxiety symptoms than those meeting fewer recommendations in the 24 h movement guidelines. Conclusions As one of the first to examine the correlates of adherence to the 24 h movement guidelines and the relationship between anxiety symptoms and meeting the guidelines among Chinese university students, our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence linking movement behaviors, psychosocial correlates, and heath indicators. Schools and health providers can encourage movement behaviors that follow the guidelines on campus.
... In the late 1970s and early '80s, Lacey and Lacey (288,289) postulated that natural variations in arterial baroreceptor activation produce changes in cortical inhibition, which creates differences in sensorimotor performance across the cardiac cycle. More recently, investigations have further characterized and described the complexity of this baroreceptor mediated process. ...
... Cognitive attentional processes influence cardiovascular function through changes in the baroreceptor function that are moderated by the type of cognitive process. For example, visual attention to an external cue decreases heart rate (288,289) by enhancing BRS (443). Visual attention enhancement of baroreceptor function inhibits cognitive processing related to intellectual tasks and allocates processing resources to carry out externally-oriented sensorimotor responses, resulting in improve sensorimotor performance (443). ...
Article
Baroreceptors are mechanosensitive elements of the peripheral nervous system that maintain cardiovascular homeostasis by coordinating the responses to external and internal environmental stressors. While it is well known that carotid and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors modulate sympathetic vasomotor and parasympathetic cardiac neural autonomic drive, to avoid excessive fluctuations in vascular tone and maintain intravascular volume, there is increasing recognition that baroreceptors also modulate a wide range of non-cardiovascular physiological responses via projections from the nucleus of the solitary tract to regions of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord. These projections regulate pain perception, sleep, consciousness, and cognition. In this article, we summarize the physiology of baroreceptor pathways and responses to baroreceptor activation with an emphasis on the mechanisms influencing cardiovascular function, pain perception, consciousness, and cognition. Understanding baroreceptor-mediated effects on cardiac and extra-cardiac autonomic activities will further our understanding of the pathophysiology of multiple common clinical conditions, such as chronic pain, disorders of consciousness (e.g., abnormalities in sleep-wake), and cognitive impairment, which may result in the identification and implementation of novel treatment modalities. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:1373-1423, 2021.
... The task was combined with online dynamic monitoring of participants' electrocardiograms (ECG), to deliver the onset of each trial at either cardiac systole or diastole. Given the facilitatory effect of systole on reactive response inhibition in the stop signal task (Rae et al., 2018), and the long-held view that heartbeats may broadly invoke inhibitory processes across behavioural domains (Lacey & Lacey, 1978), we predicted that heartbeats would similarly facilitate intentional inhibition, such that participants would choose to withhold button presses more frequently during systole than diastole. ...
... On this basis, one can predict that cardiac signals would enhance inhibitory control. Indeed a broad invocation of inhibitory processes across behavioural domains at cardiac systole has been asserted historically (Lacey & Lacey, 1978). ...
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Preprint
Interoceptive signals concerning the internal physiological state of the body influence motivational feelings and action decisions. Cardiovascular arousal may facilitate inhibition to mitigate risks of impulsive actions. Baroreceptor discharge at ventricular systole underpins afferent signalling of cardiovascular arousal. We used a modified Go/NoGo task to demonstrate that decisions to make or withhold actions on ‘Choose’ trials were not, in fact, influenced by cardiac phase. However, cardiac interoceptive awareness (insight) predicted how frequently participants chose to act: Participants with higher awareness tended to withhold actions, while those with lower awareness tended to execute actions. Moreover, on a scale of impulsive behaviour, self-reported urgency correlated negatively with intentional inhibition rates. Individual differences in heart rate variability did not predict intentional inhibition. These findings suggest that lower insight into bodily signals is linked to urges to move the body, putatively by engendering noisier sensory input into motor decision processes eliciting reactive behaviour.
... Put simply, precise 215 visual information is only available during certain parts of the cardiac cycle, which itself 216 depends upon the state of arousal (i.e., the policy currently inferred and selected). This can 217 be thought of as a simple approximation of cardiac and other bodily timing effects, expressed 218 as a momentary occlusion or attenuation of sensory input by (for example) afferent 219 inhibitory baroreceptor effects (Bonvallet and Bloch, 1961;Lacey and Lacey, 1978), or by 220 the brief flooding of the retina during cardiac contraction. 221 ...
... Far from being restricted to 583 homeostatic function only, it was first reported (nearly a century ago) that afferent 584 baroreceptor outputs induce a general inhibitory effect on cortical processing (Bonvallet et 585 al., 1954;Bonvallet and Bloch, 1961;Koch, 1932). These findings were later extended by 586 Lacey and Lacey (1978) who proposed the "neurovisceral afferent integration hypothesis", 587 positing that cardiac acceleration and deceleration serve to respectively disengage or engage 588 with an exteroceptive stimulus via cortical inhibition. 589 ...
Full-text available
Preprint
A growing body of evidence highlights the intricate linkage of exteroceptive perception to the rhythmic activity of the visceral body. In parallel, interoceptive inference theories of emotion and self-consciousness are on the rise in cognitive science. However, thus far no formal theory has emerged to integrate these twin domains; instead most extant work is conceptual in nature. Here, we introduce a formal model of cardiac active inference, which explains how ascending cardiac signals entrain exteroceptive sensory perception and confidence. Through simulated psychophysics, we reproduce the defensive startle reflex and commonly reported effects linking the cardiac cycle to fear perception. We further show that simulated 'interoceptive lesions blunt fear expectations, induce psychosomatic hallucinations, and exacerbate metacognitive biases. Through synthetic heart-rate variability analyses, we illustrate how the balance of arousal-priors and visceral prediction errors produces idiosyncratic patterns of physiological reactivity. Our model thus offers the possibility to computationally phenotype disordered brain-body interaction.
... Future research needs to measure physiological responses such as heart rate (HR) while participants watch videos. Decreased HR relates to attention [39][40][41][42][43][44], and participants would pay more attention while watching a respected lecturer, so they could learn the skills being taught [2,20]. This would help clarify the intensity of admiration and respect while watching the lecturer. ...
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Article
Introduction One experiences admiration and respect when acknowledging excellence in others. Admiration relates to the person’s superior abilities, whereas respect focuses on the person as a whole. Although previous studies suggest a link between admiration/respect and motivation, it is unclear as to whether these emotions enhance task performance. We investigated the relationship between admiration/respect and task performance. Method Forty-two Japanese participants completed an English exam, watched a video, and completed a second exam. In the video, an interviewer asked an English lecturer to provide tips for completing the exam. After the second exam, participants rated the amount of admiration and respect they had for the lecturer and interviewer. We examined whether experiencing admiration/respect enhanced exam scores. Results We found that experiencing admiration had no significant effect on exam scores. However, the participants who had stronger respect for the lecturer improved their score ( p < 0.001) whereas the score of the other participants did not differ between exams ( p = 0.504). Moreover, the analysis showed a positive correlation between score increment and the amount of awe, a subcategory of the Japanese concept of respect ( p = 0.014). Conclusion The results suggest that respect (particularly awe), rather than admiration, is involved in performance improvement.
... heartbeat frequency (cf. Bohlin et al., 1981;Vossel & Zimmer, 1989a, 1992Zimmer, 2002), it may be concluded that it consists of two or three phases of HR deceleration with different starting times: (i) a brief, rapid-onset deceleration or primary bradycardia (Lacey & Lacey, 1980) representing stimulus registration (Graham, 1992), (ii) a second deceleration reflecting involuntary orienting (e.g., Graham & Clifton, 1966;Turpin, 1983), and possibly (iii) a third deceleration reflecting voluntary orienting activity associated with supervisory attentional control of processes involved in anticipation and preparation (Bohlin & Kjellberg, 1979;Damen & Brunia, 1987;Lacey & Lacey, 1978). ...
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Article
In a repetition-change paradigm it was explored whether the skin conductance response (SCR) and the heart rate (HR) response similarly reflect involuntary and voluntary orienting. Seven orienting stimuli, consisting of six contextually novel stimuli and one novel change, were presented to 144 participants. In order to evoke voluntary orienting, the signal value of the contextually novel stimuli was manipulated by task instruction. Results suggest that the SCR is a manifestation of the involuntary orienting response (iOR). The HR, however, showed a non-uniform pattern of response and turned out to be susceptible to voluntary orienting. While it responded to the last orienting stimulus, the novel change, with a clear-cut deceleration, the response to the first orienting stimulus had a polyphase structure and was sensitive to repetition and signal value. The HR response is, thus, of limited value as an indicator of the iOR because of its striking susceptibility to voluntary orienting.
... neuromodulation) in brain regions involved in integrated cardiovascular and addiction circuitry (Bates & Buckman, 2012;Buckman et al., 2018). Inspired by the early work of Lacey (Lacey & Lacey, 1978) he often spoke of the role of intrinsic cardiovascular feedback loops in brain inhibition processes. We subsequently developed a proof-of-concept functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to assess changes in brain reactivity to unique sets of alcohol cues presented before and after a 5-min eRPB intervention, compared to a low cognitive demand task, in young men and women with varying light to heavy drinking behaviors . ...
... At the biological system level, arousal corresponds to the induction of neuroendocrine signaling cascades, enabling an individual to organize adaptive behavior; that is, to cope with a survival threat emergency. During arousal, various visceral, respiratory, and hormonal changes altogether contribute to the maximum efficiency of an organism to mobilize resources, including particular cognitive functions (Jennings, Allen, Gianaros, Thayer, & Manuck, 2015;Lacey & Lacey, 1978;Lindsley, 1951;Sokolov, 1990), which are necessary to meet the urgent demands of struggle or escape. Indeed, previous research has demonstrated that the amount of prestimulus arousal exhibited by rats, nonhuman primates, and humans predicts the probability of success on a number of visual tasks, including attention and memory-guided delay tasks (Hasegawa, Blitz, Geller, & Goldberg, 2000;Robbins, 1997Robbins, , 2005. ...
Article
The goal of this study was to examine activities and experiences where enhanced cognitive states (ECSs), characterized by dramatic boosts in focused attention, could be elicited under specific gaming contexts. In Experiment 1, expert gamers were tested on the attentional blink task before and after playing games of different genres, varying on four game design dimensions (perspective, “adrenaline‐rush,” immersivity, and collaborative vs. individual context) and two cognitive dimensions (speed of processing and attentional focus). In Experiment 2, using ECG‐HRV methodology, we examined the physiological markers of gaming dimensions found to be critical for accessing ECSs in Experiment 1. The findings suggest that ECSs are a universal phenomenon that demands focusing one's attention on a single task from the egocentric perspective, and ought to involve an adventurous “adrenaline‐rush” type of activity. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that an underlying physiological mechanism of ECSs includes parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) withdrawal‐associated arousal. Specifically, the gaming dimensions leading to greater PSNS withdrawal‐associated arousal resulted in greater improvements on the attentional blink task during ECSs. These findings suggest that individuals can transcend what was hitherto assumed to be a limitation of human cognition, granting new prospects for eliciting exceptional human performance.
... Cognition may be suboptimal during the states of heightened cardiovascular arousal that accompanies motor action or by other competing or task-irrelevant interoceptive viscerosensations communicating internal states of inflammation, visceral pain or motivational need, for example. This point was made to explain why the heart rate slows when waiting for something to happen: The yoking of anticipatory attention to cardiac deceleration was interpreted as an adaptation to limit cardiac interference in order to facilitate the processing of external environmental information (Lacey and Lacey, 1978). In the domain of 'hot' cognition, eye widening may bias what information is prioritized for visual processing (Lee et al., 2013). ...
Article
The demands of both mental and physical activity are integrated with the dynamic control of internal bodily state. The set of neural interactions that supports autonomic regulation extends beyond afferent-efferent homeostatic reflexes (interoceptive feedback, autonomic action) to encompass allostatic policies reflecting more abstract and predictive mental representations, often accessed as conscious thoughts and feelings. Historically and heuristically, reason is contrasted with passion, cognition with emotion, and ‘cold’ with ‘hot’ cognition. These categories are themselves arbitrary and blurred. Investigations of psychological processes have been generally pursued during states of musculoskeletal quiescence and are thus relatively insensitive to autonomic interaction with attentional, perceptual, mnemonic and decision-making processes. Autonomic psychophysiology has nevertheless highlighted the bidirectional coupling of distinct cognitive domains to the internal state of body arousal. More powerfully perhaps, in the context of emotion, autonomically mediated changes in inner bodily physiological state are viewed as intrinsic constituents of the expression of emotions, while their feedback representation is proposed to underpin emotional and motivational feelings. Here, we review the brain systems, encapsulated by the notion of central autonomic network, that provide the interface between cognitive, emotional and autonomic state. These systems span the neuraxis, overlap with the more general governance of behaviour, and represent district levels of proximity to survival-related imperatives. We touch upon the conceptual relevance of prediction and surprise to understanding the integration of cognition and emotion with autonomic control.
... Procedures for probing the impact of the cardiovascular channel time-lock brief stimulus presentations to bursts of baroreceptor activity (at systole) or in between heartbeats (at late diastole), when baroreceptors, and thus this cardiac channel, are quiescent . Studies using this methodology have primarily demonstrated inhibitory effects of the cardiovascular channel, in line with the historical view that cardiovascular signals to the brain have an inhibitory or distracting effect, serving to both distract and interfere with perception and cognition (Lacey & Lacey, 1978). When presented at systole, electrocutaneous shocks produce reduced pain sensation (Wilkinson et al., 2013), loud auditory stimuli produce smaller startle responses (Müller et al., 2015;Schulz, Schilling, Vögele, & Schächinger, 2019), and word stimuli are less well remembered relative to when presented at diastole (Garfinkel, Barrett, Minati, Dolan, Seth, & Critchley, 2013). ...
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Article
Interoception has historically been assessed using behavioural tests of accuracy, self-report measures or through the characterisation of neural signals underlying interoceptive processing. More recent conceptualisations of interoception incorporate interoceptive attention and higher-order measures related to the interpretation of interoceptive signals. At present, these interoceptive dimensions are largely assessed in isolation, yet this fails to capture the complexity of interoception. Comprehensive assessment across interoceptive dimensions can determine the full operation of general interoceptive function. Current work suggests that these interoceptive processes may be dissociable across dimensions and bodily axes, with differential mapping to cognitive and emotion processing. To characterise differences in interoceptive profiles, all interoceptive dimensions can be assessed within individuals, both within a single bodily axis (e.g., cardiac) or across bodily axes. Future work can better delineate how these interoceptive measures correspond to different types of processing. Comprehensive interoceptive assessment can help isolate selective interoceptive disruptions in different clinical conditions.
... Cardiac-movement effects have been attributed to baroreceptors (Lacey and Lacey, 1978). Located within the aortic arch, the carotid sinuses and the coronary arteries, these stretch receptors represent one of the key communication channels between the heart and the brain. ...
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Article
Previous research suggests that there may be a relationship between the timing of motor events and phases of the cardiac cycle. This relationship has thus far only been researched using simple isolated movements such as key-presses in reaction-time tasks and only in a single subject acting alone. Other research has shown both movement and cardiac coordination among interacting individuals. Here, we investigated how the cardiac cycle relates to ongoing self-paced movements in both action execution and observation using a novel dyadic paradigm. We recorded electrocardiography (ECG) in 26 subjects who formed 19 dyads containing an action executioner and observer as they performed a self-paced sequence of movements. We demonstrated that heartbeats are timed to movements during both action execution and observation. Specifically, movements were less likely to culminate synchronously with the heartbeat around the time of the R-peak of the ECG. The same pattern was observed for action observation, with the observer's heartbeats occurring off-phase with movement culmination. These findings demonstrate that there is coordination between an action executioner's cardiac cycle and the timing of their movements, and that the same relationship is mirrored in an observer. This suggests that previous findings of interpersonal coordination may be caused by the mirroring of a phasic relationship between movement and the heart.
... Past studies using heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) have used neural (EEG or MEG) 320 activity synchronised to R-peak of the heartbeat (Coll et al., 2021; Schandry and Montoya, 321 1996). The R peak is an electrical signal synchronised to cardiac muscular contractions, and 322 rapid electrical projections through the autonomic nervous system may be one mechanism 323 linking heart-brain activity (Hanna et al., 2017;Lacey and Lacey, 1978). We instead used 324 neural activity synchronised to the peak of the finger pulse activity. ...
Preprint
We frequently associate ourselves with certain affective attributes (e.g., I am joyful, I am lazy, etc.) and not others. However, little is understood about how such self-associations come about. Interoceptive predictive theories propose that a sense of self, especially in an affective context, results from the brain making inferences about internal bodily states. A key prediction of these theories is that for an affective attribute to be self-associated, it would depend not only on the stimulus, but also non-stimulus-specific fluctuations in one’s bodily state; a hypothesis not yet tested. We measured EEG response synchronised to the cardiac cycle – a common way to measure interoceptive neural processing – prior to the presentation of pleasant and unpleasant adjectives to participants. Participants responded if the adjectives were self-descriptive or not. We found that cardiac-pulse-synchronised neural activity prior to the presentation of unpleasant adjectives predicted whether participants subsequently associated that adjective to themselves. This effect was observed over midfrontal scalp locations, commonly observed in interoceptive neural processing. No such effect was observed for pleasant adjectives, or by randomly shuffling the cardiac peak times to account for non-interoceptive neural differences. Our results confirm a key prediction of interoceptive predictive coding theories – that bodily signals are not just modulated in response to self-related and affective arousal, but that a subjective sense of affective self arises due to neural processing of bodily signals. Our results have important implications for many neuropsychiatric disorders that involve altered self-referential processing of unpleasant stimuli.
... Regarding the manipulation that participants were given early warning of the highstress condition, a key objective of this study was to re-examine our hypothesis that punishment and reward sensitivities would interact to predict phasic heart rate deceleration, a psychophysiological index of motor preparation (Lacey & Lacey, 1978). Results supported our hypothesis. ...
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Thesis
This thesis investigates the relationship of both trait and state explanations of Mental Toughness (MT) upon a range of behavioural and psychophysiological outcome variables that should relate to the construct of MT (e.g., performance, heart rate, muscle activity, kinematic movement, and cortisol). Chapter 1 presents a holistic overview of the strengths and limitations of research in MT and offers some novel approaches that could advance knowledge in this area. The introduction briefly explains different concepts that relate to the construct of MT. The strengths and limitations of trait (personality) and state (self-report) perspectives of MT are reviewed. Finally, future outcome variables that should be theoretically related to MT that have yet to be fully explored are discussed. This discussion sets out in detail, the purpose of the thesis. Chapter 2 aimed to advance previous research findings where personality traits (i.e., low reward and high punishment sensitivities) have been shown to predict Mentally Tough behaviour (MTb) and performance outcomes under pressure (e.g., Beattie, Alqallaf, & Hardy, 2017; Hardy, Bell, & Beattie, 2014). As suggested in the research overview from Chapter 1, these individuals may demonstrate unique psychophysiological response to stress that allow them to tolerate higher levels of pressure than their less mentally tough counterparts. Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals high in punishment and low in reward sensitivities (and those high in self-report MT) would show little or no increase in heart rate, and show stable muscle activity and movement kinematics from low-stress to high-stress conditions, compared to less mentally tough individuals. The stress condition involved participants making a single putt where they could double or lose all the money they had earned up to that point. Results indicated that, when reward sensitivity was low and punishment sensitivity increased, heart rate reactivity was blunted and movement kinematics (club-head angle) were more consistent when transitioning from a low to high stress environment. However, no significant relationships were found between self-report levels of MT, psychophysiological and movement kinematic measures. Chapter 3 addressed some of the limitations from Chapter 2. Specifically, the stress manipulation was modified to provide participants with early warning of the stressor, and, therefore, more time to prepare. The stress manipulation was also intensified by removing money from participants for missed putts, and adding peer pressure by having participants complete the experiment in pairs. We also extended the psychophysiological approach from Chapter 2 by examining cortisol. Results regarding personality and heart rate differed slightly from Chapter 2. Importantly, with early warning of the stressor, personality no longer predicted heart rate reactivity, but it did predict preparatory heart rate deceleration, an index of motor preparation. Preparatory heart rate deceleration was disrupted on transition from low-stress to high-stress conditions, but when reward sensitivity was low, increasing punishment sensitivity was associated with more consistent deceleration across both low- stress and high-stress conditions. Moreover, when reward sensitivity was low, increasing punishment sensitivity was associated with less angular error (better performance). Finally, contrary to our hypothesis, cortisol increased from the high stress condition to the low stress condition. Chapter 4 draws upon studies of early versus late preparation, and prevention versus promotion focus, to account for the subtly different results across Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. In doing so, it discusses the theoretical and applied implications of the thesis. Limitations and strengths of the thesis are discussed and future research directions are proposed.
... Cardiac response plays a central role in the physiological component of emotional reactions, as they are usually characterized by an increased energetic demand (Lacey and Lacey, 1978). It is widely assumed that, in line with the tenets of peripheral theories of emotion, the accuracy of perception of cardiac activity, dubbed cardioceptive accuracy, contributes to the emotional experience (Wiens et al., 2000;Pollatos et al., 2005). ...
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Article
Interoception in the broader sense refers to the perception of internal states, including the perception of the actual state of the internal organs (visceroception) and the motor system (proprioception). Dimensions of interoception include (1) interoceptive accuracy, i.e., the ability to sense internal changes assessed with behavioral tests, (2) confidence rating with respect to perceived performance in an actual behavioral test, and (3) interoceptive sensibility, i.e., the self-reported generalized ability to perceive body changes. The relationship between dimension of cardioceptive and proprioceptive modalities and their association with affect are scarcely studied. In the present study, undergraduate students (N = 105, 53 males, age: 21.0 ± 1.87 years) filled out questionnaires assessing positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), interoceptive sensibility (Body Awareness Questionnaire), and body competence (Body Competence Scale of the Body Consciousness Questionnaire). Following this, they completed a behavioral task assessing cardioceptive accuracy (the mental heartbeat tracking task by Schandry) and two tasks assessing proprioceptive accuracy with respect to the tension of arm flexor muscles (weight discrimination task) and the angular position of the elbow joint (joint position reproduction task). Confidence ratings were measured with visual analog scales after the tasks. With the exception of a weak association between cardioceptive accuracy and the respective confidence rating, no associations between and within modalities were found with respect to various dimensions of interoception. Further, the interoceptive dimensions were not associated with state and trait positive and negative affect and perceived body competence. In summary, interoceptive accuracy scores do not substantially contribute to conscious representations of cardioceptive and proprioceptive ability. Within our data, non-pathological affective states (PANAS) are not associated with the major dimensions of interoception for the cardiac and proprioceptive modalities.
... Although underlying heart-brain pathways remain unclear, systolic influences on per-527 ception and cognition have often been attributed to the phasic nature of cardio-afferent sig-528 nalling, which is triggered with the heartbeat (Koriath & Lindholm, 1986;Lacey & Lacey, 529 1974, 1978. More specifically, stretch-responsive baroreceptors located in arterial walls re-530 spond to transient pressure rises at each blood ejection and communicate the current cardi-531 ovascular state (i.e., the heartbeat's strength and timing) to the brain. ...
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Preprint
Perception and cognition oscillate with fluctuating bodily states. For example, visual processing has been shown to change with alternating cardiac phases. Here, we study the heartbeat’s role for active information sampling—testing whether humans implicitly act upon their environment so that relevant signals appear during preferred cardiac phases. During the encoding period of a visual memory experiment, participants clicked through a set of emotional pictures to memorize them for a later recognition test. By self-paced key press, they actively prompted the onset of shortly (100-ms) presented pictures. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiograms allowed us to analyse the self-initiated picture onsets relative to the heartbeat. We find that self-initiated picture onsets vary across the cardiac cycle, showing an increase during cardiac systole, while memory performance was not affected by the heartbeat. We conclude that active information sampling integrates heart-related signals, thereby extending previous findings on the association between body-brain interactions and behaviour.
... Historically, baroreceptor stimulation was generally considered to be inhibitory (Lacey & Lacey, 1970;Lacey & Lacey, 1978). In some domains, systolic cardiac signals indeed show inhibitory effects on perceptual and cognitive processing. ...
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Article
The sense of agency describes the experience of controlling one’s body to cause desired effects in the world. We explored whether this is influenced by interoceptive processes. Specifically, we investigated whether the sense of agency changes depending on where, in the cardiac cycle (systole or diastole), the action was executed and where the outcome of the action occurred. In two experiments, participants completed decision-making task to win/lose money. Explicit (ratings of control) and implicit (temporal judgement) measures of agency were differentially affected by cardiovascular state. Implicit agency scores were affected by the cardiac phase at the point of action execution. Explicit ratings of control were affected by the type of (free vs. instructed) and by outcome valence (win vs. lose). The time of the action was uniformly distributed across the cardiac cycle. These results show interoceptive impact on agency, but that cardiac cycle may affect explicit and implicit agency differently.
... Similar to referred pain in cardiac ischemia, cross-talk with cranial nerves at the cervical ganglions level or cross-talk through the transmission of impulse from spinal cord to the thalamus might have resulted in different presentation of symptoms as in the case of tinnitus or absence seizure [10,27,28]. Indeed, vagus nerve drives the afferent fibers of many visceral organs and is an integral part of this heart-brain system, which are connected bi-directionally due to the efferent outflow from the brain affecting the heart and the afferent outflow from the heart affecting the brain [29,30]. It is likely that symptoms such as nausea, abdominal pain, burning sensation or coldness, involuntary crying, speaking disability can be explained by vagus nerve mediated mechanism triggered by PSVT through the cross-talk of cardiac afferent nerves with cranial nerves or cervical ganglions during the propagation of impulses to thalamus. ...
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Article
Objective: Clinical presentation of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia may vary from asymptomatic occurrence or mild perception of palpitation to severe chest pain or syncope. This variation is the most challenging issue in the diagnostic evaluation of rhythm disturbances and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia as well. This study sought to evaluate the symptoms during the tachycardia attack or index event in patients who underwent electrophysiological study and ablation procedure. Methods: This retrospective study included 100 consecutive patients who underwent electrophysiological study and ablation procedures due to supraventricular tachycardia. Structural heart disease, moderate/severe valvular pathology, systemic pathologies, such as connective tissue disease and chronic obstructive lung disease, history of pacemaker implantation was defined as exclusion criteria. In addition, medically managed patients and patients with unsuccessful ablation were not included in the study. Results: Palpitation was the most frequently observed symptom in 84% of patients, followed by chest pain in 47%, dyspnea in 38%, syncope 26%, lightheadedness in 19%, and sweating in 18% of the patients. The most common symptoms after tachycardia event were fatigue and lightheadedness with frequencies of 56% and 55%, respectively. Forty-five percent of the patients reported more than one, unusually frequent urination within the following 1-3 hours after the index event. Conclusions: Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia might manifest itself as gastrointestinal, neurological, psychosomatic symptoms, and unusual complaints in association with or without main symptoms, including palpitation, chest pain, syncope, and dyspnea. Symptoms after tachycardia or index event should be questioned systematically.
... On this basis, one can predict that cardiac signals would enhance inhibitory control. Indeed a broad invocation of inhibitory processes across behavioural domains at cardiac systole has been asserted historically 22 . ...
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Article
Interoceptive signals concerning the internal physiological state of the body influence motivational feelings and action decisions. Cardiovascular arousal may facilitate inhibition to mitigate risks of impulsive actions. Baroreceptor discharge at ventricular systole underpins afferent signalling of cardiovascular arousal. In a modified Go/NoGo task, decisions to make or withhold actions on ‘Choose’ trials were not influenced by cardiac phase, nor individual differences in heart rate variability. However, cardiac interoceptive awareness and insight predicted how frequently participants chose to act, and their speed of action: Participants with better awareness and insight tended to withhold actions and respond slower, while those with poorer awareness and insight tended to execute actions and respond faster. Moreover, self-reported trait urgency correlated negatively with intentional inhibition rates. These findings suggest that lower insight into bodily signals is linked to urges to move the body, putatively by engendering noisier sensory input into motor decision processes eliciting reactive behaviour.
... There was increased interest in "slow breathing" techniques that were practiced in Eastern disciplines to control heart rate (Zaccaro et al., 2018). New anatomical discoveries and new phylogenetic and functional insights on the vagus in emotional behaviors gradually emerged between the 1960 and 1995 (Sokov, 1963;Lacey and Lacey, 1978). These found their synthesis in the Polyvagal Theory of Porges (1995Porges ( , 2011. ...
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Article
Modern scientific theories of emotional behavior, almost without exception, trace their origin to Charles Darwin, and his publications On the Origin of Species (1859) and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). The most famous dilemma Darwin acknowledged as a challenge to his theory of evolution through natural selection was the incomplete Sub-Cambrian fossil record. However, Darwin struggled with two other rarely referenced theoretical and scientific dilemmas that confounded his theories about emotional behavior. These included (1) the origin of social instincts (e.g., altruism, empathy, reciprocity and cooperation) and the reasons for their conservation in evolution and (2) the peripheral control of heart rate vis-à-vis emotional behavior outside of consciousness. Darwin acknowledged that social instincts are critical to the survival of some species, but had difficulty aligning them with his theory of natural selection in humans. Darwin eventually proposed that heart rate and emotions are controlled via one's intellect and cortical mechanisms, and that instinctive behavior is genetically programmed and inherited. Despite ongoing efforts, these two theoretical dilemmas are debated to this day. Simple testable hypotheses have yet to emerge for the biological mechanisms underlying instinctive behavior or the way heart rate is controlled in infants. In this paper, we review attempts to resolve these issues over the past 160 years. We posit that research and theories that supported Darwin's individualistic brain-centric and genetic model have become an "orthodox" Western view of emotional behavior, one that produced the prevailing behavioral construct of attachment as developed by John Bowlby. We trace research and theories that challenged this orthodoxy at various times, and show how these challenges were repeatedly overlooked, rejected, or misinterpreted. We review two new testable theories, emotional connection theory and calming cycle theory, which we argue resolve the two dilemmas We show emerging scientific evidence from physiology and a wide variety of other fields, as well from clinical trials among prematurely born infants, that supports the two theories. Clinical implications of the new theories and possible new ways to assess risk and intervene in emotional, behavioral and developmental disorders are discussed.
... A 74 similar effect has recently been observed for movement inhibition, with faster responses to stop 75 cues during systole 12 . These effects have been attributed to baroreceptors 13 . 76 ...
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Preprint
Previous research suggests that there may be a relationship between the timing of motor events and phases of the cardiac cycle. However, this relationship has thus far only been researched using simple isolated movements such as key-presses in reaction-time tasks and only in a single subject acting alone. Here, we investigated how the cardiac cycle relates to ongoing self-paced movements in both action execution and observation using a novel dyadic paradigm. We recorded electrocardiography (ECG) in 26 subjects who formed 13 dyads containing an action executioner and observer as they performed a self-paced sequence of movements. We demonstrated that heartbeats are timed to movements during both action execution and observation. Specifically, movements were more likely to culminate between heartbeats than simultaneously with the heartbeat. The same pattern was observed for action observation, with the observer's heartbeats occurring off-phase with movement culmination. These findings demonstrate that there is synchronicity between an action executioner's cardiac cycle and the timing of their movements, and that the same relationship is mirrored in an observer. This suggests that interpersonal synchronicity may be caused by the mirroring of a phasic relationship between movement and the heart.
... Changes in heart rate are often thought to be confined to emotions, pain, stress, and physical effort. It is worth emphasizing that nonemotional standard tasks, such as visual or auditory detection tasks (Lacey and Lacey, 1978;Bradley, 2009;Park et al., 2014;Raimondo et al., 2017), are associated with a precise and reproducible change in CCD. The functional imaging literature in humans has stressed the convergence of cognitive function and cardiac regulation in both the cingulate cortex (Critchley et al., 2003) and in the amygdalohippocampal region (Gianaros et al., 2004). ...
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Article
Stimulation and functional imaging studies have revealed the existence of a large network of cortical regions involved in the regulation of heart rate. However, very little is known about the link between cortical neural firing and cardiac-cycle duration (CCD). Here, we analyze single-unit and multiunit data obtained in humans at rest, and show that firing rate covaries with CCD in 16.7% of the sample (25 of 150). The link between firing rate and CCD was most prevalent in the anterior medial temporal lobe (entorhinal and perirhinal cortices, anterior hippocampus, and amygdala), where 36% (18 of 50) of the units show the effect, and to a lesser extent in the mid-to-anterior cingulate cortex (11.1%, 5 of 45). The variance in firing rate explained by CCD ranged from 0.5 to 11%. Several lines of analysis indicate that neural firing influences CCD, rather than the other way around, and that neural firing affects CCD through vagally mediated mechanisms in most cases. These results show that part of the spontaneous fluctuations in firing rate can be attributed to the cortical control of the cardiac cycle. The fine tuning of the regulation of CCD represents a novel physiological factor accounting for spontaneous variance in firing rate. It remains to be determined whether the “noise” introduced in firing rate by the regulation of CCD is detrimental or beneficial to the cognitive information processing carried out in the parahippocampal and cingulate regions.
... The exact pattern of cardiac changes is dependent on the type of affective stimuli. Specifically, cardiac deceleration is observed for 2-3 seconds after the onset of visual stimuli (e.g., Bradley et al., 2001) and is usually interpreted as part of the orienting response (Palomba, Angrilli, & Mini, 1997) and linked to the allocation of attention during "stimulus intake" (Lacey & Lacey, 1978). Cardiac acceleration is thought to be related to stronger affective responses and is observed in imagination and social tasks (e.g., Gollnisch & Averill, 1993). ...
Article
The term valence can refer to either the affective response (e.g., "I feel bad") or the semantic knowledge about a stimulus (e.g., "car accidents are bad"). Accordingly, the content of self-reports can be more "experience-near" and proxy to the mental state of affective feelings, or, alternatively, involve nonexperiential semantic knowledge. In this work we compared three experimental protocol instructions: feelings-focused self-reports that encourage participants to report their feelings (but not knowledge); knowledge-focused self-reports that encourage participants to report about semantic knowledge (and not feelings); and "feelings-naïve", in which participants were asked to report their feelings but are not explicitly presented with the distinction between feelings and knowledge. We compared the ability of the three types of self-report data to predict facial electromyography, heart rate, and electrodermal changes in response to affective stimuli. The relationship between self-reports and both physiological signal intensity and signal discriminability were examined. The results showed a consistent advantage for feelings-focused over knowledge-focused instructions in prediction of physiological response with feelings-naïve instructions falling in between. The results support the theoretical distinction between affective and semantic representations of valence and the validity of feelings-focused and knowledge-focused self-report instructions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Although underlying heart-brain pathways remain unclear, systolic influences on perception and cognition have often been attributed to the phasic nature of cardioafferent signaling, which is triggered with the heartbeat (Koriath & Lindholm, 1986;Lacey & Lacey, 1974, 1978. More specifically, stretch-responsive baroreceptors located in arterial walls respond to transient pressure rises at each blood ejection and communicate the current cardiovascular state (i.e., the heartbeat's strength and timing) to the brain. ...
Article
Perception and cognition oscillate with fluctuating bodily states. For example, visual processing has been shown to change with alternating cardiac phases. Here, we study the heartbeat's role for active information sampling—testing whether humans implicitly act upon their environment so that relevant signals appear during preferred cardiac phases. During the encoding period of a visual memory experiment, participants clicked through a set of emotional pictures to memorize them for a later recognition test. By self‐paced key press, they actively prompted the onset of short (100 ms) presented pictures. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiograms allowed us to analyze the self‐initiated picture onsets relative to the heartbeat. We find that self‐initiated picture onsets vary across the cardiac cycle, showing an increase during cardiac systole, while memory performance was not affected by the heartbeat. We conclude that active information sampling integrates heart‐related signals, thereby extending previous findings on the association between body‐brain interactions and behavior.
... The underlying mechanisms of HRV are complex. Lacey and Lacey [20] suggested that it is caused by sensory intake and sensory rejection. In addition, the parasympathetic nervous system responds quickly (< 1 s) to stimuli. ...
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Article
There are many tasks for which people need domain-specific skills learned through long-term practice. Many skill acquisition models have been proposed that include the mental states of the learners, but only few studies have tried to estimate mental states using objectively measured data. The purpose of this study was to experimentally investigate whether the status of the skill acquisition process could be estimated by physiological indices that indicate the learner's mental states. For this purpose, we conducted an experiment to obtain data on physiological indices and a subjective report of the feeling of difficulty during the skill acquisition task. As a result, we confirmed the relationship between the participant's statuses and the physiological indices. In addition, we classified the trials with the feeling of difficulty in the experiment using Support Vector Machine. As a result, the values of accuracy were over 0.65 when the data not used to calculate the SVM model were classified. We could show that the physiological indices are helpful clues to estimate the status of the skill acquisition process.
... This study suggests that using HR to measure arousal could be misleading. Previous research on media violence has generally interpreted increased HR as higher arousal, perhaps because of the traditional view that arousal increases physiological responses overall (Lacey & Lacey, 1978). However, this study found lower SC and faster HR during violent games compared to during non-violent games overall. ...
... We observed that pulse time parameters (T, T1 and T2) had no significant correlation (p>0.05) with baPWV. This result was in agreement with those reported by previous studies describing that those time parameters were mainly determined by the condition of the heart function within one cardiac cycle, not the arterial stiffness change [Lacey and Lacey (1978)]. As for T3, it was the time difference between the pulse wave of upper and lower limbs. ...
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Article
For patients with type 2 diabetes, the evaluation of pulse waveform characteristics is helpful to understand changes in arterial stiffness. However, there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of pulse waveform parameters. Here, we aimed to investigate the changes in pulse waveform characteristics in patients with type 2 diabetes due to increased arterial stiffness. In this study, 25 patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 healthy subjects were selected based on their clinical history. Age, height, weight, blood pressure, and pulse pressure were collected as the subjects' basic characteristics. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was collected as an index of arterial stiffness. Parameters of time [the pulse wave period (T), the relative positions of peak point (T1) and notch point (T2), and pulse wave time difference between upper and lower limbs (T3)] and area [the total waveform area (A), and the areas of the waveform before (A1) and after (A2) the notch point] were extracted from the pulse wave signals as pulse waveform characteristics. An independent sample t-test was performed to determine whether there were significant differences between groups. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to determine the correlations between pulse waveform parameters and baPWV. There were significant differences in T3, A, A1, and A2 between the groups (p<0.05). For patients with type 2 diabetes, there were statistically significant correlations between baPWV and T3, A, A1, and A2 (p<0.05). This study quantitatively assessed changes in arterial pulse waveform parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. It was demonstrated that pulse waveform characteristics (T3, A, A1, and A2) could be used as indices of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes.
... Research has also suggested that the brain and the heart are connected bidirectionally due to the efferent outflow from the brain affecting the heart and the afferent outflow from the heart affecting the brain [14,15]. The Vagus is an integral part of this heart-brain system [16], and HR-related measures (e.g. ...
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Article
Background The experience of psychological stress has not yet been adequately tackled with digital technology by catering to healthy individuals who wish to reduce their acute stress levels. For the design of digitally mediated solutions, physiological mechanisms need to be investigated that have the potential to induce relaxation with the help of technology. Research has shown that physiological mechanisms embodied in the face and neck regions are effective for diminishing stress-related symptoms. Our study expands on these areas with the design for a wearable in mind. As this study charts new territory in research, it also is a first evaluation of the viability for a wearables concept to reduce stress. Objective The objectives of this study were to assess whether (1) heart rate variability would increase and (2) heart rate would decrease during cold stimulation using a thermode device compared with a (nonstimulated) control condition. We expected effects in particular in the neck and cheek regions and less in the forearm area. Methods The study was a fully randomized, within-participant design. Volunteer participants were seated in a laboratory chair and tested with cold stimulation on the right side of the body. A thermode was placed on the neck, cheek, and forearm. We recorded and subsequently analyzed participants’ electrocardiogram. The cold stimulation was applied in 16-second intervals over 4 trials per testing location. The control condition proceeded exactly like the cold condition, except we manipulated the temperature variable to remain at the baseline temperature. We measured heart rate as interbeat intervals in milliseconds and analyzed root mean square of successive differences to index heart rate variability. We analyzed data using a repeated-measures ANOVA (analysis of variance) approach with 2 repeated-measures factors: body location (neck, cheek, forearm) and condition (cold, control). Results Data analysis of 61 participants (after exclusion of outliers) showed a main effect and an interaction effect for body location and for condition, for both heart rate and heart rate variability. The results demonstrate a pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to cold stimulation, suggesting an increase in cardiac-vagal activation. The effect was significant for cold stimulation in the lateral neck area. Conclusions The results confirmed our main hypothesis that cold stimulation at the lateral neck region would result in higher heart rate variability and lower heart rate than in the control condition. This sets the stage for further investigations of stress reduction potential in the neck region by developing a wearable prototype that can be used for cold application. Future studies should include a stress condition, test for a range of temperatures and durations, and collect self-report data on perceived stress levels to advance findings.
... Moreover, the cardiac afferent activity from pressure-sensitive neurons in the heart, carotid arteries, and the aortic arch [70] seems to primarily modulate cognitive functions (such as sensory-motor and perceptual performance) as revealed by the heart-brain interaction studies by John and Beatrice Lacey [71]. Their research focused on activity occurring within a single cardiac cycle, and they confirmed that the cardiovascular activity influences perception and cognitive performance [72]. ...
Chapter
The heart can be viewed not just as muscle pump but also as an important checkpoint for a complex network of nervous, endocrine, and immune signals. The heart is able to process neurological signals independently from the brain and to crosstalk with the endocrine and immune systems. The heart communicates with the psyche through the neuro-endocrine-immune system in a highly integrated way, in order to maintain the homeostasis of the whole body with peculiarities specific to males and females. © 2018, Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature.
Article
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Organizational neuroscience—a novel scholarly domain using neuroscience to inform management and organizational research, and vice versa—is flourishing. Still missing, however, is a comprehensive coverage of organizational neuroscience as a self-standing scientific field. A foundational account of the potential that neuroscience holds to advance management and organizational research is currently a gap. The gap can be addressed with a review of the main methods, systematizing the existing scholarly literature in the field including entrepreneurship, strategic management, and organizational behavior, among others.
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This thesis sets out to understand how biological systems deal with uncertainty. In particular, it investigates the relation between mind and body as understood in philosophy and cognitive science, and the way perception, action, and thought are adaptively co-ordinated in order to cope with complex environmental dynamics.
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Based on the notion that the body is perceived as a unitary object, this chapter summarizes the bottom-up aspects of interoception in the broader sense (aka somatovisceral afference). It describes the homeostatic (visceral) and somatosensory pathways from the receptors to the major cortical centers, as well as the major levels of integration. The evolutionary theory by Craig on the development of body feelings in primates is also presented. Further, the neural correlates of affective feelings, i.e., core subjectivity, as well as recent neurocognitive approaches to the development of the doer/knower aspect of the self are described. The processes presented in this chapter are dominantly non-conscious, i.e., not directly related to body sensations. From the viewpoint of adaptation, the position of body-related information is complex. On the one hand, internal cues catching attention can distract us from more important external information and overload our limited attentional capacity. On the other hand, certain signals indicate the necessity of behavioral steps for the maintenance of homeostasis, thus their appearance in conscious awareness cannot be avoided. These signals have become marked with positive or negative affect (pleasure or displeasure) in the course of natural selection.
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In dieser Arbeit wurde die Herzratenvariabilität (HRV), das Interbeat-Intervall (IBI) sowie die Beziehung zwischen HRV und IBI bei gesunden Probanden, bradykarden Patienten mit einer Mutation im hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4-(HCN4) Gen sowie Patienten mit einer Anorexie nervosa (AN) untersucht. Die Haupthypothese lautete, dass die bei Patienten mit AN oft zu beobachtenden Bradykardien durch neurale Mechanismen verursacht werden. Daher wurde angenommen, dass ein Sättigungseffekt der HRV/IBI Beziehung infolge einer anhaltenden parasympathischen Kontrolle des Sinusknotenareals lediglich bei Patienten mit einer AN nachzuweisen ist. In dieser Arbeit konnte ein Sättigungseffekt der HRV/IBI-Beziehung bei Patienten mit einer Anorexia nervosa sowie bei zwei von vier Patienten mit einer HCN4-Mutation nachgewiesen werden. Bei Kontrollen konnten hingegen kaum Zeichen eines Sättigungseffekts der HRV/IBI Beziehung nachgewiesen werden. Es wurde daher geschlussfolgert, dass ein Sättigungseffekt der HRV/IBI Beziehung keine parasympathisch-vermittelte Bradykardie beweist. Es zeigt sich vielmehr, dass die Regulation des HCN4-Gens für die Bradykardie und den festgestellten HRV-Sättigungseffekt bei Patienten mit einer AN verantwortlich sein könnte.
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Background: Smartphones are often vilified for negatively influencing well-being and contributing to stress. However, these devices may, in fact, be useful in times of stress and, in particular, aid in stress recovery. Mobile apps that deliver evidence-based techniques for stress reduction, such as heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) training, hold promise as convenient, accessible, and effective stress-reducing tools. Numerous mobile health apps that may potentially aid in stress recovery are available, but very few have demonstrated that they can influence health-related physiological stress parameters (eg, salivary biomarkers of stress). The ability to recover swiftly from stress and reduce physiological arousal is particularly important for long-term health, and thus, it is imperative that evidence is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of stress-reducing mobile health apps in this context. Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of using a smartphone app for HRVB training following a stressful experience. The efficacy of the gamified Breather component of the Happify mobile health app was examined in an experimental setting. Methods: In this study, participants (N=140) underwent a laboratory stressor and were randomly assigned to recover in one of three ways: with no phone present, with a phone present, with the HRBV game. Those in the no phone condition had no access to their phone. Those in the phone present condition had their phone but did not use it. Those in the HRVB game condition used the serious game Breather on the Happify app. Stress recovery was assessed via repeated measures of salivary alpha amylase, cortisol, and self-reported acute stress (on a 1-100 scale). Results: Participants in the HRVB game condition had significantly lower levels of salivary alpha amylase during recovery than participants in the other conditions (F2,133=3.78, P=.03). There were no significant differences among the conditions during recovery for salivary cortisol levels or self-reported stress. Conclusions: These results show that engaging in a brief HRVB training session on a smartphone reduces levels of salivary alpha amylase following a stressful experience, providing preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of Breather in improving physiological stress recovery. Given the known ties between stress recovery and future well-being, this study provides a possible mechanism by which gamified biofeedback apps may lead to better health.
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Behavioral adaptations during performance rely on predicting and evaluating the consequences of our actions through action monitoring. Previous studies revealed that proprioceptive and exteroceptive signals contribute to error-monitoring processes, which are implemented in the posterior medial frontal cortex. Interestingly, errors also trigger changes in autonomic nervous system activity such as pupil dilation or heartbeat deceleration. Yet, the contribution of implicit interoceptive signals of bodily states to error-monitoring during ongoing performance has been overlooked. This study investigated whether cardiovascular interoceptive signals influence the neural correlates of error processing during performance, with an emphasis on the early stages of error processing. We recorded musicians’ electroencephalography and electrocardiogram signals during the performance of highly-trained music pieces. Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies revealed that pitch errors during skilled musical performance are preceded by an error detection signal, the pre-error-negativity (preERN), and followed by a later error positivity (PE). In this study, by combining ERP, source localization and multivariate pattern classification analysis, we found that the error-minus-correct ERP waveform had an enhanced amplitude within 40–100 ms following errors in the systolic period of the cardiac cycle. This component could be decoded from single-trials, was dissociated from the preERN and PE, and stemmed from the inferior parietal cortex, which is a region implicated in cardiac autonomic regulation. In addition, the phase of the cardiac cycle influenced behavioral alterations resulting from errors, with a smaller post-error slowing and less perturbed velocity in keystrokes following pitch errors in the systole relative to the diastole phase of the cardiac cycle. Lastly, changes in the heart rate anticipated the upcoming occurrence of errors. This study provides the first evidence of preconscious visceral information modulating neural and behavioral responses related to early error monitoring during skilled performance.
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1. We have investigated the effects of stimulating carotid sinus baroreceptors upon the activity of single cortical pyramidal tract cells (PT-cells) in anaesthetized cats.2. Extracellular potentials were recorded from PT-cells, which were driven orthodromically (1/sec) by stimulating thalamic nuclei (N. ventralis lateralis, N. ventralis posterolateralis) or afferent nerves in the contra-lateral forepaw. Baroreceptors were stimulated by inflating small balloons placed in the bifurcations of one or both common carotid arteries.3. Distension of the carotid sinus caused a prolonged depression of the orthodromically evoked discharge of eighteen of thirty-two PT-cells, the effect ranging from a 15% reduction in firing to complete cessation of activity (average reduction, 39%). The depression of firing outlasted the period of balloon inflation by an average of 85 sec; in some experiments inhibition persisted for as long as 2-3 min.4. Inflation of the balloon caused a reflex fall in arterial pressure (mean decrease, 29 mmHg), pressure reverting to the control level as soon as the balloon was deflated. Single fibre recording from the carotid sinus nerve confirmed that stimulation was confined to baroreceptors and that carotid chemoreceptors were unaffected by balloon distension.5. Depression of PT-cell activity could not be explained simply by a fall in cerebral blood flow resulting from the reflex fall in arterial blood pressure. When a comparable or greater degree of hypotension was produced by bleeding or peripheral vagal stimulation, PT-cell firing fell in a third of experiments but reverted immediately to the control level when arterial pressure was restored. Thus some factor other than a decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure was responsible for the prolonged inhibition evoked by carotid sinus distension.6. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that baroreceptor input to the reticular formation exerts an ascending influence on cortical mechanisms, with prolonged inhibitory effects comparable to those previously demonstrated at spinal level.
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Stimulation of vago-aortic nerve afferent fibers produces a dimunution in the efficiency of synaptic transmission of somatic afferents in the cuneate nucleus in cats anesthetized with chloralose. These inhibitory effects are seen in the reduction in the amplitude of evoked activity in the cuneate nucleus and in the medial lemniscus. The inhibition is accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of the antidromic wave recorded in the superficial radial nerve, thus indicating that the inhibitory effects caused by vago-aortic nerve stimulation seem to be of a presynaptic origin.
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The effect of the timing of discrete bursts of efferent vagal impulses on heart rate was determined in anesthetized dogs. Two modes of stimulation were employed. In the first mode, one stimulus burst was delivered per cardiac cycle. As the time from the beginning of the P wave to the vagal stimulus (P-St interval) was progressively increased, there was first a progressive lengthening of the cardiac cycle (P-P interval), then a rapid decrease in P-P interval, and finally a gradual augmentation of the P-P interval. The amplitudes of curves of P-P interval as a function of P-St interval increased as the number of stimuli per burst was augmented, with 10 stimuli/burst yielding nearly maximal effects. Vagal stimuli applied at P-St intervals which coincided with the negative-slope (d(P-P)/d(P-St)) region of such curves tended to evoke sinus arrhythmias. With 5 stimuli/burst or more, these arrhythmias were pronounced and consisted of alternate short and long P-P intervals. In the second mode of stimulation, bursts of stimuli were delivered to the vagus nerve at a frequency independent of heart rate. The cardiac pacemaker tended to become synchronized in some fixed ratio of vagal stimuli to P waves, and this tendency became greater the larger the number of stimuli per burst of impulses. Within any range of synchronization, a paradoxical effect was manifest—increasing frequencies of vagal stimulation produced increasing rather than decreasing heart rates.
Article
Experiments were conducted to see if the observations reported by Perkel and associates could be extended to the cardiac pacemaker. In anesthetized cats and rats, the pacemaker responded to regularly spaced vagal stimuli in simple frequency ratios over appreciable ranges of frequency; within these ranges, increase in vagal frequency caused increase in pacemaker rate. Between the ranges, response was orthodox. Vagal or sympathetic decentralization extended stable zones, reserpine pretreatment reduced them.The point in the electrocardiographic cycle at which the stimulus fell during a period of fixed ratio changed predictably. This change accorded with and is explained by the effect of individual stimuli, arriving at different times in relation to the P wave, on the sinus pacemaking rate.Fixed ratios, but no ranges, were demonstrated with sympathetic stimulation.Dual innervation may serve to prevent paradoxical responses, and monitoring of pacemaking may play a physiologic part in determining frequency in nerves controlling the pacemaker.
Article
In the anesthetized, open-chest dog, electrical stimulation of the cardiac ends of the transected cervical vagus nerves produced effects on heart rate and A-V transmission that were dependent upon the P-St interval, i.e., the-time from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the stimulus. When one vagal stimulus was delivered per cardiac cycle, the pacemaker response curve (curve of the P-P interval as a function of the P-St interval) was sinusoidal in configuration, with a maximum at a P-St interval of 135 msec and a minimum at 349 msec. The mean P-P interval was 568 msec, and the mean amplitude of the pacemaker response curve was 58 msec. In any given experiment, the range of P-P intervals encompassed by the pacemaker response curve defined a range of frequencies over which S-A nodal rhythm became synchronized with the activity in the vagus nerves. Over such a range, increases in the frequency of vagal stimulation evoked paradoxical increases in heart rate. On either side of this range of synchronization, vagal stimulation elicited pronounced rhythmic oscillations of P-P and P-R intervals. The frequency of such oscillations was equal to the difference between the vagal stimulation frequency and the mean heart rate. The oscillations in P-R interval were approximately 180° out of phase with the oscillations in P-P interval.
Psychophysiological approaches to the evalu-ation of psychotherapeutic process and outcome Somatic response patterning and stress: Some revisions of activation theory
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New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts The visceral level: Situational determinants and behavioral correlates of autonomic response patterns Expression of the emotions in man Some autonomic-central nervous system interrelationships Physiological correlates of emotion
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