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Two experiments examined the relation between mindfulness practice and cognitive rigidity by using a variation of the Einstellung water jar task. Participants were required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount of water. Initial problems were solvable by the same complex formula, but in later problems ("critical" or "trap" problems) solving was possible by an additional much simpler formula. A rigidity score was compiled through perseverance of the complex formula. In Experiment 1, experienced mindfulness meditators received significantly lower rigidity scores than non-meditators who had registered for their first meditation retreat. Similar results were obtained in randomized controlled Experiment 2 comparing non-meditators who underwent an eight meeting mindfulness program with a waiting list group. The authors conclude that mindfulness meditation reduces cognitive rigidity via the tendency to be "blinded" by experience. Results are discussed in light of the benefits of mindfulness practice regarding a reduced tendency to overlook novel and adaptive ways of responding due to past experience, both in and out of the clinical setting.
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‘‘Mind the Trap’’: Mindfulness Practice Reduces Cognitive
Jonathan Greenberg*, Keren Reiner, Nachshon Meiran
Department of Psychology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
Two experiments examined the relation between mindfulness practice and cognitive rigidity by using a variation of the
Einstellung water jar task. Participants were required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount of water.
Initial problems were solvable by the same complex formula, but in later problems (‘‘critical’’ or ‘‘trap’’ problems) solving
was possible by an additional much simpler formula. A rigidity score was compiled through perseverance of the complex
formula. In Experiment 1, experienced mindfulness meditators received significantly lower rigidity scores than non-
meditators who had registered for their first meditation retreat. Similar results were obtained in randomized controlled
Experiment 2 comparing non-meditators who underwent an eight meeting mindfulness program with a waiting list group.
The authors conclude that mindfulness meditation reduces cognitive rigidity via the tendency to be ‘‘blinded’’ by
experience. Results are discussed in light of the benefits of mindfulness practice regarding a reduced tendency to overlook
novel and adaptive ways of responding due to past experience, both in and out of the clinical setting.
Citation: Greenberg J, Reiner K, Meiran N (2012) ‘‘Mind the Trap’’: Mindfulness Practice Reduces Cognitive Rigidity. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36206. doi:10.1371/
Editor: Leonardo Fontenelle, Institute of Psychiatry at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Received November 20, 2011; Accepted April 2, 2012; Published May 15, 2012
Copyright: ß2012 Greenberg et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: The work was partly supported by a research grant to the third author from the Israel Science Foundation. The funders had no role in study design,
data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. No additional external funding received for this study.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
* E-mail:
Experience may blind us from recognizing obvious solutions to
problems. Research shows that physicians and health care
professionals are likely to overlook the correct diagnosis in cases
which do not match their experience [1]. Similar findings have
been reported concerning difficulties in reframing clinical situa-
tions as experienced by healthcare professionals [2,3], and
difficulties of managers and decision makers in replacing existing
procedures with new, improved and simpler ones [4]. This
‘‘blinding’’ to novel solutions may be considered a form of
cognitive rigidity, which has commonly been defined as a resistance
to change in beliefs, attitudes or personal habits [5], or the
tendency to develop and perseverate in the use of mental or
behavioral sets [6].
Such cognitive rigidity may play a key role in psychopathlogy
(for reviews see [6,7], see also [8]). It has been closely linked to the
inability of suicidal individuals to consider alternatives that may be
accessible to another person [9,10], as well as to rumination,
a major risk factor of depression [11]. Similar forms of cognitive
rigidity were also indicated in obsessions [12,13], alcohol de-
pendence [14], eating disorders [15], and Attention Deficit
Disorder [16–20]. In this paper, we propose that mindfulness
meditation may provide a means of decreasing the aforementioned
type of cognitive rigidity.
Mindfulness is a term which has developed from early eastern
traditions and has been commonly defined as "paying attention in
a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment and non-
judgmentally’’ [21]. Although some have directly linked mindful-
ness to a practice of meditation (e.g. [22–24]), others (e.g. [25–27])
have referred to it as rather independent from meditation practice.
Mindfulness has additionally been described as a theoretical
construct, a psychological process [28], and a trait (see [29,30] for
a recent discussion of discrepancies between various definitions of
mindfulness). Nevertheless, mindfulness has been commonly
claimed to involve regulation of the focus of attention towards
the current experience, a willingness to come in contact with and
be receptive to experience rather than avoid it or cope by means of
repression, and to involve adopting a ‘‘beginners mind’’ and seeing
things in a ‘‘fresh’’ way [31]. These last attributes of mindfulness in
particular seem to potentially immune one from being blinded by
Mindfulness has received a great deal of empirical attention
over the last three decades, and various psychotherapeutic
techniques based on mindfulness have been developed (e.g.
[22,32,33]). Mindfulness based interventions have been shown to
alleviate symptoms of a variety of clinical conditions such as
suicidal ideation and manic symptoms [34], relapse reduction in
recurrent major depression (see [35–37] for recent reviews),
rumination ([38,39] see [40] for differential effects of mindfulness
on adaptive and maladaptive rumination), addictions and sub-
stance use disorders [41,42], eating disorders (see [43] for a review),
generalized anxiety [44], obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
[32], and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [45].
Interestingly, many of the disorders which benefit from mindful-
ness mediation are also characterized by some form of rigidity,
suggesting that the efficacy of mindfulness may perhaps be
mediated by reduced rigidity.
In addition to studying mindfulness as a form of therapeutic
intervention, there has been a growing body of research over the
last years examining various cognitive abilities related to mindful-
PLoS ONE | 1 May 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 5 | e36206
ness, most of which focusing on various measures of attention and
memory (see [46] for a review). Only few studies have directly
addressed the relation between mindfulness and cognitive flexibility
or rigidity. Although some studies did not find differences between
meditators and non-meditators in rigidity related tasks (e.g [47,48]),
others have found that meditators exhibit decreased Stroop
interference [49,50](in a Zen meditation sample). The Stroop task
requires participants to name the ink color in which color words are
written. The interference reflects automaticity with regards to the
fact that participants cannot avoid reading the words. This inability
to flexibly adapt to novel and non-habitual task requirements may
be taken as evidence for inflexibility. Along the same line, other
studies found that meditators exhibit superior visual perspective
switching on a multiple perspective images task [51], exhibit
superior verbal fluency [52,53], and perform better than controls
on a category production task [54] and the Hayling task, requiring
participants to complete sentences with unrelated and nonsensical
words [53]. Mindfulness meditators have also been shown to
exhibit reduced rumination compared to controls [38–40], which
may also be related to reduced rigidity as reflected in the adoption
of repetitive thought patterns concerning distressing symptoms,
their causes and implications [55].
Importantly, none of the aforementioned tasks tap the tendency
to be ‘‘blinded’’ by experience, and overlook simple, obvious novel
solutions to a given problem, which is what we studied in this
work. To this end, we adopted the water jar paradigm developed
by Luchins [56]. We had chosen this task over other measures of
rigidity since it directly captures the notion of missing obvious
adaptive solutions that lie right ‘‘under the nose’’ due to being
caught up in learned and repetitive thought patterns. Further-
more, this particular form of rigidity seems most relevant to
mindfulness meditation, which is said to involve relating to the
present situation with decreased reliance on former knowledge and
experience [57]. The water jar paradigm was designed to measure
the Einstulling effect, a term used to describe rigid thought patterns
formed through experience which prevents identifying more
adaptive approaches and solutions. In this task, participants are
required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount
of water. Initial problems are solvable by the same complex
formula, but in later ‘‘critical’’ problems a much simpler formula is
also appropriate. In these trials, experience is said to comprise
a ‘‘trap’’ which may result in overlooking the simple formula. A
rigidity score is compiled, reflecting the degree of perseverative use
of the complex formula. Since mindfulness is said to be
characterized by focusing on the present moment with a ‘‘begin-
ners’ mind’’, we hypothesize that mindfulness experience would
result in lower rigidity scores. This hypothesis was examined in
two studies. Experiment 1 compared a sample of experienced
mindfulness meditators with a comparison group of people who
had taken an active interest in mindfulness and had registered to
a mindfulness retreat, yet at the time of assessment did not have
any formal meditation experience. We chose this group in an
attempt to match meditators inclinations and personality char-
acteristics. In Experiment 2, we compared two, randomly assigned
groups of non-meditators: a group who underwent eight sessions of
structured mindfulness training and a waiting list group, before
and after mindfulness training of the mindfulness group.
Experiment 1
Participants. The experienced meditation group was com-
posed of 14 mindfulness (Vipassana, [29]) meditators (7 males,
mean age = 37.29, SD = 8.44), having minimum meditation
experience of three years (M= 8.54 years, SD = 4.39) and
practicing regularly (M= 3.20 hours per week, SD = 2.26). Data
regarding experience were available for all but two experienced
meditators. The control group, from here on referred to as the
Pre-meditation group, was composed of 21 individuals (8 males,
mean age = 31.24, SD = 10.29) with no meditation experience,
who had registered for their first meditation retreat. Participants
were recruited via poster ads and telephone through a mindfulness
meditation (Vipassana) association in Israel. There was no
significant difference between groups in age [t(25) = 0.88, ns] nor
in gender (p= .36, Fisher’s exact test). Self reported Psychometric
Entrance Test (PET) score, the Israeli equivalent of the SAT
scores, served to assess the equivalence of the groups in academic
abilities. PET scores have previously been found to highly
correlate (r = 0.81) with scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Scale-Revised [58]. A PET equivalent score was calculated for two
participants who had not taken the PET, via a regression model
provided by Oren (Personal communication 6.11.2010) for the
average high school matriculation exam score, based on a sample
of 65,000 students studying in academic institutions, data of which
can be found at the Israeli National Institute for Testing and
Education (NITE). Six participants from the pre-meditators group
and two from the meditators group were unable to report PET or
matriculation exam data. Meditators (M= 656.91, SD = 52.79) did
not significantly differ in their academic abilities as assessed by the
PET score from pre-meditators [M= 689.27, SD = 68.37;
t(23) = 1.34, ns]. All participants were offered a mindfulness
related book as compensation for attendance. The experiment had
received approval from the psychology department’s ethics
committee in Ben-Gurion University.
Measures. Water jar task: A computerized version of the task
was administered using E-Prime (Psychological Software Tools,
Inc.), with problems adapted both from Luchins [56] and Schultz
and Searman [59] (see Table 1). Participants viewed three jars
onscreen marked A, B, and C with numbers indicating their size,
and a target cup indicating the goal to obtain. Participants were
instructed to obtain the goal amount of water by adding or
subtracting the jars given in each problem, while applying the
simplest and shortest solution.
Participants inserted their solution by toggling between the
‘‘add’’ and ‘‘subtract’’ options and typing the number of jars
desired to be added or subtracted in the adjacent textbox beneath
each jar (see Figure 1 for an example translated from Hebrew to
English). Participants were provided with scrap paper and a pen to
assist in calculations. After verifying that participants compre-
hended instructions and mastered onscreen navigation, partici-
pants were given an example question and were encouraged to ask
questions. Once solved correctly, the experimenter left the room
and participants independently solved the presented problems.
The first trials were set trials, solvable by the formula B-A-2C, in
which participants were required to add one B jar, subtract one A
jar, and subtract 2 C jars (e.g. obtaining 100 units of water with
jars the capacity of 21, 127, and 3 units by performing
1272212323 = 100). Once 6 out of the maximum of 10 set
trials were correctly solved, participants were presented with 3
critical trials, solvable both by the complex B-A-2C formula and by
a simple formula: either A+C or A-C (e.g. obtaining 18 units of
water with jars the capacity of 15, 39, and 3 units by performing
15+3 = 18, as opposed to using the more complex formula -
392152323 = 18). Participants were then presented with two
extinction trials, solvable only with the simple formula. Participants
were instructed not to spend more than 5 minutes on each
problem. One rigidity point was given for each critical or
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extinction trial solved using the complex formula, and for each
extinction trial exceeding a cutoff of 60 seconds solving time.
Exclusion from analyses criteria included the use of fractions
rather than whole jar numbers, correctly utilizing the ascribed
complex solution on less than six ‘‘set’’ trials, and performing any
calculation errors or applying alternative novel solutions (which
were evidently possible in a few of the problems) on the two final
‘‘set’’ trials prior to critical trials, as well as on critical trials. These
were assured in order to facilitate and standardize both mental set
formation prior to critical trials, and rigidity score compilation.
Procedure. Participants entered a room containing a com-
puter. They signed an informed consent form, and then carried
out the water jar task. At the end of the experiment participants
had answered a few demographic questions regarding age,
psychometric exam score, and meditation experience. At the end
of the session participants were debriefed.
Experiment 2
Participants. Seventy six individuals with no former medi-
tation experience were recruited via poster ads hung around Ben-
Gurion University campus and email ads sent to all university
students, offering a free mindfulness program for those participat-
ing in two experimental sessions. The program was due to start in
two possible dates several months apart. Exclusion criteria
included people with learning disabilities and non-native Hebrew
speakers, due to the mathematical and lingual nature of the tasks,
as well as people with previous meditation background. Following
the first experimental session, participants were randomly assigned
to a Mindfulness meditation group (N = 38) intended to partake in
the first program and a waiting list (control) group (N = 38)
intended to partake in the second program. No significant
differences were found between groups in Age [M= 25.45,
SD = 2.56 for meditators, M= 26, SD = 2.5 for controls,
t(74) = 0.95, ns], gender (13 male meditators, 15 male controls,
p= .41, Fisher’s exact test), nor in academic abilities as measured
by PET scores [M= 662.97, SD = 62.22 for meditators,
M= 672.66, SD = 57.37 for controls, t(74) = 0.70, ns]. Demo-
graphic characteristics of participants included in baseline analysis
are depicted in Table 2.
Measures. Alphabet-maze: Since the water jar task may lose
much of its efficacy if administered in both experimental sessions
(due to previous exposure to short solutions on extinction trials), it
had been administered only in the second session, after
mindfulness training of the mindfulness group. Initial differences
in Einstellung rigidity between groups had been assessed in the
first experimental session using a task similar in structure to the
water jar task, the Alphabet-Maze task, which is described in detail
by Cowen [60]. A Hebrew version of this task was administered
via a computer using E-Prime software. An array of Hebrew letters
appeared onscreen. Participants were told that the object of the
task is to move from upper-left corner of the maze to the bottom-
right corner, spelling out words as they go along (the original
direction of the English task has been reversed since Hebrew is
written from right to left). Once a word has been spelled,
participants may move in any direction (up, down, right, left or
diagonally) to spell the following word. Words must be at least 3
letters long. As with the water jar task, instructions encouraged
solving rather quickly, yet strongly emphasized that the goal was to
reach the end via the shortest and most direct solution, using as
few letters as possible. After solving two example questions and
verifying comprehension of instructions, participants were pre-
sented with six set trials, solvable by a long solution (a down-right
diagonal movement, followed by a straight down movement, and
finally directly to the right). Once solved, participants had written
on paper the words taking them from start to end, and pressed the
space bar to continue to the following trial. The next four trials
were critical (also named trap or crucial trials), solvable by both the
long solution and a short solution (a straight diagonal path for the
Table 1. Water Jar Problems in Both Studies.
Experiment 1 Experiment 2
Trial Type Jar A Jar B Jar C
Goal to
obtain Jar A Jar B Jar C
Goal to
obtain Shortest Solution
Example 29 3 0 20 29 3 0 20 A-3B
Set 31 61 12 6 31 61 12 6 B-A-2C
Set 22 57 10 15 22 57 10 15 B-A-2C
Set 18 59 16 9 18 59 16 9 B-A-2C
Set 20 67 13 21 20 67 13 21 B-A-2C
Set 22 57 10 15 22 57 10 15 B-A-2C
Set 24 52 3 22 21 127 3 100 B-A-2C
Set 19 42 3 17 18 43 10 5 B-A-2C
Set 21 127 3 100 24 52 3 22 B-A-2C
Set 18 43 10 5 19 42 3 17 B-A-2C
Set 14 163 25 99 14 163 25 99 B-A-2C
Critical 18 48 4 22 18 48 4 22 A+C
Critical 15 39 3 18 15 39 3 18 A+C
Critical 23 49 3 20 23 49 3 20 A2C
Critical – – – – 7 16 2 5 A2C
Extinction 14 39 8 6 14 39 8 6 A2C
Extinction 13 37 5 18 13 37 5 18 A+C
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upper-left to the lower-right corners). Finally, two extinction trials
were presented, solvable only by using the short solution. Rigidity
scoring was identical to that of the water jar task, i.e. one rigidity
point given for each critical or extinction trial solved using the
complex formula, and for each extinction trial exceeding a solving
time of 60 seconds. A few problems were evidently solvable by
more than one solution. Data were considered valid if at least 4 out
of the 6 set trials were solved in the intended method, and no
alternative solutions were applied in critical trials nor in the two
final set trials.
Water jar task: Task was similar to that described in Experiment
1, with a few modifications. Task programming was modified to
prevent the possibility of continuing to the next trial if the current
one was mathematically incorrect, and order of a few set trials was
modified to postpone trials more prone to be given alternative
solutions. Both modifications were applied in order to maximize
mental set constitution and minimize invalid or unscorable data by
preventing the application of mathematically incorrect solutions
and minimizing as much as possible the number of solutions other
than the intended ones. Additionally, number of critical trials was
Figure 1. Illustration of computer display on critical trial (English version). Following instructions to apply the shortest and simplest
solution, participants entered the desired number of jugs of each type in the dialog box at the bottom, and toggled between the ‘‘add’’ and
‘‘subtract’’ options to reach the target amount specified on the right.
Table 2. Demographic characteristics of participants in Experiment 2.
Controls Meditators
Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max
Gender 69% Women 69% Women
Age 25.50 2.74 20 35 26.06 2.63 20 33
88% under-grad Under-grad PhD 88% under-grad Under-grad PhD
PET Score 674.43 57.61 567 783 660.38 654.79 480 763
Rigidity score
at session 1
3.50 2.00 0 6 2.78 2.09 0 6
Data consists of the 32 participants in each group with valid rigidity scores in Session 1.
Mindfulness Reduces Cognitive Rigidity
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increased from 3 to 4 (See Table 1) in order to enhance the
reliability and hence the statistical power.
Mindfulness Program. The mindfulness program was de-
veloped in Be’er-Sheva’s Mental Health Center, based on the
Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy program [33] with
adaptations to include handling general stress and everyday
difficulty rather than contents limited to depression. The program
was conducted over a period of six weeks, and consisted of seven 2
hour group sessions, and an additional half day retreat at the end
of the fifth week. During each session the instructor guided the
participants through different meditations including breathing
meditation, body scan, open awareness meditation, walking
meditation and compassion meditation. A detailed description of
the instructions provided for the different meditations is presented
in Table 3. Each session additionally included different awareness
exercises, stories and group discussions to allow a broader
understanding of mindfulness principles, and provide the partic-
ipants with opportunities to share their meditation experiences.
Daily home practice of formal meditation of at least 20 minutes
was required, as well as informal daily mindfulness practice in
which participants attend to regular daily activities in a mindful
manner. Audio CD’s with meditation instructions were provided
to facilitate home practice. Additionally, participants received
a daily email notification directing them to an online diary for
filling a report of their daily home practice. During the half day
retreat participants practiced different formal meditations in
silence, with no exercises or group discussions. The program was
led by one of the authors (KR), a trained mindfulness based
therapy instructor and psychologist, with a personal mindfulness
meditation experience of over ten years. The instructor was blind
to the hypothesis of the experiment.
Procedure. In the beginning of each of the two experimental
sessions, participants signed an informed consent form. In Session
1 they then performed the Alphabet-maze task. Participants were
then randomly assigned to groups. The randomization procedure
involved using the ‘‘random’’ function in Python programming
language to assign half of the participants to each group by
participant number. Session 2 took place near the end of the
mindfulness program. Participants completed a Competitor Rule
Suppression task (CRS) [61], which does not involve Einstellung
rigidity and will not be discussed in the current paper. They then
completed the water jar task.
Experiment 1
Six participants of the Pre-meditation group and two partici-
pants from the experienced meditation group met exclusion
criteria and were excluded from the main analysis. Due to our
directional hypothesis concerning rigidity scores, we had per-
formed one-tailed tests on both studies, although almost all
differences reach a two-tailed significance level. As hypothesized,
experienced mindfulness meditators (M=1.17, SD = 1.75) attained
significantly lower rigidity scores than pre-meditators [M= 2.93,
SD = 2.02; t(25) = 2.40, p= .01, g
= 0.19; Post hoc power,
calculated by GPower software [62] = 0.78]. The effect increased
considerably once Age and PET scores had been added as
a Covariates to the analysis in a one way ANOVA [F(1,16) = 9.81,
p,.01, g
= 0.38; Post hoc power = 0.96]. Group differences in
rigidity scores remained significant after we had performed the
comparison on all 35 original participants (14 experienced
meditators, 21 pre-meditators), including those who had met the
exclusion from analyses criteria as specified in the Method section,
in order to insure that group differences were not accounted for by
the exclusion criteria [t(33) = 2.42, p= .01, g
= 0.15; Post hoc
power = 0.77].
Since there was a certain degree of arbitrariness in determining
the time cutoff for extinction trials in calculating rigidity scores, we
re-calculated rigidity scores using various alternative solving time
cutoffs for extinction trials (60, 90, 120 seconds). The significant
group differences in rigidity scores remained in all t-tests (minimal
t= 2.40, p= .01, g
= 0.15; Post hoc power = 0.67).
Experiment 2
Since correlation between rigidity scores of the alphabet-maze
and the water jar task was low and non-significant (r =.10, ns)
results from these tasks are hereby reported separately.
Table 3. Instructions for the various meditations in the mindfulness program.
Instructions Meditation
Participants were asked to sit still with their eyes closed and focus their attention on the sensations of their breath. Whenever they
noticed that their attention wandered off from their breath they were asked to observe the object of their attention
in the present moment, whether it is a thought, an emotion or a sensation, without judgment
or reaction, and then bring their attention gently back to the breath.
Breathing meditation
Participants were asked to sit still with their eyes closed and focus their attention on bodily sensations in different parts of their body,
according to the given instructions. When they noticed that their attention had wandered off from the sensations in the specified
body part they were asked to observe the object of their attention in the present moment without judgment or reaction, and then
bring their attention gently back to the sensation in the specified body part.
Body scan meditation
Participants were asked to sit still with their eyes closed and focus their attention on different qualities of the present moment,
for example, sounds, smells, body sensations and the breath. When they noticed that their attention had wandered off from the
present they were asked to observe the object of their attention without judgment or reaction, and then bring their attention
gently back to the present moment.
Open awareness
Participants were asked to sit still with their eyes closed and think of someone they care about. Participants were then asked to wish
that this person will be free from suffering, distress or loss, and will experience joy, peace and love. Participants were asked to do
the same for someone they did not know well, for someone with whom they have a conflict, and for themselves.
Compassion meditation
Participants were asked to walk slowly and silently, and notice the different segments and sensations of walking. When they noticed
that their attention had wandered off from walking, they are asked to stand still and notice where their attention is at the
present moment, without judgment or reaction and then bring their attention gently back to the present moment
and resume the walking.
Walking meditation
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Alphabet-maze. Data from six participants of each group
were excluded due to meeting exclusion criteria (see Measures
section). No significant differences were found in initial rigidity
scores between the mindfulness group (M= 2.78, SD = 2.09) and
the waiting list group [M= 3.50, SD = 2.00; t(62) = 1.41, ns; Post
hoc power = 0.40]. This lack of group differences in initial rigidity
scores remained after additionally excluding participants who did
not take part in the second experimental session [t(55) = 1.21, ns;
Post hoc power = 0. 27], and participants who were excluded from
the main analysis of the water-jar task [t(45) = 1.44, ns; Post hoc
power = 0.33]. Thus, groups were statistically equivalent in initial
rigidity scores.
Water-Jar Task. Four participants from each group chose
not to participate in the second experimental session, and are
therefore missing water-jar task data. Water jar data were
excluded from two additional meditators who attended less than
four program meetings. Nine participants (3 meditators) met water
jar exclusion criteria (see Experiment 1). Two additional
participants of each group were excluded from main water-jar
analyses, one who reported being familiar with the task and its
objective, and three others failed to properly comprehend jar
usage instructions. Thus, data on main analyses are reported from
27 meditators and 26 controls.
In accordance with our hypothesis, following the mindfulness
program, the mindfulness group (M= 2.19, SD = 2.09) received
significantly lower rigidity scores than the waiting list group
[M= 3.42, SD = 2.18; t(51) = 2.11, p,.02, g
= 0.08; Post hoc
power = 0.67]. This effect slightly increased in a one way ANOVA
in which Age and PET scores were added as Covariates to the
analysis [F(1,49) = 6.28, p,.01, g
= 0.11; Post hoc power = 0.81 ].
In the latter analysis, a main effect was found for PET scores, with
higher rigidity scores attributed to those with low PET scores
[F(1,49) = 5.76, p,.05], indicating that academic ability is
negatively related to Einstellung rigidity. Group differences in
rigidity scores remained significant in a similar ANOVA which
included the nine participants who had met the water jar task
exclusion criteria specified in Experiment 1, the participant who
was familiar with the task, and the two participants who
participated in less than four meetings [F(1,61) = 4.24, p=.02,
= 0.07; Post hoc power = 0.70], verifying that the effect is not
due to exclusion criteria. A series of t-tests comparing groups’
rigidity scores using various cutoff times for extinction trials
(60,90,120 seconds) revealed that group differences remained
significant on all cutoff times (minimal t= 1.88, p= .03, g
= 0.07;
Post hoc power = 0.63).
Mindfulness meditation has been described as involving
adoption of a ‘‘beginner’s mind’’ and ‘‘being in the present
moment’’ [31]. We therefore hypothesized that mindfulness may
reduce cognitive rigidity and immune one from being ‘‘blinded’’
by past experience, as measured by the Einstellung water jar task.
In Experiment 1, as hypothesized, following repetitive experience
with a complex problem solving method, experienced mindfulness
meditators were less blinded by experience and were better able
than pre-meditators to identify the simple novel solution. In
Experiment 2, similar results were obtained following mindfulness
training in which participants were randomly assigned to
mindfulness training vs. waiting list groups. These findings lend
support to the notion that mindfulness involves cultivation of
a ‘‘beginner’s mind’’, and demonstrate that mindfulness practice
reduces cognitive rigidity via the tendency to overlook simple
novel solutions to a situation due to rigid and repetitive thought
patterns formed through experience.
The present findings coincide with previous findings in which
meditators outperformed non-meditators in tasks such as verbal
fluency [52,53], and visual perspective switching [51], in the
respect of exhibiting an improved ability to generate varied
responses to the same stimuli following mindfulness practice.
Findings of the current study also coincide with previous findings
indicating that meditators may exhibit decreased interference in
the Stroop [49,50] and Hayling [53] tasks in the sense of decreased
automatic and habitual responding following mindfulness practice.
Our findings additionally converge with findings regarding
decreased rumination [38–40] in the sense of a reduction in
repetitive and perseverative negative thoughts (see [63] for
a discussion regarding such repetitive thinking). Findings of the
current study bear novel contributions to the existing literature
firstly by demonstrating that reductions in such rigid repetitive
thinking patterns following mindfulness practice are evident
regardless of thought valence or specific content and therefore
reflect reduction in cognitive rigidity rather than a specific
reduction in rigid ruminative content. Note that the measures of
verbal fluency, visual perspective switching, Stroop, and Hayling
tasks mentioned above, measure the ability to overcome over-
learned habits rather than repetitive thinking patterns which have
just been formed as does the Water jar task. An additional and
central novel contribution of this study regards the increased
ability to identify and utilize simple novel yet obvious solutions
despite having experienced a successful, albeit complex approach
in the recent past. Interestingly, the benefit of mindfulness was not
restricted to years of experience and was found even following
a six-week intervention.
Individuals suffering from depression and particularly those at
suicidal risk tend to exhibit a narrowing of perceived options and
difficulty in considering alternatives, a tendency which may prove
fatal [64]. A similar narrowing of thought and difficulty in
considering alternatives often occurs in instances of alcohol use
and abuse. This phenomenon has been termed ‘‘alcohol myopia’’,
and has been found to facilitate extreme social responses [65,66].
Although in need of future examination, it is tentatively suggested
in light of the current results that reductions in such ‘‘blindness’’ to
alternatives due to rigid thought patterns may (partly) underlie the
efficacy of mindfulness in treatment of the above conditions
Additional implications of the current findings may regard other
common situations, clinical as well as non-clinical, in which
individuals may be rigidly ‘‘blind’’ to adaptive solutions or
alternative courses of action due to previous experience. As
illustrated in the beginning of this paper, overlooking the correct
clinical diagnosis often occurs in cases that seem familiar but do
not actually match clinicians’ past experience [1]. Mental health
professionals often have difficulty in offering new perspectives and
reframing the situation after having repeatedly heard their clients’
impressions [2,3], and that managers and decision makers in
organizations often experience trouble replacing existing proce-
dures with more adaptive ones [4]. Findings of the current study
suggest that mindfulness training may be useful in these and
similar cases.
A number of methodological limitations should be considered
regarding the present studies. Sample size, particularly in
Experiment 1, was relatively small, due to the difficulty in
reaching and recruiting the relevant populations. In Experiment
2, we compared a mindfulness intervention group with a waiting
list group. This comparison enables the examination of the
effects of a mindfulness intervention program as a whole rather
Mindfulness Reduces Cognitive Rigidity
PLoS ONE | 6 May 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 5 | e36206
than the effects of specific components within the intervention
such as experiencing intervention. A third limitation concerns the
water jar task. One of the main merits of this task is its
examination of the tendency to overlook novel yet obvious
solutions due to experience. This merit, however, also encom-
passes a shortcoming of the task, which is the fact that it may
only be efficiently administered once. While this prevented
examination of performance on the same task pre and post
intervention, the equivalent performance on a task similar in
structure at baseline level and the random assignment to groups
practically resolves this shortcoming.
Future research may examine rigidity related effects that are
specific to mindfulness interventions. This may be done by
comparing mindfulness with active control groups and other
intervention programs. A second direction for future research
involves investigating the relationship between the effects of
mindfulness training on the Einstellung effect and salient clinical
outcomes in various forms of psychopathology. This may both
extend the validity of the water jar task, a rigidity measure
previously examined primarily in healthy individuals [6], to
include rigidity in psychopathology, and may allow making more
clearly established clinical implications than could have reached in
the current study.
Author Contributions
Conceived and designed the experiments: JG KR NM. Performed the
experiments: JG KR. Analyzed the data: JG NM. Contributed reagents/
materials/analysis tools: JG KR NM. Wrote the paper: JG KR NM.
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... Several studies have already suggested that mindfulness facilitates cognitive deautomatization in certain experimental situations (Wenk-Sormaz, 2005;Chan and Woollacott, 2007;Moore and Malinowski, 2009;Lachaud et al., 2022). Furthermore, mindfulness training has also been shown to reduce the Einstellung effect (Greenberg et al., 2012) (i.e., being unable to find a better solution when one already seems to be working; Luchins, 1942), another piece of evidence of cognitive de-automatization through the practice of mindfulness. This suggests that mindfulness could increase CRT scores by generating more deliberate responses. ...
... . . Participants Greenberg et al. (2012) reported that a sample size of 35 participants was required to observe a large effect size in a comparison between a mindfulness-trained group and a control group. Thus, 36 participants were recruited to participate in an 8-week MBSR training (11 males and 25 females, Age = 43; SD = 9.8). ...
... Given the small groups (from 8 to 10 participants) in the training programs of this instructor, two rounds of recruiting were carried out, each containing two sessions. Similarly to Greenberg et al. (2012), participants in each round were randomly assigned to either the first training session, corresponding to the post-MBSR condition (N = 10, Age = 44.9, SD = 7.2, and N = 8, Age = 44.3, ...
Full-text available
Initially, dual-process theories suggested that the existence of two different cognitive systems explained why many participants do not find the correct answer in many reasoning tasks. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is one such task. It contains three questions with incorrect answers (typically associated with intuition and thus system 1 which processes information automatically) and correct answers (typically associated with deliberate thinking and thus system 2 which involves the conscious processing of information). More recent theories suggest system 1 is responsible for both incorrect and correct responses, with system 2 being used to resolve the conflict between these different intuitions. Since mindfulness training improves self-regulation and cognitive flexibility, we believe it could improve CRT scores by reducing the relative weight of initial intuitions by strengthening alternative intuitions, thus increasing the probability of triggering deliberate reasoning. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 36 participants, all registered in the same Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training. Of those 36 participants, 18 answered the CRT before the training and 18 answered it after 8 weeks of training. Results show that participants who followed MBSR training had better CRT scores than those without training. This is coherent with our hypothesis that mindfulness training could reduce the relative weight of initial intuitions and facilitate deliberate thinking.
... This practice has five core components that have been influential in its incorporation into Western psychology, including present-focused awareness, acceptance and openness, a non-judging approach, compassion for self and others, and the transformative energy of mindfulness (Bishop et al., 2004;Coffey et al., 2010;Lindsay & Creswell, 2017). These components serve various psychological benefits, such as reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression and improving emotional regulation (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Desrosiers et al., 2014;Greenberg et al., 2012;Teper et al., 2013). While mindfulness emphasises present-centred, open awareness, non-attachment-especially non-attachment to self-focuses on releasing the need to control experiences (Whitehead et al., 2018). ...
Non-Attachment to Self (NAS), rooted in Eastern philosophy, promotes mental well-being by encouraging a mindful awareness of one's thoughts, emotions, and self-perception. NAS might positively influence relationship satisfaction by promoting emotional regulation and reducing ego-centric thinking. While mindfulness-closely related to NAS-has been widely studied, the specific role of NAS in relationship satisfaction remains underexplored. This study aimed to explore the mediating influence of NAS on the relationship between the Big Five Personality Traits and relationship satisfaction. The study, administered to a cohort of 96 participants, employed Mediation Analysis, t-tests, and correlational analyses to evaluate primary and additional variables, such as age, length of the relationship, and geographic proximity between partners. Contrary to expectations, NAS was found to have a direct, significant, and positive effect on relationship satisfaction but did not act as a mediating variable between personality traits and relationship satisfaction. Limitations of the study include a modest sample size, gender imbalances, and a cross-sectional design. Nonetheless, the research constitutes a pioneering integration of Eastern philosophical principles, like NAS, with Western empirical methodologies, like the Big Five Personality Traits. This integrative approach enhances the understanding of relationship dynamics and opens avenues for future interdisciplinary research. The study provides valuable insights into the field of the psychology of close relationships and introduces culturally nuanced, effective strategies for therapeutic intervention. As a robust foundational framework, the research aims to stimulate more comprehensive academic discourse and inspire meaningful societal changes.
... Specifically, mindfulness enhances people's ability to "step back" from a limiting initial framework when searching for solutions to problems (Kudesia, 2015;Teng & Lien, 2022). This is an important reason why mindfulness is positively associated with insight problem-solving (e.g., Greenberg, Reiner, & Meiran, 2012;Lebuda, Zabelina, & Karwowski, 2016;Ostafin & Kassman, 2012). Because the resolution of these problems requires this process of stepping back and breaking down the framework. ...
Full-text available
Previous studies on mindfulness and creativity have focused on the beneficial effects of mindfulness on concentration. However, few have explored this from the perspective of psychological resources. Based on resource conservation theory, this study focuses on the positive psychological functions of mindfulness and how they complement the psychological resources depleted in the performance of creativity. Thus, guaranteeing the completion of creativity‐related activities. We used a three‐time lag design and analyzed reports from 404 employees and 85 supervisors to explore the impact of employees' mindfulness on their creativity and the chain‐mediating role of psychological capital and creative process engagement in the relationship between the two. The results indicated that employees' mindfulness can influence their creativity not only directly but also through the mediation of just creative process engagement as well as through the chain mediation of psychological capital and creative process. The findings revealed the psychological mechanisms through which employees' mindfulness impacts their creativity, providing a scientific basis for exploring how to effectively enhance employees' creativity and dissipating the doubts raised about the current widespread use of mindfulness in organizations.
... As a result, the ability to observe has been related to an increase in cognitive flexibility and is more strongly linked to creativity than the other Mindfulness abilities (Valentine & Sweet, 1999). Consequently, observation has been associated with increased cognitive flexibility (Chambers et al., 2009;Slagter et al., 2007), ease in applying alternative approaches to complex problems (Greenberg et al., 2012), and inhibition of automatic responding (Schmertz et al., 2009). In the present research, we investigated more deeply the relationship between different Mindfulness skills and creativity. ...
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Objectives Research on the effects of meditation practice on creativity performance is a new and promising area of research. Although this field is still young, there are already enough studies showing a correlation between Mindfulness training and improvements in creativity, especially in the field of organizational psychology. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of a 6-week Mindfulness-based intervention in improving creativity in organizations' workers. Method For this longitudinal study, a 6-week specific protocol was used with a group of workers at the Polytechnic University of Catalunya, (n = 10). At the beginning of the training, the subjects were tested in Mindfulness and creativity using, respectively, the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and Crea tests. After the six sessions, the group was tested again. Results The analysis of the Crea test results showed an improvement in the subjects' creative skills: On the first test, the mean total score was 573, and on the second test it was 694. Therefore, we can confirm that Mindfulness increases creativity; however, this improvement was observed only in the female subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of different aspects of Mindfulness on creativity and noted that the aspect of observation, (the ability to pay close attention to and carefully observe sensations, thoughts, and emotions) and the aspect of observation, (the ability to distance oneself from what is happening in the attentional field without instantly reacting to the stimulus), yielded better results in our research.
... While many of the previous research findings support that MBIs would be beneficial to engineering design, mindfulness research in this field is almost nonexistent. Yet, prior mindfulness research in other fields has found many improvements in aspects critical to engineering design like improved executive function (Zeidan et al. 2010), lower cognitive rigidity (Greenberg, Reiner & Meiran 2012) and greater attention (Zeidan et al. 2010;Norris et al. 2018). Specifically, in engineering design, students perceived benefits from a brief mindfulness intervention that induced a small increase in students' decentering, which is one aspect of students' state mindfulness (Nolte, Huff & McComb 2022a). ...
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Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for engineering design are promising for their stress management, cognition and well-being benefits. Prior work concluded that engineering design is stressful and that each engineering design stage has unique stressors. This non-randomized study investigated the effect of an MBI on students’ cognitive stress and final design creativity during a multistage, hands-on design assessment. Data were collected using surveys, project deliverables and follow-up interviews. While no significant increase was found in students’ measured state mindfulness due to the intervention, students in the MBI condition were more likely to perceive the intervention positively compared to students in the control condition (alternative use tasks). Students in both conditions were found to have similar levels of state stress, which indicates that the MBI had no observable effect on students’ measured stress during design. Although students in the MBI condition were found to produce higher-quality final designs, there were no differences in design creativity or novelty. When data were clustered to identify types of student experiences, state mindfulness was found to meaningfully contribute, but state stress was not. Future research should continue to investigate MBIs in engineering design as a potential approach to improve design education and outcomes.
... Elements of behavioral activation, including the identification of how and when rumination occurs, the potential triggers of rumination, its possible function, behavioral experiments (e.g., limiting future exposure and practicing alternative habits in response to such cues), and the devising of specific plans to remove or replace the ruminative thoughts, have been identified to facilitate intervention outcomes [34]. In addition, mindfulness-based cognitive therapies (MBCTs) have also been used to reduce rigid repetitive thinking [179,180], aiming to disengage and redirect individuals' attention from automatic ruminative content to their stream of conscious bodily experiences [181,182]. It has also been noted that supplementing attentional training with CBT can further enhance cognitive flexibility [183], which may be useful for reducing rumination. ...
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Rumination and its related mental phenomena share associated impairments in cognition, such as executive functions and attentional processes across different clinical conditions (e.g., in psychotic disorders). In recent decades, however, the notion of rumination has been increasingly narrowed to the “self-focused” type in depressive disorders. A closer review of the literature shows that rumination may be construed as a broader process characterized by repetitive thoughts about certain mental contents that interfere with one’s daily activities, not only limited to those related to “self”. A further examination of the construct of rumination beyond the narrowly focused depressive rumination would help expand intervention opportunities for mental disorders in today’s context. We first review the development of the clinical construct of rumination with regard to its historical roots and its roles in psychopathology. This builds the foundation for the introduction of the “Flow Model of Rumination (FMR)”, which conceptualizes rumination as a disruption of a smooth flow of mental contents in conscious experience that depends on the coordinated interactions between intention, memory, affect, and external events. The conceptual review concludes with a discussion of the impact of rapid technological advances (such as smartphones) on rumination. Particularly in contemporary societies today, a broader consideration of rumination not only from a cognition viewpoint, but also incorporating a human–device interaction perspective, is necessitated. The implications of the FMR in contemporary mental health practice are discussed.
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Human performance applications of mindfulness-based training have demonstrated its utility in enhancing cognitive functioning. Previous studies have illustrated how these interventions can improve performance on traditional cognitive tests, however, little investigation has explored the extent to which mindfulness-based training can optimise performance in more dynamic and complex contexts. Further, from a neuroscientific perspective, the underlying mechanisms responsible for performance enhancements remain largely undescribed. With this in mind, the following study aimed to investigate how a short-term mindfulness intervention (one week) augments performance on a dynamic and complex task (target motion analyst task; TMA) in young, healthy adults (n = 40, age range = 18 - 38). Linear mixed effect modelling revealed that increased adherence to the mindfulness-based training regime (ranging from 0-21 sessions) was associated with improved performance in the second testing session of the TMA task, controlling for baseline performance. Further analyses of resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) metrics and additional individual factors demonstrated enhancements associated with training adherence remained relatively consistent across varying levels of participants’ resting-state EEG metrics, personality measures (i.e., trait mindfulness, neuroticism, conscientiousness), self-reported enjoyment and timing of intervention adherence. Our results thus indicate that mindfulness-based cognitive training leads to performance enhancements in distantly related tasks, irrespective of several individual differences. We also revealed nuances in the magnitude of cognitive enhancements contingent on the timing of adherence, regardless of total volume of training. Overall, our findings suggest that mindfulness-based training could be used in a myriad of settings to elicit transferable performance enhancements.
The present study investigated whether physical cleansing can reduce the mindset effect in problem-solving in two experiments. Both experiments followed the same procedure. In the first stage, participants formed a mindset through the Luchins' water-jar task (Experiment 1) or the idiom maze task (Experiment 2). The second stage is cleansing manipulation. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to clean their hands with wipes (cleansing condition) or examine the packaging of the wipes (no-cleansing condition). In Experiment 2, participants were asked to watch a washing-hands video (cleansing condition) or watch an examining-pen video (no-cleansing condition). At last, all participants completed the mindset effect test problems. The results showed that the participants in the cleansing condition were less affected by the mindset than those in the no-cleansing condition, indicating that physical cleansing reduced the mindset effect. Our results provide new evidence for the clean-slate effects and support the hypothesis that physical cleansing is an embodied process of psychological separation.
The present paper investigates investor decision-making from a psychological standpoint and explores the role of consciousness and mindfulness on investors’ analytical ability and investment efficacy. A comprehensive survey instrument including sub-scales of different behavioural constructs is administered to 222 individual investors. We find evidence supporting the positive influence of cognitive capability on investment efficacy. The findings also suggest that mindfulness reliably mediates consciousness to cause an effect on cognitive capability. Higher cognitive capability will manifest in the form of detailed analysis and interpretation of available information and improve stock selection, asset allocation, and market timing, thus increasing investment efficacy. A mindful investor can mitigate negative stimuli, emotional turmoil, dilemmas and distress in stock trading in a far more superior way to mediate consciousness for higher cognitive capability. The implications of the study indicate that consciousness and mindfulness-based interventions may facilitate making the investors stronger to manage difficult times and perform a careful rational assessment to eventually become successful investors.
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Yoga é uma prática originada na Índia, cuja palavra deriva do sânscrito “yuj”, que significa “unir” ou “integrar” e esta prática é associada a uma série de benefícios para o ser humano, e diante disso, este estudo visou realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sistemática sobre a Yoga em prol do sistema nervoso com uma abordagem multiprofissional, e assim apresentar experiências e técnicas desenvolvidas pelos autores. Estudos científicos comprovaram a eficácia do Yoga para o tratamento da ansiedade, depressão, Diabetes Mellitus do tipo 2 com neuropatia e até mesmo para manter a integridade genômica nos telômeros, evitando o dano oxidativo ao DNA e retardando o envelhecimento celular. Tais estudos ratificam a necessidade de protocolos para a Yoga como terapia já que a prática está cada vez mais distorcida a partir de ideias de fitness e estética precisando de procedimentos de conduta para não se tornar excludente ou nociva frente a questões de mobilidade. Neste estudo trazemos como referência a metodologia de ensino de yoga para adultos Kaiut Yoga que é baseada nos princípios da Yoga tradicional com foco em mobilidade, tônus muscular e reconexão nervosa, porém, possuindo um conjunto de posturas e sequências terapêuticas específicas e fixas, facilitando a percepção de progresso e resultado. Em cima disso definiremos NeuroYoga e também traremos os benefícios de tal prática, como: a melhoria da plasticidade cerebral; a redução da rigidez cognitiva; a modulação do sistema nervoso autônomo; o aprimoramento na conectividade cerebral e o aumento da atividade cerebral em áreas específicas, e com isso proporemos a anamnese multiprofissional como forma de estudar possíveis resultados da prática de yoga de maneira sistêmica.
Recent neuropsychological models of attention predict that the wavelength (color) of a stimulus will affect processing in the dorsal neural stream, which is believed to mediate key attentional operations. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was administered to attention-disordered and normal children. The test was administered in four color conditions: blue, red, gray, and white. Short wavelength (blue) stimuli and gray stimuli enhanced attentional operations in both subject groups.
Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el grado de efi cacia clínica de los tratamientos psicológicos basados en la atención plena (minfulness) para tratar síntomas asociados a los tras-tornos de ansiedad y/o depresión, a partir de la revisión sistemática de trabajos relevantes existen-tes en la literatura científi ca. De un total de 1.450 referencias bibliográfi cas detectadas, se selec-cionaron 15 estudios que cumplían los criterios de selección defi nidos. El análisis sistemático de estos estudios parece indicar que las intervenciones terapéuticas basadas en la atención plena re-sultan moderadamente efi caces en la reducción de síntomas de depresión y ansiedad y, dado que estas intervenciones se pueden llevar a cabo en grupo, podrían ser un coadyuvante signifi cativo en el abordaje de tales síntomas. No obstante, hacen falta más estudios aleatorizados y con grupos de control adecuados para establecer con claridad la efi cacia de este tipo de tratamientos. Palabras clave: Mindfulness; atención plena; depresión; ansiedad; revisión sistemática. Effectiveness of mindfulness based treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders: A systematic review Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the degree of clinical effi cacy of mindfulness based treatments in the treatment of anxiety and/or depressive disorders, from a systematic review of relevant studies in the scientifi c literature. From a total of 1,450 references identifi ed, 15 studies met the selection criteria. Systematic analysis of these studies showed that interventions based on Mindfulness, using a group format and structured exercises, were moderately effective in reducing depressive and anxious symptoms. Given that mindfulness based treatments can be administered in group format, they can be an important co-adjuvant in treating such symptoms. Nevertheless, more randomized studies with controls are needed to clearly establish the effi cacy of this kind of treatments.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic, pervasive disorder for which we have yet to develop sufficiently efficacious interventions. In this article we propose that recent research and theory regarding this disorder supports the integration of acceptance-based treatments with existing cognitive-behavioral treatments for GAD to improve the efficacy and clinical significance of such approaches. The bases for this proposal (from both the GAD and the acceptance-based treatment literature) are reviewed, and a new treatment stemming from this conceptual integration is described.