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Abstract

Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inflammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, flatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientific in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species.
A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea.
1Saeidnia S., *1Gohari AR., 1Mokhber-Dezfuli N, 2Kiuchi F.
1
Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato-ku,
Tokyo 105-8512, Japan.
Received 30 Apr 2011; Revised 2 July 2011; Accepted 2 July 2011
ABSTRACT
Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout
the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of
this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inammation, pains, spasmodic
diseases, atulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have
revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on
the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants
are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the
phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of
various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientic in vitro, in
vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad
range of secondary active metabolites such as avonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids
(monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently
reported from Achillea species.
Keywords: Achillea, Asteraceae, Bioactive compounds.
DARU Vol. 19, No. 3 2011
Correspondence: goharii_a@tums.ac.ir
INTRODUCTION
The genus Achillea L. belongs to Asteraceae
(Compositae), the largest family of vascular plants.
Asteraceaeous plants are distributed throughout the
world and most common in the arid and semi-arid
regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes.
Achillea contains around 130 owering and perennial
species and occurs in Europe and temperate areas
of Asia and a few grow in North America. These
plants typically have hairy and aromatic leaves and
at clusters of small owers on the top of the stem.
Since these owers have various colors, a number
of species are popular garden plants (1-4). The
basic chromosome number of this genus is X=9 and
most of the species are diploid with great ecological
ranges from desert to water-logged habitats (5).
The name of Achillea is referred to the Achilles in
the literary Trojan War of the Iliad who used yarrow
to treat the soldiers’ wounds (6). The majority of the
Achillea species are as the medicinal plants which
have therapeutic applications (4). There are few
review papers on the different aspects of Achillea
as a noteworthy and medicinal genus. Recently, Si
and co-authors (7) published a review article mainly
about the structures of phytochemical constituents
and a brief section of biological properties of
Achillea (7). Literature reviews show that there are
many reports on pharmacological, immunological,
biological and other therapeutic activities of these
valuable herbs which are reviewed in this article.
Traditional usages
Since Achillea genus is widespread all over the
world, its species have been used by local people
as folk or traditional herbal medicines. Bumadaran
is a popular name for several species of Achillea in
Persian language. They are reported as tonic, anti-
inammatory, anti-spasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic
and emmenagogic agents and have been used for
treatment of hemorrhage, pneumonia, rheumatic
pain and wounds healing in Persian traditional
literature (8, 9).
In Spanish-speaking New Mexico and southern
Colorado, A. millefolium L. is called plumajillo, or
“little feather”, because of the shape of the leaves.
Native Americans and early settlers used yarrow
for its astringent qualities that made it effective in
wound healing and anti-bleeding (10).
Achillea species are the most important indigenous
economic plants of Anatolia. Herbal teas prepared
from some Achillea species are traditionally used
for abdominal pain and atulence in Turkey (11).
Dioscorides also used Achillea for dysentery, whether
associated with cholera or other causes, which killed
173
Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea 174
as many soldiers as did steel and lead. In terms of
Chinese medicine, Achillea can be said to have three
main actions: clear Exterior Wind (diaphoretic),
Tonify Deciency (tonic) and clear Heart Phlegm
(anti-hypertention) (12).
Many of these therapeutic usages have been
conrmed by new experimental and clinical studies.
The consumption of herbal teas from different
species of Achillea, especially for treatment of the
gastrointestinal tract, is common in folk medicine
(13). However, there are still several unknown
aspects of Achillea plants that need more attention.
Phytochemical constituents
Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species
have revealed that many components from this
genus are highly bioactive. The rst anti-spasmodic
avonoids, cynaroside I and cosmosiin II (Scheme
1) were isolated from A. millefolium L. (14), and the
rst natural proazulene, achillicin III (Scheme 2) was
identied from the genus Achillea (15). Literature
search shows that the, avonoids, terpenoids,
lignans, amino acid derivatives, fatty acids and
alkamides such as p-hydroxyphenethylamide IV
(Scheme 2) have been identied in Achillea species.
The main constituents of the most species have been
previously reviewed (7). Therefore, in this article
some other minor or rare compounds and especially
their medicinal or industrial usages which have
been less described are reviewed. Among them
,alkamides, the lipophilic and nitrogen containing
compounds, are responsible for insecticide, anti-
inammation and some immunological activities
of Achillea and Echinacea plants (16). The genus
Achillea comprises avored species which produce
intense essential oils. The volatile oils of Achillea
contain monoterpenes as the most representative
metabolites. However, there are reports on high levels
of sesquiterpenes compared with monoterpenes
(17, 18). There are several pharmacological actions
which have been mostly attributed to the presence of
azulenogenous sesquiterpene lactones in the essential
oil of Achillea. Results of studies have indicated that
tetraploid species are accumulating proazulenes
such as achillicin III (Scheme 2) (19). Except for
the essential oil constituents, yarrow (A. tenuifolia
Lam.) seeds consist of the high oil content which
is rich in linoleic acid, an essential polyunsaturated
fatty acid. This makes yarrow seed as a potential
source of edible oil for human consumption (20).
Recently, A. millefolium has been introduced as a
new source of natural dye for wool dyeing due to the
presence of the avonoids, luteolin V and apigenin VI
(Scheme 1). A. millefolium was found to have good
agronomic potential as a natural dye in Iran (21). In
the plant kingdom, hydroxycinnamoyl conjugates
of quinic acid represent common end metabolites
of the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway, and
feruloylcaffeoylquinic acid derivates VII have been
isolated only from two species of genus Achillea so
far (22). From the aerial parts of Achillea species,
proline VIII, stachydrine IX, betonicine X, betaine
XI and choline XII have been isolated as the major
nitrogen containing compounds (Scheme 2) (23,
24). Betaines, containing the permanent positive
charge on the quaternary ammonium moiety,
belong to an important class of naturally occurring
compounds that function as compatible solutes or
osmoprotectants (25). These compounds have shown
immunosuppressive activity in the experimental
animals (26, 27).
Medicinal properties of Achillea species
Wound healing activity
Nowadays, the traditional usage of medicinal
plants for wound healing has received attention by
the scientic community (28). Wound healing is a
complex process characterized by homeostasis, re-
epithelization, and granulation tissue formation and
remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Medicinal
plants may affect various phases of the wound
healing process, coagulation, inammation and
broplasia (29). Aqueous extract of the owers of A.
kellalensis Boiss. & Hausskn., applied topically, has
shown signicant wound healing activity in rats. The
wound sizes of the test compared to control groups
were reduced faster (30).
Protective activity
The protective activity of natural antioxidants in
biological systems has received attention. Some
medicinal plants have proved free radical scavenging
or antioxidant activities (31). The infusions of
Achillea species were tested on antioxidant enzyme
systems of erythrocytes and A. falcata L. was the
most effective one against CAT (catalase), GPx
(glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide
dismutase) enzyme systems of erythrocytes. Among
the plant infusions, highest activities on leucocyte
enzymes were by A. crithmifolia Waldst. & Kit. and A.
nobilis L. subsp. neilrechii on CAT, by A. millefolium
subsp. pannonica on SOD, by A. teretifolia Willd.
on GPx and by A. nobilis subsp. sipylea on LPO
(lactoperoxidase). Therefore, Achillea species may
be of potential sources of natural antioxidants for
treatment or prevention of related diseases (32).
The inuence of the extracts of A. alexandri-regis
Bornm. & Rudsky on hydroxyl and superoxide
radicals’ quantity in different in vitro systems have
been determined. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited
hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in all tested
biological systems (liver homogenate, hemolyzed
blood, serum and post mitochondrial liver fraction),
whereas butanol extract reduced hydroxyl radicals
signicantly only in the post mitochondrial liver
fraction (a homogenate of liver cells remaining
after sedimentation of the mitochondrial fraction
by centrifugation). Both extracts affected only
Saeidnia et al / DARU 2011 19 (3) 173-186
175
hemolysed blood (33).
The hydroalcoholic extract of A. santolina L. was
studied on various in vitro antioxidative systems
and it has been reported that the extract prevented
formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
in Fe2+ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in rat
liver tissue. Free radical induced protein oxidation
has also been suppressed signicantly by high
concentration (1000 µg/ml) of the extract (34).
Ethanol extracts of eight wild samples of A. ligustica
All., and one sample of cultivated A. millefolium were
evaluated for radical scavenging activites including
DPPH test. The TEAC (the concentration of a Trolox
solution having an antioxidant capacity equivalent
to that of the diluted hydroalcoholic extract) were
in the range of 4.18 and 12.3 mM. The ability of the
extracts to inhibit non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation
using an in vitro system of linoleic acid oxidation
has been investigated. Five of the nine extracts had a
protective effect at the lowest tested amount (5 µg).
Protection on CaCo-2 intestinal cells against TBH-
induced toxicity was also investigated and two of
the tested ethanolic extracts of A. ligustica showed
protection against the oxidative stress (35). The
antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity of A.
collina Becker ex Rchb. infusions against oxidative
stress were investigated by chemical (DPPH and
Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in
vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation
in PC12 cells line) and it has been shown that the
infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant and
cytoprotective activity, where antioxidant capacity
was signicantly correlated with the total phenolic
content but not with the cytoprotective prole (36).
Esterogenic activity
A. millefolium is used in folk medicine as an
emmenagogue (8). A crude extract of the aerial
parts of A. millefolium has shown estrogenic
activity based on recombinant MCF-7 cells (37, 38).
Evaluation of the isolated and identied compounds
from this plant indicated that luteolin V and apigenin
VI (Scheme 1) were the most important estrogenic
compounds among tested compounds. Apigenin can
also stimulate ERs-dependent biological pathways,
but less than the endogenous hormone. Both α and β
receptors of estrogen could be activated by apigenin.
Luteolin seems to have a very slight effect on β and
Flavonoid Number Names R1R2R3R4R5R6
I Cynaroside OH H OGlc OH OH H
II Cosmosiin OH H OGlc H OH H
VLuteolin OH H OH OH OH H
VI Apigenin OH H OH H OH H
XX Centaureidin OH OCH3OH OH OCH3OCH3
XXI Quercetin OH H OH OH OH OH
XXIII 3’-methoxy luteolin OH H OH OCH3OH H
XXIV Luteolin 7-O-glucoside OH H OGlc OH OH H
XXV Apigenin 7-O-glucoside OH H OGlc H OH H
XXVII 5- hydroxy 3’, 4’, 6, 7- tetra methoxy avone OH OCH3OCH3OCH3OCH3H
XXVIII Salvigenin OH OCH3OCH3H OCH3H
XXXIV Galangin OH H OH H H OH
XXXV Eupatilin OH OCH3OH OCH3OCH3H
O
R
5
R
4
R
1
R
3
O
R
2
R
6
Scheme 1. Structures of the isolated flavonoids from various species of Achillea.
Flavonoid
Number
Names R1 R2R3R4R5R6
I Cynaroside OH H Glc OH OH H
II Cosmosiin OH H Glc H OH H
V Luteolin OH H OH OH OH H
VI Apigenin OH H OH H OH H
XX Centaureidin OH OCH3OH OH OCH3OCH3
XXI Quercetin OH H OH OH OH OH
XXIII 3'-methoxy luteolin OH H OH OCH3OH H
XXIV Luteolin 7-O-glucoside OH H OGlc OH OH H
XXV Apigenin 7-O-glucoside OH H OGlc H OH H
XXVII 5- hydroxy 3', 4', 6, 7-
tetra methoxy flavone
OH OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 H
XXVIII Salvigenin OH OCH3OCH3H OCH3H
XXXIV Galangin OH H OH H H OH
XXXV Eupatilin OH OCH3 OH OCH3 OCH3 H
Scheme 1. Structures of the isolated avonoids from various species of Achillea.
Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea 176
N
C
OH
H
O
HO
O
OAc
O
OR
3
OR
2
OR
1
OH
C
O
HO
N
H
COOH
N
+
O
-
O
Me Me
N
+
HO
H
Me
Me
H
O
O
-
N
+
O
-
O
Me
Me
Me
HO
N
+
Me Me
Me
O
MeO
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
OH
Achillicin III p-hydroxy- phenethylamide IV
Feruloylcaffeoylquinic acid VII Proline VIII Stachydrine IX
R1-R3 = H or caffeoyl / feruloyl
Betonicine X Betaine XI Choline XII
3ȕ- methoxy- iso-seco-tanapartholide XIII Tanaphillin XIV
Saeidnia et al / DARU 2011 19 (3) 173-186
177
HO
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
MeO
OH
OAc
O
OH
O
O
OH
O
OH
OAc
O
H
O
O
OH
O
OH
OH
OH
C
OO
Glc
H
OH
O
O
O
O
CH
2
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
iso-seco-tanapartholide XV 8-hydroxy-3-methoxy-iso- seco-tanaparatholide XVI
9Į-acetoxyartecanin XVII Apressin XVIII Inducumenone XIX
Caffeoyl glucoside XXII Bisabolol XXVI Biebersteiniside XXIX
Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea 178
O
O
O
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
O
O
O
COOH
OH
H
OH
COOH
HO
O
COOH
OH
H
OH
COOH
HO
O
H
3
CO
HO
O
O
OH
6-epiroseoside XXX Ascaridole XXXI Strictic acid XXXII
Centipedic acid XXXIII 1Į,6Į,8Į-trihydroxy-5Į,7ȕH-guaia-
3,10(14),11(13)-trien 12-oic acid XXXVI
1Į,6Į,8Į-trihydroxy-5Į,7ȕH-guaia-
3,9,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid XXXVII Ligustolide-A XXXVIII
Saeidnia et al / DARU 2011 19 (3) 173-186
179
Scheme 2. Structures of the isolated terpenoids amins and phenolic compounds from the various species of Achillea.
O
O
OH
O
O
H
O
H
OH
O
H
O
OH
H
H
OH
OH
Me
HO
OH
HO
Me
HHO
OH
HO
Me
HO
OH
HO
OH
H
O
OH
O
O
CH
2
OH
OH
HO
HO
OHO
MeO
O
Arteludovicinolide-A XXXIX Austricin XL 4,10,11-trihydroxyguaiane XLI
4(15)-eudesmene-1ȕ,11-diol XLII Clypeotriol XLIII 3-epi-clypeotriol XLIV
Cryptomeridiol XLV Sugereoside XLVI Scopoletin XLVII
Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea 180
does not seem to activate α receptor at all, while
many phytoestrogens appear to have a stronger
binding afnity with β estrogen receptors than
estradiol (39).
Anti-diabetic activity
Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic
condition and is likely involved in progression of
pancreatic damage in diabetes. The effect of A.
santolina (hydro alcoholic extract) on blood glucose
level, serum NO (nitric oxide) concentration and
the oxidative stress in rat pancreatic tissue have
been evaluated. This herbal treatment could reduce
blood glucose level, serum NO, pancreatic MDA
(Malondialdehyde), PCO (Protein Carbonyls) and
AOPP (Advanced Oxidation Protein Products)
levels. In addition, the content of GSH (Reduced
Glutathione) was restored to the normal level
of the control group. Furthermore, CAT and
SOD activities in the treated rats were increased
signicantly. In conclusion, A. santolina have a
high hypoglycemic activity which may be due to
its antioxidative potential (40).
Antispermatogenic effect
Ethanolic (intraperitoneally) and hydroalcoholic
extracts (orally) of A. millefolium were
administered to Swiss mice to evaluate the effect
on spermatogenesis. Observation of morphological
characteristics using light and electron microscopes
revealed exfoliation of immature germ cells, germ
cell necrosis, and seminiferous tubule vacuolization.
The extract treated animals had an increased number
of metaphases in the germ epithelium which should
be due to substances stimulating cell proliferation
(41).
Antiulcer activity
A. millefolium is a widespread medicinal plant
used in folk medicine to treat inammation,
pain and gastrointestinal disorders. Screening
of gastroprotective potential against acute and
chronic ulcers has shown positive correlation with
its uses in folk medicinal. The aqueous extract of
A. millefolium showed effectiveness in protecting
the gastric mucosa against acute gastric lesions
induced by ethanol and indomethacin and in
healing chronic gastric lesions induced by acetic
acid (ED
50
= 32 mg/kg, orally). Reviewing literature
reveals that the antiulcer potential of A. millefolium
is not accompanied by any sign of toxicity even
by long chronic exposure. Oral administration (30,
100 and 300 mg/kg) of the hydroalcoholic extract
inhibited ethanol-induced gastric lesions by 35,
56 and 81%, respectively. Oral treatment with
this extract (1 and 10 mg/kg) reduced the chronic
gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid by 43 and 65%,
respectively, and promoted signicant regeneration
of the gastric mucosa after ulcer induction denoting
increased cell proliferation (42, 43). It has been
reported that A. millefolium protected rats against
ulcers induced by ethanol and restraint-in-cold-
stress, but not against indomethacin induced ulcers.
When hot water extract was injected into duodenal
lumen it could inhibit the basal acid secretion. It
seems that the antiulcer activity of A. millefolium
is related either to inhibition of gastric secretion
or increase in protective factors (such as blood
ow) in gastric mucosa. Anyhow, further study
is required to clarify the mechanism of action
(44). There are some reports on gastrointestinal
effects of Achillea, such as antiulcer, antibacterial,
hepatoprotective, choleretic, and antispasmodic.
The effects of aqueous ethanol extract of A.
wilhelmsii on rat’s gastric acid output in basal,
vagotomized (VX), and vagal-stimulated conditions
have been investigated. Result of study showed
that introduction of one milliliter of 3 doses (0.5,
1, and 2 mg/kg) A. wilhelmsii C. Koch into the
stomach of each rat in the test group compared
with introduction of the same volume of saline in
the control group resulted in an inhibitory effect
on acid output in basal condition. The inhibitory
effect of the extract (at doses 1 and 2 mg/kg) was
exerted via gastric vagal parasympathetic nerve.
At VX condition, not only this inhibitory effect on
acid output disappeared, but also the acid output
signicantly increased. The extract showed a
reduction in the acid output in vagal-stimulated
condition at doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg, which were
not statistically signicant (45).
Cytotoxicity effect
There are some reports about the anti-proliferative
activity of the isolated constituents from A. falcata
and A. clavennae. L.Four sesquiterpene lactones
have been isolated from A. falcata, which had
signicant ability to inhibit HaCaT-cell growth and
identied as 3β-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide
XIII, tanaphillin XIV, iso-seco-tanapartholide XV,
and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxy-iso-seco-tanaparatholide
XVI. These compounds have been found to decrease
keratinocyte cell viability signicantly (Scheme 2).
Statistical analyses conrmed an enhanced potency
of the β-OH iso-seco-tanapartholide over the α,β-
OH diastereoisomeric mixture. The enhancement
of the lipophilicity of the molecule resulted in the
highest potency (46). The aerial part of A. clavennae
was used for isolation of the phytoconstituents and
the antiproliferative activity of the compounds was
tested to HeLa, K562 and Fem-X human cancer cell
lines. Guaianolides, 9α-acetoxyartecanin XVII and
apressin XVIII showed signicant cytotoxic effects
in all tested cell lines. A bisabolene, inducumenone
XIX exhibited a moderate activity (Scheme 2). The
most active compound was a avonol, centaureidin
XX (Scheme 1), which was already known as
cytotoxic agent (47).
Saeidnia et al / DARU 2011 19 (3) 173-186
181
Immunosuppressive activity
The aqueous extract of A. talagonica Bioss. was
studied on humoral antibody responses in BALB/c
mice and albino rabbits. Intraperitoneal administration
of the extract to mice, prior to immunization with
sheep red blood cells, resulted in a signicant dose
dependent decrease in haemagglutinating antibody
(HA) titer. In rabbits after intrascapular injection
of the extract, a signicant decrease in typhoid-H
antibody (anti-HD) titer was found, but no change
was observed in secondary response (48).
Methanol and aqueous methanol (80% and 50% v: v)
extracts of A. talagonica have been examined to nd
its immunosuppressive components. Guided by anti-
SRBC (sheep red blood cells) assay, active principles
were isolated by chromatographic methods and
identied as choline XII (Scheme 2), quercetin XXI
(Scheme 1) and caffeoyl glucoside XXII (Scheme
2). These compounds compared to the control
groups decreased anti-SRBC titer signicantly.
Alongside these compounds, 3’-methoxy luteolin
XXIII (Scheme 1) and proline VIII (Scheme 2) has
been also reported from this plant (49).
Methanol extract and some other fractions of A.
millefolium were studied on humoral immunity
in BALB/c mice by microhaemagglutination test.
Only two fractions showed a signicant decrease
in the anti- SRBC titer of mice. The immunological
properties may be related to presence of glycosylated
derivatives of caffeic acid, because caffeic acid
glucoside XXII (Scheme 2) was isolated and
identied from the active fractions. Some known
compounds including, luteolin 7-O-glucoside XXIV
and apigenin 7-O-glucoside XXV (Scheme 1) have
also been reported from this species (50).
Effects of the essential oils of A. talagonica and A.
millefolium have been studied on humoral immune
responses in BALB/c mice. The oil isolated from
A. millefolium ssp. millefolium possessed a high
percentage of sesquiterpenes (55.4%) in which
bisabolol XXVI (Scheme 2) was the main compound.
The volatile oil of A. millefolium decreased the anti-
SRBC antibody titer, but the oil of A. talagonica was
not effective. High percentage of sesquiterpenes and
presence of proazulene in A. millefolium together
with the lack of these compounds in A. talagonica
could account for the different immunological
effects of these plants (51).
Biological effects
Ethyl acetate extract of A. talagonica showed
toxicity in BST (brine shrimp lethality test) and on
the basis of results only 5- hydroxy 3’, 4’, 6, 7- tetra
methoxy avone XXVII (Scheme 1) showed toxicity
(LC50=15 μg/ml) against Artemia salina larvae.
Another separated avonoid named salvigenin
XXVIII (Scheme 1) showed no activity (52).
It is reported that the essential oil of A. biebersteinii
Afan. exhibited antimicrobial activity against 8
bacteria, 14 fungi and one yeast namely C. albicans,
whereas methanolic extract was inactive (53). The
antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of A.
ligustica was evaluated by the broth micro-dilution
method on 6 microbial strains and it showed to be
effective against Streptococcus mutans (54). In
another report, antibacterial activity of the extracts
(hexane: ether: methanol = 1:1:1) of the aerial parts
of A. clavennae, A. holosericea Sm., A. lingulata and
A. millefolium were evaluated against ve bacteria
(S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa
and Salmonella enteritidis) and two fungi (A. niger
and C. albicans) and it was found that the extracts
of all four species possessed a broad spectrum of
antimicrobial activity against all tested strains (55).
Recently, the oil of A. millefolium was evaluated on
heterozygous diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans,
with green conidia and a signicant increase in the
number of yellow and white mitotic recombinants
(per colony) of the diploid strain was observed when
it was treated with 0.19 and 0.25 µl/ml of the oil.
The induction of mitotic non-disjunction may cause
the genotoxicity (56).
E. coli contains certain strains that can cause resistant
infections to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E.coli
produces extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs)
and is an important cause of urinary tract (UTIs)
and bloodstream infections. Activity of nineteen
Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E.coli
has been reported. The methanolic extract of A.
santolina (one of 19 species) was combined with
antibiotics of different classes (chloramphenicol,
neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic
acid) and tested against both the standard and resistant
strain of E. coli. The results showed that the activity
of all tested antibiotics especially doxycycline on
the resistant strain was enhanced when it was used
in combination with plant material. The enhanced
activity of cephalexin against the standard strain has
been reported to be higher than resistant strain (57)
Also, the extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants
were screened for their antimicrobial activity against
bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and S.
aureus) and yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C.
parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis) and the ethanol-water
extract (90% v/v) of A. millefolium was considered
inactive (58). The in vitro antimicrobial efcacy of
39 water and 39 methanol extracts of 27 indigenous
wild plant species that have been commonly used in
Lebanese folk medicine has been reported on nine test
microorganisms (E. coli, Proteus sp., P. aeruginosa,
S. dysenteria, S. enteritidis, S. typhi, S. aureus, S.
faecalis, and C. albicans) by the single disk diffusion
method. The percentage of test organisms, which
were susceptible (20 µl /disc) to methanol extract of
A. damascena DC., was 88.8%. The methanol extract
of A. damascena showed different efcacy against
the tested microorganisms when harvested from two
different locations. The MIC of A. damascena range
Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea 182
for S. aureus, Proteus sp., and S. dysenteriae were 1-
3.5 and for C. albicans, S. enteritidis, and S. faecalis
were 1-2.5. These differences were explained by the
nature and level of the antimicrobial agents present
in the extracts and their modes of actions on the
different test microorganisms (59).
In a recent investigation, the in vitro susceptibility
of 15 H. pylori strains to botanical extracts was
evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of the methanol extract of A. millefolium is
reported as 50 µg/ml (60).
Besides the antimicrobial effects of Achillea plants,
the in vitro anti-epimastigote activity of some
extracts of A. biebersteinii and A. millefolium have
been reported. Diethyl ether extracts of the above
Achillea species showed activity (MLC=12.5 μg/
ml) against the epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi,
the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Aqueous
and methanol extracts were not so effective (61).
In another study, the ethyl acetate extracts of A.
talagonica and A. tenuifolia showed a moderate
activity against the epimastigotes of T. cruzi (62).
Forty-two Egyptian medicinal plant species were
subjected to antiviral screening bioassay to evaluate
their biological activities. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of
each species were prepared and tested against three
viruses, herpes simplex-1 virus (HSV), poliomyelitis-
1 virus (POLIO) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV).
The antiviral activity were determined by means of
the end point titration technique (EPTT) that depends
on the ability of diluted plant extract to inhibit the
produced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) and was
expressed as reduction factor (Rf) of the viral titer. A.
fragrantissima (Forssk) Sch. Bip. showed the highest
antiviral activity (among these species) against
POLIO in a concentration dependent manner at
complete non-toxic concentration range (10–100 μg/
ml) and the highest detected antiviral activity was
recorded at Rf of 10 6. It seems that the interesting
antiviral activity of A. fragrantissima against
POLIO may be attributed to of essential oil content
which has been traditionally used as an antiseptic
agent (63). Furthermore, a new ionone glucoside,
biebersteiniside XXIX, together with four known
compounds 6-epiroseoside XXX, ascaridole XXXI,
strictic acid XXXII and centipedic acid XXXIII
(Scheme 2) were reported from the aerial parts of A.
biebersteinii. The compounds XXX-XXXIII were
reported for the rst time from A. biebersteinii. Also,
antifungal activity was observed from the compounds
XXIX and XXXI-XXXIII (64).
Antispasmodic activity
The use of herbal teas from different species of the
A. millefolium group against the gastrointestinal
disorders, especially as an antispasmodic and anti-
inammatory, is quite common in folk medicine. The
antispasmodic effect of A. nobilis subsp. sipylea on
rat duodenum has been reported recently. The total
herb extract (70% ethanol) exhibited an inhibitory
effect on the dose-response curves induced by
acetylcholine and CaCl2 on rat duodenum. This
effect was similar to that of papaverine, but not to
that of atropine on the dose-response curves. The
extract also reduced the maximal response in curves
induced by CaCl2 (in a similar manner to verapamil)
(65). The antispasmodic effects of Achillea species
might be due to the avonoid constituents of the
plant. Galangin XXXIV, quercetin XXI and eupatilin
XXXV (Scheme 1), which are found commonly in
Achillea, are reported to cause a potent relaxation of
the ileum (66, 67).
The effect of A. millefolium hydro-alcoholic extract
on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-
pig ileum at ve concentrations ranging from 0.05 to
5 mg/ml has been reported. Changes in contraction
of tissues were monitored using force displacement
transducer amplier connected to physiograph. Each
segment served as its own control. Results showed
that the contractile response was inhibited by extract
in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 1.5 mg/ml).
Those results demonstrated that in vitro evaluation
of A. millefolium extract resulted in inhibition of
electrical induced contractions of the guinea-pig
ileum (68).
Anti-inammatory activity
As shown in traditional usage, Achillea species
are well known as the anti-inammatory plants.
Besides the alkamides, as the noteworthy active
anti-inammatory compounds (16), sesquiterpenes
are introduced as another effective group of the
secondary metabolites. After the last review (7) on
photochemistry of Achillea, isolation of some other
sesquiterpenes have been reported as follows:
The methylene chloride - methanol extract of
aerial parts of A. coarctata was investigated by
chromatographic analysis and resulted in isolation
of two new guaiane acid derivatives, 1α,6α,8α-
trihydroxy-5α,7βH-guaia-3,10(14),11(13)-trien-12-
oic acid XXXVI and 1α,6α,8α-trihydroxy-5α,7βH-
guaia-3,9,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid XXXVII, in
addition to three known compounds, ligustolide-
A XXXVIII, arteludovicinolide-A XXXIX and
austricin XL (Scheme 2) (69). They also reported that
the compounds XXXVI and XXXVII enhanced the
proliferation of benecial macrophages signicantly
and compounds XXXVII and XXXIX exhibited
anti-inammatory properties (69). Another article
has reported that chromatographic separation on
dichloromethane extract of A. clypeolata resulted
in one guaiane 4,10,11-trihydroxyguaiane XLI,
four eudesmanes 4(15)-eudesmene-1β,11-diol
XLII, clypeotriol XLIII, 3-epi-clypeotriol XLIV,
cryptomeridiol XLV, one diterpene sugereoside
XLVI (Scheme 2) and two phenolics centaureidin
XX (Scheme 1) and scopoletin XLVII (Scheme 2).
The compounds XLI and XLVI have been reported
Saeidnia et al / DARU 2011 19 (3) 173-186
183
for the rst time (70).
Adverse effects and safety
Adverse reaction of herbal medicines is an important
point which needs further systematic investigation.
Adverse drug reactions (in association with
complementary and alternative medicine substances)
have been spontaneously reported therefore, such a
data could be used in monitoring the safety of these
products. By analyzing such data (in Sweden), it has
been found that A. millefolium (in combination with
hawthorn, peppermint, and paprika, seed of pumpkin,
rosemary and vitamins) showed urticarial and skin
reactions which have been poorly documented (71).
Because A. millefolium is effective in protection of
gastric mucosa against acute gastric lesions (ED50
= 32 mg/kg, p.o.), safety studies were performed
in female and male Wistar rats by daily treatment
with aqueous extract of A. millefolium (0.3-1.2 g/kg,
p.o./day) or vehicle (water, 10 ml/kg/day) for 28 or
90 consecutive days. Slight changes in liver weight,
cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and glucose were
observed in male and female animals which were
not correlated with dose or time of exposure of the
animals to the plant (72).
Ethnomedicinal and pharmaceutical usage
There are many botanical remedies, consisting
powdered plant material or extracts of Achillea
species, which are used for the treatment of skin and
soft tissue infections, visceral pain, gastrointestinal
disorders and inammations. Literature review
indicated that there is a patent for treatment of
dermatose, by topical application of botanical
medicinal compounds (from Achillea), eczema,
atopic dermatitis, non-allergic dermatitis, psoriasis
and rosacea, or any inammation of the skin (73).
A medicinal combination, named Sedospasmil®,
for the treatment of chronic colitis was prepared
from medicinal plants including A. millefolium,
Matricaria chamomillae, Hypericum perforatum
and Valeriana ofcinalis. Normalization of the
intestinal functions, tranquilization, spasmolytic
and analgesic activity of a combination made with
A. millefolium and some other medicinal plants has
been reported for this medicine (74). Also, a Chinese
medicinal preparation for relieve of pain and
inammation of some medicinal plants including
Achillea with gelatin, in the form of ointment,
pellicle, or powder for external use is reported. The
formulation is suggested to be used for treatment of
soft tissue injury, fracture, dislocation, carbuncle
furuncle, and gout (75). In addition, a medicine
for treatment of hysteromyoma, prepared from A.
millefolium together with Inula, Calami, Urtica,
Arnica, Capsella and some other medicinal plants,
has been reported. The medicine is suggested to be
useful for treatment of hysteromyoma, particularly
hormone-dependent tumor (76).
CONCLUSION
Achillea has been used in popular medicine for its anti-
hemorrhagic, healing, and analgesic properties in the
various regions throughout the world. It was used by
northern European and North American native people
as a contraceptive, abortifacient, and emmenagogue.
Some of these traditional and folk usages have been
evaluated showing the potential medicinal use of the
plant. The medicinal properties of A. millefolium are
worldwide recognized and the plant is included in
the national Pharmacopoeias of countries such as
Germany, Czech Republic, France and Switzerland.
As it is reviewed in this paper, antioxidant and
protective activity is of various species of Achillea
is reported frequently. This might be due to high
content of avonoids and phenolics in these plants.
It is noteworthy that oxidative stress is produced
under diabetic condition and Achillea plants are
considered for high hypoglycemic activity. Among
the medicinal properties of Achillea, their cytotoxic
and antiulcer effects are important especially when
the species contain immunomodulatory constituents.
The activity of these plants against different bacteria,
fungi and parasites might be due to the presence of
a broad range of secondary active metabolites such
as avonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids
(monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes,
triterpenes) and sterols which have been isolated.
Finally, presence of anti-inammatory compounds
such as sesquiterpenes and alkamides is another
reason for importance of these plants as the potential
source of medicinal compounds and drugs in future.
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... As far as the Achillea genus has existed across the world (from Asia and Europe to North America), it has been used in ancient life in traditional or folk medicine. Bumadaran is a common name for some species of Achillea in Persian culture [3]. ...
... The genus Achillea has a long history of use in traditional medicine as an antiinflammatory, diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic, tonic, diuretic, and emmenagogic agent [3], and it has been used as a natural remedy (in Iranian traditional medicine) for the treatment of bleeding, headaches, respiratory infections, inflammation, spasmodic diseases, flatulence, dyspepsia [4,5], pneumonia, hemorrhaging, rheumatic pain, and wounds, and it is useful for liver disease and acts as a mild sedative [6]. Currently, the different medicinal functions of yarrow, such as its use as a spasmolytic, a choleretic, a wound-healing treatment, and an Life 2023, 13, 378 3 of 14 patients (≥12 years of age) suffering from mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at high risk of progression to severe COVID-19 and/or hospitalization. ...
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In this study, phytochemicals extracted from three different Achillea genera were identified and analyzed to be screened for their interactions with the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. In particular, the antiviral potential of these natural products against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease was investigated, as was their effectiveness against the SARS-CoV-1 main protease as a standard (due to its high similarity with SARS-CoV-2). These enzymes play key roles in the proliferation of viral strains in the human cytological domain. GC-MS analysis was used to identify the essential oils of the Achillea species. Chemi-informatics tools, such as AutoDock 4.2.6, SwissADME, ProTox-II, and LigPlot, were used to investigate the action of the pharmacoactive compounds against the main proteases of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Based on the binding energies of kessanyl acetate, chavibetol (m-eugenol), farnesol, and 7-epi-β-eudesmol were localized at the active site of the coronaviruses. Furthermore, these molecules, through hydrogen bonding with the amino acid residues of the active sites of viral proteins, were found to block the progression of SARS-CoV-2. Screening and computer analysis provided us with the opportunity to consider these molecules for further preclinical studies. Furthermore, considering their low toxicity, the data may pave the way for new in vitro and in vivo research on these natural inhibitors of the main SARS-CoV-2 protease.
... The pharmacological effects of common yarrow are scientifically proven and they are based on the chemical composition of the plant [9,10]. It is stated that the chemical composition of yarrow depends on the region of occurrence; however, studies have shown that the majority of A. millefolium L. consists of phenols, sesquiterpenes, coumarins, sterols, dicaffeoylquinic acids [1,11]. ...
... It also supports the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, and loss of appetite and relieves menstrual pain. Furthermore, it is used as a mouthwash to promote the healing of cuts [15] and as a component of tea mixtures [10]. ...
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This research work aimed to investigate the properties of freeze-dried extracts from Matricaria chamomilla L. and Achillea millefolium L. and to perform a characterization of their impact on the natural rubber-based vulcanizates. First, extracts were prepared in three different solvents at selected volume ratios: water (100), water-methanol (50/50), and water-ethanol (50/50). Next, the freeze-drying of extracts was established and then obtained bio-additives were introduced to the rubber mixtures. Freeze-dried extracts were investigated by UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were also defined. Rubber mixtures were examined in a rheometer and after vulcanization they were subjected to accelerated simulated aging by UV radiation and thermo-oxidative aging. To determine the resistance of vulcanizates to the degradation processes, the study of cross-linking density (equilibrium swelling method), mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break) and color change were conducted. Performed studies proved the antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts caused by the high content of polyphenols and their beneficial influence on the properties of elastomer vulcanizates.
... ar of fermentation, the finished preparation is inserted in compost piles to protect against fungal growth. 35 28 Asgarpanah, Jinous 2012. "Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Equisetum arvense," Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 21. 29 N.a. "Yarrow" 2021. https://www.rxlist.com/yarrow/supplements.htm. Retrieved May 30, 2021. 30 Saeidnia, S., et al 2011. "A Review of Phytochemistry and Medicinal Properties of the Genus Achillea," DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 19 (3): 173-186. 31 Culpeper, Nikolas 2019. Culpeper's Complete Herbal: Over 400 Herbs and Their Uses. London, UK. 32 Wistinghausen,op.cit,[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] N.a. "Oak Bark." https://www.rxlist.com/oak_bark/su ...
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A magnum opus, Fifty Years of Biodynamic Farming: Essays From the Field is Henning Sehmsdorf ’s tribute and testament to biodynamic living and farming. In writing and editing this collection of thirty-two essays, Sehmsdorf has created an enduring work that will be an invaluable tool for students and practitioners of holistic and self-sufficient food growing. Dozens of topics are organized into seven chapters, and their consideration is comprehensive. From personal histories with biodynamics to nutritionally-whole foods, herbal medicine, and solar-powered micro-irrigation to the spirituality of the farm, Sehmsdorf and his colleagues reveal and discuss farming as a practice both sacred and personal. The authors take on gluten intolerance, ecological livestock raising and the case for responsible animal care, bee colony collapse, and concepts such as Goethe’s theories around color and plant morphology. Favorite essays include Sehmsdorf ’s life and farm partner Elizabeth Simpson’s “The Viable Family Farm,” and Sehmsdorf ’s own “Home Food Security” and “Farming for Health,” all stunning in their scope. Or, the conceptually brilliant “Emergy (Embodied Energy) Analysis of S&S Homestead Farm” by Andrew Haden (with Sehmsdorf). In his concluding essay, “The Spirituality of the Soil: The Idea of Teleology from Aristotle to Rudolf Steiner,” Sehmsdorf ’s unifying apprehension of the cosmos and life as indwelling, transformative, and spiritual is manifest. It’s what has powered his fifty-year farm plan, and what keeps Sehmsdorf researching, discovering, and creating today. Together with Simpson, Sehmsdorf has built a life of deep connection, with a commitment to service and education. Fifty Years of Biodynamic Farming is a unique study, and exceptionally useful for any student or practitioner of organics or biodynamics, or life, really, as it is nothing short of a treasure trove of lessons from lives truly lived with great curiosity, meaning, and beauty. (Gigi Berardi, Author FoodWISE, biodynamic cheesemaker, Shaw Island, WA; Director, Resilient Farm Project; Professor, Urban and Environmental Planning & Policy, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University)
... A review of the literature indicated that most plants contain chemical components that are essential for biological processes as well as the treatment of several infectious disorders like Glucopyranoside, chalcone glycoside, bioflavonoids, flavonoids, pindrolactone, pentacyclic triterpenoids, and phenolic compounds are only a few of the significant substances found in Abies pindrow [29,30], While this plant also has excellent anti-oxidant potential [31]. Flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, amino acid derivatives, fatty acids, and alkamides are all present in Achillea millefolium [33]. The extract has the potential to be genotoxic; however a safe dosage of 10mg/kg has also been noted [34]. ...
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In order to identify the medicinal and aromatic plants most requested for the treatment of the most common oral pathology (diseases), an ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the economic in Hazara Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The semi-structured questionnaire was used to choose traditional herbalists who would provide the data base. In the research region, older community members are essentially the only ones who are familiar with traditional knowledge and cultural practises of using medicinal plants in human healthcare, whereas the younger generation is largely ignorant of the use of natural resources. We offer the first ethnomedical insights towards treating dental conditions in Pakistan. The study's main goal was to discover fresh knowledge held by people of these isolated and distant communities and to share it with the rest of the world in written form. The collection of data relating to traditional medicine was the result of extensive research conducted in numerous locations throughout the world. We have decided to identify the most popular medicinal and aromatic herbs for the treatment of oral pathology as our contribution to this crucial endeavor. The use of herbal treatments to address medical issues is widespread. They have been used for generations in Mexico to cure tooth discoloration, periodontitis, oral infections, and gingivitis. Nevertheless, there aren't many research that have gathered data on their impacts.
... Antimicrobial activity of EOs of studied AchilleaMIC values are given as means. Standard deviations were always equal to zero.2 ...
Article
This study presents chemical profiles, antimicrobial and toxicological evaluation of the essential oils (EOs) of five Achillea species native to the flora of Serbia (A. coarctata, A. chrysocoma, A. clypeolata, A. pseudopectinata and A. ageratifolia). The chemical compositions of the EOs were investigated by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector analyses. The microdilution method was used for antimicrobial and Artemia salina acute toxicity bioassay for toxicological evaluation of the EOs. Oxygenated monoterpenes have shown dominance in four out of five tested EOs (A. ageratifolia, A. pseudopectinata, A. chrysocoma and A. clypeolata) where 1,8-cineole and camphor were the most common dominant compounds. Conversely, A. coarctata EO was characterized by dominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with viridiflorol and cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol as the major compounds. Antimicrobial testing showed that studied EOs are characterized by broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which was not notably selective in relation to the Gram-staining properties of the tested microorganisms. Furthermore, all five EOs have shown high toxicity in A. salina lethality bioassay, suggesting that they may possess a certain level of pesticidal and/or antitumor properties. Achillea chrysocoma EO demonstrated the most prominent antimicrobial activity, but it was the fourth active in view of toxicity against A. salina. Contrary, A. coarctata EO was the most potent toxic agent toward A. salina, but it was only the fourth of the five regarding the antimicrobial potential. Presented results confirmed that highly toxic EOs could demonstrate moderate activity against the pathogenic microorganisms as the effects of the EOs diverge in pro- and eukaryotic cells.
... The phytochemistry of this genus is composed of the dominant groups of secondary metabolites, these being monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene lactones and proazuelens, as well as flavonoids, these being phenolic glycosides, lignans and tannins. Research revealed that many of these compounds are highly bioactive and that they contribute to the significant medical potential of Achillea species [1,2]. The most studied species is A. millefolium, the official representative of the genus Achillea. ...
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The genus Achillea has significant medical potential due to the presence of highly bioactive compounds in its chemical composition. To take advantage of plants' biomedical potential, it is of great importance to use a proper extraction process. This study aimed to determine and compare the preliminary chemical composition of five different Achillea species extracted with two conventional (infusion and maceration) and two non-conventional (ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Subcritical water extraction (SWE)) techniques. The extracts were prepared using the previously described procedures for infusion, maceration, UAE and SWE extraction. For all extracts, the extraction yield (dry extract (DE)) was determined. The analyzed extracts were preliminarily chemically characterized spectrophotometrically in terms of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The obtained results showed that non-conventional techniques delivered higher values of TPC and TFC than conventional. There is a statistically significant increase in DE and TPC content when applying SWE for all observed Achillea species. The highest DE value, 48.80 ± 1.76%, was observed for A. asplenifolia. The highest TPC values were observed after applying SWE: 93.63 ± 1.01 mg GAE/g DE for A. millefolium, and 90.12 ± 0.87 mg GAE/g DE for A. crithmifolia. The results for TFC revealed a statistically significant difference in values, with A. nobilis subsp. nelreichii as the sample with the highest content of TFC (11.11 ± 0.22 mg QE/g DE) when using UAE. Consequently, it could be concluded that SWE is a superior non-conventional extraction technique, and A. nobilis subsp. nerleichii presents as the most promising plant.
... They are used for the treatment of many aliments such as stomach pain, menstrual disorders, bleeding, hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal tract inflammation, rheumatism, allergic rhinitis, and pneumonia. They are also useful during breast feeding and possess wound-healing potential [2] A. fragrantissima is popular in folk medicine for many Arab countries and is used for the management of some common health problems including diabetes, respiratory disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, dysmenorrhea, eye infections, smallpox, fever, headaches, and fatigue [3][4][5]. ...
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The bronchodilator effect of the Achillea fragrantissima essential oil (AFO) was studied in guinea pigs’ tracheas and the influence of drying on the quantity and composition of AFO was studied using GC-MS and GC analyses. AFO produced a complete and potent relaxation against carbachol (CCh), while lower potency and partial efficacy were observed against high K+ (80 mM), thus producing dual inhibitory effects similar to dicyclomine. The anticholinergic-like action was further confirmed when pre-incubation tracheal tissues were used at lower concentrations with AFO displacing the CCh concentration‒response curves (CRCs) to the right in a competitive manner similar to atropine. However, non-parallel shifts in CCh CRCs were observed with higher doses, similar to dicyclomine. Further confirmation of the CCB-like effect was obtained from the non-specific deflection of Ca++ CRCs toward the right using the pre-incubated tissues with AFO in Ca++ free medium, similar to verapamil. When AFO was tested against low K+-mediated contractions to explore the possible involvement of additional antispasmodic mechanism(s), AFO interestingly showed a complete inhibition with a higher potency. This inhibition was found to be sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), whereas glibenclamide (Gb) remained inactive. These results show that AFO possesses bronchodilator effects predominantly from its anticholinergic and K+ channel activation followed by weak Ca++ channels inhibition.
Article
Family apiaceae, an important source of bioactive compounds, used for the treatment of many diseases since ages. Objective: Present study was conducted to explore active components of Cuminum Cyminum essential oil. Endeavor of the current study was to investigate the phytochemical contents and antibacterial assessment of essential oil against gram positive and negative bacteria. Method: Essential oil was extracted from seeds by hydrodistillation, dried and stored at -4oC. physical and chemical characterization was done. Antibacterial activity was also determined. Results: GC-MS analysis revealed major components cuminal 35%, γ-terpinene 32%, α-terpinene-al 7%, γ-terpinene 4.45%, daucene 4.3%, and trans-caryophyllene 5.342%, some trace components like myrcene 0.12%, 1-8 cineole, and γ-terpinene-7-al were also present. Conclusion: Chemical components (cuminal, turpentine, daucene, caryophyllene) present in cumin essential oil is responsible for its biological activities.
Chapter
The greatest loss to the world’s economy has resulted from the multidrug resistance (MDR) strains and other prevalent infectious diseases like leishmania, diarrheal diseases, malaria, tuberculosis, parasitic infections, pneumonia, and trypanosomiasis. Antibiotics have played the core role of wonder drugs in treating a variety of diseases. However, the irregular, unsuitable, and irrational uses of antibiotics have led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This has paved the way to an increased usage of medicinal plants as currently, many nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals are plant derived. This chapter describes the huge repositories of secondary metabolites present in medicinal plants that may provide novel antibiotics to tackle all the infectious disease-causing pathogens and other prevalent diseases and reclaim the currently used antibiotics. The wide spectrum of phytochemicals in medicinal plants is to be explored as potential therapeutics for the sustainable use of plant resources. This chapter focuses on the diverse efficacy and effects of plant-derived multiple compounds for the development of bioactive therapeutics to identify novel antibiotics in controlling many infectious pathogens and finding a cure for the most common prevalent diseases. More research into unexplored plants is the need of the hour for global health benefits to identify novel antibiotics.KeywordsBio-moleculesAntimicrobialsAnti-dengueAnti-diarrhealBiofilmsLeishmaniasis
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Cytological studies were performed in 14 populations of 8 Achillea species growing in Iran. A. eriophora, A. tenuifolia, A. oxyodonta, A. talagonica and A. biebersteinii showed 2n = 2x = 18 chromosome number, A. wilhelmsii and A. vermicularis showed 2n = 4x = 36 and A. millefolium showed 2n = 6x = 54 chromosome number. The chromosome numbers of A. eriophora and A. talagonica are new to science and new polyploidy levels are reported for A. tenuifolia and A. wilhelmsii. Tetraploid and hexaploid species, they formed only bivalents in metaphase of meiosis-I showing diplontic behavior possibly due to allopolyploid nature of the species studied and the presence of control over pairing among homologous chromosomes. Multipolar cells were observed almost in all populations and species studied leading to the formation of abnormal tetrads and pollen grains as well as unreduced (2n) pollen formation.
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From MeOH extract of aerial parts of Achillea millefolium L. collected from Golestan province of Iran, three glycosylated phenolic compounds, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside and caffeic acid glucoside were isolated and identified by spectroscopic analyses. Immunological properties of different fractions of plant extract were studied on humoral immune system of BALB/c mice by Microhaemagglutination test. Among these fractions only two fractions at 125 mg kg-1 and 61.5 mg kg-1 showed a significant decrease in the anti- SRBC titer of mice (P<0.05). The immunological properties of the latter fractions may be due to glycosylated derivatives of caffeic acid.
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Based on the present knowledge of essential oil composition of species belonging to the genus Achillea the factors, which may infuence the composition with regard to plant biology, production and application are discussed.According to studies from the last 15 years, a mean of 54 compounds have been identifed in samples of different species. Among them, the largest number of components (149 compounds) were found in the oils of A. millefolium, A. pannonica and A. collina. The monoterpenes, 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, α- and β-pinenes are among the fve most abundant components. Beside chamazulene, the most frequently identifed sesquiterpenes are β-caryophyllene and its oxide. The presence of chamazulene seems to remain a characteristic, but it is not ubiquitous to the members of the Millefolium group. The heritance mechanism of sesquiterpenes, especially chamazulene, seems to be established, while we know relatively less about the genetic regulation of the monoterpene compounds. During ontogenesis, major differences could be found between the stages before and after fower development. The phenological phase assuring the highest level of azulenes seems to be during fowering. Composition and compositional changes of an essential oil within the Achillea genus in different plant organs seems to depend on the species. In several cases a dominance of sesquiterpene components above the monoterpenes was found in the vegetative organs. The most important differ-ence seems to be the lack or low amount of chamazulene as artefact in the extracts compared to the distillates.
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In this study, the oils of Achillea talagonica and A. millefolium, which grow widely in Iran, have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil for A. talagonica were 1,8-cineole (9.7%) and camphor (21.9%), while the major components of the oil for A. millefolium were α-copaene (11.1%) and (E)-nerolidol (8.8%). Effects of these oils were studied on humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. The oil isolated from Iranian A. millefolium ssp. millefolium possessed a high percentage of sesquiterpenes (55.4%) in which α-bisabolol was the main compound, while no proazulene or 1,8-cineole were detected. A high percentage of sesquiterpenes, presence of proazulene in A. millefolium (1%) and the lack of these compounds in A. talagonica could account for the different immunological effects of these plants.
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary betaine on performance, humoral immunity, intestinal immune responses and gut contents osmolarity of broilers in coccidiosis condition. Three supplemental betaine levels (0, 0.6 or 1.2 g kg-1) were fed to 189 mixed-sex broilers chicks which were randomly assigned to 9 floor cages in a completely random design with 3 replicates. To simulate a coccidiosis challenge, at day 28 of age the chickens were inoculated with a mixed culture of Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina via the drinking water. Antibody response to Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC) was determined on day 21. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) content was quantified in sera and mucous membrane tissue of intestine. Ileum and cecum contents were measured for osmolarity at 21 and 42 days of age. The supplemented diets with 1.2 g kg-1 betaine improved average daily gain and feed conversion ratio in 21-42 and 7-42 days periods. Antibody response to SRBC was not affected by dietary treatments. Interestingly, sera IgA content was increased in birds subjected to coccidiosis-infection. The IgA content of both sera (p<0.05) and gut tissue (p<0.01) were increased by added betaine to diet. Variations in osmolarity and moisture of both ileum and cecum contents were similar and they were significantly (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively) decreased in day 42 measurement by betaine inclusion into the diet. Positive effects of dietary betaine on performance, immunity and digesta moisture and osmolarity redoubles the importance of adding betaine to diet of broilers especially, in stress conditions like coccidiosis-infection.
Article
The oil extracted from Yarrow (Achillea tenuifolia L.) seed was analyzed for its chemical and physical characteristics such as acid, iodine, peroxide and saponification values as well as specific gravity, refractive index and color. Fatty acids composition of the oil was determined by gas chromatography (GC). Linoleic (69.4%) and oleic (14.5%) acids were the most abundant fatty acids. The oil also contained 1.7% linolenic acid as another polyunsaturated fatty acid. High content of the seed oil rich in linoleic acid (essential fatty acid) is promising to develop this plant and use its seed oil for nutritional and pharmaceutical purposes.
Article
A new ionone glucoside, (-)(4R*, 5R*)-5-(β-D- glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-4-hydroxy-3, 5-dimethyl-4-((E)-3-oxobut-1-enyl) cyclohex-2-enone (biebersteiniside) (1), in addition to four known compounds, 6-epiroseoside (2), ascaridole (3), strictic acid (4) and centipedic acid (5) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. The structures were determined from extensive 500 MHz NMR 1D (1H and 13C NMR) and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) spectroscopic data. Compounds 2-5 are reported for the first time from this plant. In addition, compounds 1a and 3-5 showed antifungal activity.
Article
Distribution of proazulenes and productivity in Achillea millefolium L. spontaneous populations. Millefolii herba is one of the oldest and most important drug in Lithuania used both in folk and official medicine. The raw material usually is gathered from spontaneous populations. It would be reasonable to develop methods predicting which populations accumulate high enough level of proazulenes being high productive in raw material. The vegetation records were made at 140 growing sites of Achillea millefolium L. 1,662 plants were tested for present of proazulenes. The data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. A. millefolium grew in 29 types of communities representing different growing habitats. The resourses of milfoils prevailed in ruderal habitats of Dauco-Meliliotion and dry grasslands of Arrhenatheretalia communities. A hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that higher productivity of A. millefolium populations were associated with their dependence to ruderal and segetal communities. The testing of A. millefolium plants in presence of proazulenes revealed high variation in different communities. The proazulenes-containing plants have been identified in 38% of analyzed cases. The highest percentage of proazulnes-containing plants was found in woodland and scrubland habitats. In segetal and wasteland communities of Agropyretalia repentis, Sisybietalia, Digitario-Setarion, Aperion spicae-venti, Senecion fluviatilis were found only proazulenes free plants. The characterization of proazulenes distribution may suggest the rapidly identification of proazulnes-containing and high produvtive populations for pharmaceutical industry.