IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against anchorage epitopes are greater in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) than in major depression

Maes Clinics @ TRIA, Piyavate Hospital, 998 Rimklongsamsen Road, Bangkok, 10310, Thailand, .
Metabolic Brain Disease (Impact Factor: 2.64). 05/2012; 27(4). DOI: 10.1007/s11011-012-9316-8
Source: PubMed


Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and depression are considered to be neuro-immune disorders (Maes and Twisk, BMC Medicine 8:35, 2010). There is also evidence that depression and ME/CFS are accompanied by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and by increased autoantibodies to a number of self-epitopes some of which have become immunogenic due to damage by O&NS. The aim of this study is to examine IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to different self-epitopes in ME/CFS versus depression. We examined serum IgM antibodies to three anchorage molecules (palmitic and myristic acid and S-farnesyl-L-cysteine); acetylcholine; and conjugated NO-modified adducts in 26 patients with major depression; 16 patients with ME/CFS, 15 with chronic fatigue; and 17 normal controls. Severity of fatigue and physio-somatic (F&S) symptoms was measured with the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating Scale. Serum IgM antibodies to the three anchorage molecules and NO-phenylalanine were significantly higher in ME/CFS than in depression. The autoimmune responses to oxidatively, but not nitrosatively, modified self-epitopes were significantly higher in ME/CFS than in depression and were associated with F&S symptoms. The autoimmune activity directed against conjugated acetylcholine did not differ significantly between ME/CFS and depression, but was greater in the patients than controls. Partially overlapping pathways, i.e. increased IgM antibodies to a multitude of neo-epitopes, underpin both ME/CFS and depression, while greater autoimmune responses directed against anchorage molecules and oxidatively modified neo-epitopes discriminate patients with ME/CFS from those with depression. These autoimmune responses directed against neoantigenic determinants may play a role in the dysregulation of key cellular functions in both disorders, e.g. intracellular signal transduction, cellular differentiation and apoptosis, but their impact may be more important in ME/CFS than in depression.

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Available from: Frank N.M. Twisk, Mar 19, 2015
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    • "sum of the Z values of IgM responses to malondialdehyde, azelaic acid, phosphatidylinositol and oleic acid) and nitrosative stress (i.e. sum of the Z values of IgM responses to NO-cysteinyl, NO-tryptophan, NO-tyrosine and NO-arginine) were assayed as described previously (Maes et al. 2012a;2012c;2012d;). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is now evidence that specific subgroups of patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) suffer from a neuro-psychiatric-immune disorder. This study was carried out to delineate the expression of the activation markers CD38 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR on CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Methods: Proportions and absolute numbers of peripheral lymphocytes expressing CD3+, CD19+, CD4+, CD8+, CD38+ and HLA-DR+ were measured in ME/CFS (n=139), chronic fatigue (CF, n=65) and normal controls (n=40). Results: The proportions of CD3+, CD8+, CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ were significantly higher in ME/CFS patients than controls, while CD38+, CD8+CD38+, CD8+HLA-DR+ and CD38+HLA-DR+ were significantly higher in ME/CFS than CF. The percentage of CD19+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly lower in ME/CFS and CF than in controls. There were highly significant inverse correlations between the increased expression of CD38+, especially that of CD8+CD38+, and the lowered CD4+/CD8+ ratio and CD19+ expression. There were no significant associations between the flow cytometric results and severity or duration of illness and peripheral blood biomarkers of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS, i.e. IgM responses to O&N modified epitopes), leaky gut (IgM or IgA responses to LPS of gut commensal bacteria), cytokines (interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α), neopterin, lysozyme and autoimmune responses to serotonin. Conclusions: The results support that a) increased CD38 and HLA-DR expression on CD8+ T cells are biomarkers of ME/CFS; b) increased CD38 antigen expression may contribute to suppression of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio and CD19+ expression; c) there are different immune subgroups of ME/CFS patients, e.g. increased CD8+ activation marker expression versus inflammation or O&NS processes; and d) viral infections or reactivation may play a role in a some ME/CFS patients.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that major depression is characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS). The aim of this study is to examine IgM-mediated autoimmune responses against a variety of modified neo-epitopes formed by O&NS damage to self-epitopes in chronic depression. METHODS: Serum IgM antibodies directed against conjugated oleic and azelaic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), phosphatidyl inositol (Pi), and conjugated nitric-oxide (NO) adducts, i.e., NO-tryptophan, NO-tyrosine, NO-arginine, and NO-cysteinyl, were determined in 33 healthy controls and 74 depressed patients subdivided into 28 patients with chronic (duration >2 year) and 46 without chronic depression. RESULTS: Serum IgM levels against all neoepitopes were significantly higher in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, the IgM levels were significantly higher, except Pi, in chronically depressed patients than in non-chronically depressed patients. CONCLUSIONS: Depression is characterized by IgM-related autoimmune responses directed against neo-epitopes that are normally hidden from the immune system but that became immunogenic secondary to damage by O&NS. The results show that the generation of neoantigenic determinants that lead to (auto)immune responses is strongly associated with chronic depression. DISCUSSION: The damage caused by O&NS to auto-epitopes and the consequent formation of O&NS modified neoantigenic determinants may increase the risk to develop depression and in particular chronic depression through transition to autoimmune reactions. This has implications for understanding the immuno-inflammatory and oxidative-autoimmune pathways that lead to chronic depression and neuroprogression in that illness.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: The brain is an organ predisposed to oxidative/nitrosative stress. This is especially true in the case of aging as well as several neurodegenerative diseases. Under such circumstances, a decline in the normal antioxidant defense mechanisms leads to an increase in the vulnerability of the brain to the deleterious effects of oxidative damage. Highly reactive oxygen/nitrogen species damage lipids, proteins, and mitochondrial and neuronal genes. Unless antioxidant defenses react appropriately to damage inflicted by radicals, neurons may experience microalteration, microdysfunction, and degeneration. We reviewed how oxidative and nitrosative stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and reviewed the clinical implications of various antioxidants as future targets for antidepressant treatment.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
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