Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms and disorders
Department of Psychiatry, National Aging Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.Menopause International 06/2012; 18(2):48-51. DOI: 10.1258/mi.2012.012013
The aim of this paper is to review published literature on the types and prevalences of premenstrual disorders and symptoms, and effects of these on activities of daily life and other parameters of burden of illness. The method involved review of the pertinent published literature. Premenstrual disorders vary in prevalence according to the definition or categorization. The most severe disorder being premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) affects 3-8% of women of reproductive age. This disorder focuses on psychological symptoms whereas global studies show that the most prevalent premenstrual symptoms are physical. Both psychological and physical symptoms affect women's activities of daily life. A considerable burden of illness has been shown to be associated with moderate to severe premenstrual disorders. In conclusion, premenstrual symptoms are a frequent source of concern to women during their reproductive lives and moderate to severe symptoms impact on their quality of lives.
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- "Up to 90% of menstruating women may experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (Dennerstein et al., 2012) and approximately 20% to 40% experiences moderate to severe PMS that substantially impair functioning and relationships (Halbreich et al., 2003; Rapkin and Winer, 2009). A small proportion, 3–8%, suffers from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a severe form of PMS (Dennerstein et al., 2012). The core emotional symptoms characterising PMS include depressed mood, anxiety, affective lability, anger or irritability, and feeling out of control; and typical physical symptoms include bloating, breast tenderness and headache (Freeman, 2003). "
ABSTRACT: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is common among women of reproductive age. Limited studies have investigated the long-term association between illicit drug use and PMS. The 1973-1978 cohort from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a prospective cohort study, was followed up for 13-year from 2000 to 2012. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires on all variables, including PMS, illicit drug use and a range of sociodemographic, lifestyle, reproductive and psychological factors. When the women were 22-27 years of age, over 40% use illicit drug in the last 12 months, 9% first used drug before age 15 years and approximately 35% reported PMS. Over the study period, the prevalence of drug use in the last 12 months declined whereas that of PMS remained fairly stable except an increase when they were 34-39 years old. Generalised estimating equations analysis showed that, compared to never drug users, significantly higher odds of reporting PMS were detected for illicit drug use in the last 12 months: multiple drugs (odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21, 1.43), exclusive marijuana (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08, 1.40). A higher odds of PMS was identified for age at first drug use before 15 years (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03, 1.40). Illicit drug use in the last 12 months, especially early age at first use and multiple drug use, is associated with increased risk of PMS. However current study is unable to prove causality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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- "The prevalence of dysmenorrhea confirms the findings from a recent review of longitudinal and communitybased studies reporting 2–28% severe pain in adult women , but are higher than the 12–14% reported from an earlier review of community-based United Kingdom studies including women of any age  . The reported prevalence of PMS in the literature varies widely due to different diagnostic criteria used [4,6]. As premenstrual tension is the clustering of more severe premenstrual symptoms , our findings of 33–41% are in line with the range of 20–40% of moderate-severe cases reported in a previous review  and findings from other longitudinal studies [21,22]. "
ABSTRACT: Objectives To ascertain the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and dysmenorrhea in Australia women and to examine whether there is population subgroups with distinct symptom trajectories. Study design: A prospective cohort study, including 9,671 young women random sampled from national Medicare database and followed up for 13 years, examined the prevalence, the trend and the symptom trajectories of the conditions. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of PMS and dysmenorrhea over time, their symptom trajectories, and the probability of symptom reporting at follow-up. Results The prevalence of PMS varied between 33-41% and that of dysmenorrhea between 21-26%. The probabilities of reporting PMS and dysmenorrhea were 0.75 (95% CI 0.73, 0.76) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.68, 0.72), respectively, among women who reported them in three previous consecutive surveys. Four unique trajectories were identified for both conditions. PMS was experienced by 80% of women during the study period, with normative (22.1%), late onset (21.9%), recovering (26.5%) and chronic (29.5%) groups revealed. Dysmenorrhea occurred in 60% of women with normative (38.3%), low (28.0%), recovering (17.2%) and chronic (16.5%) groups identified. Conclusions PMS and dysmenorrhea are common among young women. Both have relatively stable prevalence over time, but exhibit considerable variation at the individual level. Four subgroups of women who followed similar symptom trajectories were identified. PMS was experienced by 80% of women during the study period and it tended to be a long-lasting problem in many. Although 60% of women experienced dysmenorrhea, only a small group continuously reported it. Smoking and illicit drugs use, and smoking and obesity were more common among women with persistent PMS and dysmenorrhea respectively.
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- "Premenstrual symptoms include at least one of the first four symptoms: 1) a depressed mood; 2) tension or anxiety; 3) lower back pain; 4) decreased activity; 5) changes in appetite; and 6) physical symptoms (breast tenderness, headaches, bloating, and muscle pain). Therefore, premenstrual symptoms are a frequent source of concern for women during their reproductive lives and moderate to severe symptoms impact on their quality of life7). To deal with menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, many therapies, including medication and thermotherapy, which are types of conservative therapy, and other self-treatment methods have been prescribed to alleviate symptoms. "
ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, to investigate the efficacy of the two types of taping as methods for alleviating menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 34 unmarried women. The subjects were randomly divided into a Kinesio taping group, a spiral taping group and a control group. Subjects with a regular menstrual cycle underwent taping a total of six times; twice a week for about three weeks, starting from 14 days before menstruation and continuing until its end. Degrees of menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome were measured before the application of taping. [Results] The results revealed that Kinesio taping had significant effects on menstrual pain, while spiral taping was effective at alleviating both menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Conclusion] Both taping methods before menstruation brought significant relief to menstrual pain, which suggests that spiral taping is an effective method of alleviating premenstrual symptoms.
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