Article

Effects of Supplementation with Curcuminoids on Dyslipidemia in Obese Patients: A Randomized Crossover Trial

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Abstract

Dyslipidemia is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is also a common feature of obesity. Curcumin is a bioactive phytochemical with well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective properties. The present study investigated the hypolipidemic activity of curcumin in obese individuals. Participants (n = 30) were treated with curcuminoids (1 g/day), or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, together with anthropometric parameters and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured before and after each treatment period. Anthropometric parameters including weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, arm circumference, and body fat remained statistically unchanged by the end of trial (p > 0.05). As for the lipid profile parameters, serum triglycerides were significantly reduced following curcumin supplementation (p = 0.009). However, curcuminoids were not found to affect serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). In summary, the findings of the present study indicated that curcuminoid supplementation (1 g/day for 30 days) leads to a significant reduction in serum triglycerides concentrations but do not have a significant influence on other lipid profile parameters as well as body mass index and body fat. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Included studies were published between 2012 and 2020. Most of the studies were conducted in Iran (21 articles) [30,32,33,[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54], and the rest in Thailand (2 articles) [31,55], Pakistan (1 article) [30], Italy (1 article) [56], Germany (1 article) [57], China (1 article) [58], and Taiwan (1 article) [59]. The total number of participants was 2168, ranging from 30 to 235 per study. ...
... The total number of participants was 2168, ranging from 30 to 235 per study. The target population in most studies was type 2 diabetes (9 studies) [31,37,38,40,45,46,48,55,58] and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (8 studies) [39,42,43,47,49,50,56,60], and the rest of the studies were done on metabolic syndrome (4 studies) [30,32,53,59], obesity (3 studies) [33,51,52], polycystic ovary syndrome (2 studies) [41,54], dyslipidemia (1 study) [44], and moderately hyperlipidemic individuals (1 study) [57]. With the exception of 3 studies targeting women only [41,52,54], the rest of the studies included both genders. ...
... All studies were conducted on people with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . The design of the most articles was parallel, and only three papers had crossover designs [33,44,57]. Four studies used turmeric powder (at doses of 2100, 2400, 3000 and 3500 mg/day) for intervention [30,37,39,60], 8 studies applied curcumin (500 to 1500 mg/day) [33,38,40,41,52,54,55,59], 5 studies used curcuminoid (250 to 1000 mg/ day) [31,44,51,57,58], 2 studies used phytosomal curcumin (800 and 1000 mg/day) [47,56], 2 studies applied nano-curcumin (80 mg/day) [42,48], 1 study used phospholipid curcumin (50-250 mg/day curcumin) [43], 1 study used absorption-enhanced curcumin (1000 mg/day) [32], 2 studies used curcumin with piperine (1000 mg/day) [45,46], 1 study used curcumin formulation (500 mg/day) [49], 1 study used BIOcurcumin ® (1500 mg) [50], and one study used a phosphatidylcholine complex of curcumin (1000 mg/day) [53]. ...
Chapter
Background: Curcumin is an active molecule present in turmeric and is the main therapeutic compound. There is growing evidence that curcumin could affect various anthropometric indices. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin supplementation on anthropometric indices in obese and overweight individuals. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from inception up to February 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of curcumin supplementation on anthropometric indices including body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), arm circumference (AC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), total body fat (TBF), and visceral fat (VF) in obese and overweight individuals. The Jadad scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Result: Twenty-eight randomized controlled trials, comprising 2168 participants, were included in the systematic review. The results of 16 papers indicated that curcumin reduced at least one of the anthropometric indices among individuals with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Nevertheless, 12 articles showed that curcumin supplementation was not effective in any of the measured anthropometric factors. The included trials exhibited substantial heterogeneity in terms of the treatment protocol, follow-up duration, curcumin dosage, and background diseases of the participants. Conclusion: Clinical trials that have independently examined the effects of curcumin in obese or overweight individuals are limited. However, available studies indicate that curcumin has beneficial impacts on various anthropometric indices. Further trials with longer duration of interventions are needed to confirm these findings.
... Four RCTs with a cross-over design and similar methodologies showed no significant differences between the curcumin supplementation and placebo groups in anthropometric parameters (Table 1) [15,36,42,43]. Among these studies, three included 30 obese adults aged 18-65 years with a BMI more than or equal to 30 kg/m 2 [15,36,42]. ...
... Four RCTs with a cross-over design and similar methodologies showed no significant differences between the curcumin supplementation and placebo groups in anthropometric parameters (Table 1) [15,36,42,43]. Among these studies, three included 30 obese adults aged 18-65 years with a BMI more than or equal to 30 kg/m 2 [15,36,42]. Participants were randomized to receive either 1000 mg of curcumin per day with a bioavailability enhancer called "piperine" (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) for one month. ...
... Following a two-week washout period, individuals were crossed over to rotate regimen for another month. In either of the groups, no significant differences were found between body weight and BMI, with p > 0.05 [15,36,42]. In addition, curcumin intake showed no influence on body fat percentage, waist, arm, and hip circumferences (p > 0.05) [15]. ...
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Over the past decades, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased, thus posing a serious public health threat. Obesity is associated with the development of comorbid conditions and psychological disorders. Several lifestyle interventions have been proposed to tackle obesity; however, long-term maintenance of these interventions often proves challenging. In addition, among the different types of diets there is still a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition that will achieve the best results in weight loss. Recently, several commonly used spices such as pepper, ginger, and curcumin have been shown to play a beneficial role in obesity management. Therefore, exploring the effects of certain herbs or dietary spices on obesity may be promising. Among these spices, curcumin, which is the primary component of the spice turmeric, has gained great interest for its multiple health benefits. Several randomized controlled trials have investigated the potential favorable effects of curcumin supplementation on anthropometric measures. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of curcumin supplementation on the anthropometric indices among overweight or obese adults.
... C. longa research suggests curcuminoids are safe in both animal studies (up to 15 mg/ml) and human clinical trials (up to 2500 mg per day). However, few clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the influence of C. longa and curcuminoids supplementation on BMI, inflammation, glucose and lipids; and results have been inconclusive [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. This is most probably due to scarcity of clinical studies, complexity in the setup of clinical studies and inter-individual differences. ...
... Few clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the influence of C. longa and curcuminoids supplementation on obesity and its related disorders; however, the results were contradictory. For example, BMI has been shown to be not influenced in few studies [24][25][26][27][28] while reduced in others [29][30][31]. Although the preclinical anti-inflammatory effect of curcuminoids has been well established [46,47], the clinical evidence on the influence of curcuminoids supplementation on inflammatory parameters associated with obesity and its related diseases is scarce and inconclusive. ...
Article
Introduction Obesity is associated with chronic activation of low-grade inflammation produced mainly from adipose tissue, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Consequently, there is a need to screen for new anti-obesity medicines. Clinical evidence regarding the anti-obesity properties of Curcuma longa L. (C. longa) is inconclusive. Therefore, we aim to investigate for the first time the influence of curcuminoids and hexane extract derived from C. longa 1) On the release of pro-inflammatory adipokines from human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and induced-mononuclear cells (iMC) and 2) On the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase enzymes. Methods ASAT explants and lipopolysaccharide-iMC were treated with either curcuminoids or hexane extract of C. longa. Protein concentration, anti-lipase, anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities were evaluated employing colorimetric methods. Results Treatment of ASAT with curcuminoids or hexane extract inhibited the secretion of leptin, CCL5 and Il-1β. Treatment of iMC cells with curcuminoids or hexane extract inhibited the secretion of TNF-α, CCL5 and Il-1β and leptin was not detected. Curcuminoids possessed a significant inhibitory activity against lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that curcuminoids and C. longa exert anti-inflammatory properties on human ASAT and iMC and inhibit the activities of lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. This suggests that C. longa and curcuminoids not only may ameliorate obesity-associated comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome but may be used as a preventive approach against obesity. However, this needs in vivo validation in the future.
... Some studies have shown a significant effect of curcumin consumption on body composition in addition to its anthropometric characteristics [15,16]. In contrast, some studies have not reported its any significant effect [17][18][19]. ...
... The results of the present study showed that 6 weeks of nano-curcumin supplementation had no significant effect on lipid profile, CRP level, and anthropometric indicators (weight, BMI and WHR) in overweight girls. This is consistent with the results of Mohammadi et al. [17], but is against the results of Di Pierro et al. [22]. One of the reasons for this discrepancy is that although the subjects in both studies were overweight, the samples in Di Pierro et al.'s study had metabolic syndrome, and during the 30-day supplementation period and 30 days before it, there were interventions in the lifestyle of the subjects such as 500 kcal of calorie restriction per day and 210 minutes of physical activity per week, while in the present study, subjects had no caloric restriction and regular physical activity. ...
Article
Objective: Studies have shown that the use of herbal medicines can be effective in prevention and treatment of obesity/overweight and its related disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of nanocurcumin supplementation on anthropometric characteristics, lipid profile and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in overweight girls. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pretest/posttest design. The subjects were 24 overweight students with a mean age of 22.48±1.64 years and body mass index (BMI) of 27.53±3.29 kg/m2. After receiving written consent from the subjects, they were randomly divided into two groups of supplement (n=12) and placebo (n=12). Supplement group consumed 80 mg nanocurcumin capsule daily for 6 weeks. Anthropometric indicators (weight, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio) were measured before and after the intervention and blood samples were collected to measure lipid profile parameters (low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein) and CRP level. Data were analyzed by dependent and independent t-tests. The significance level of the tests was set at P≤0.05. Results: Nanocurcumin supplementation for 6 weeks did not significantly affect the anthropometric indicators, lipid profile parameters and CRP level (P>0.05). Conclusion: It seems that the short-term nancurcumin supplementation cannot significantly affect anthropometric characteristics, lipid profile, and CRP level in overweight girls. Therefore, long-term use and different doses of this supplement are recommended.
... CUR was also found to be beneficial in the clinical trials performed on patients suffering from obesity [149][150][151], metabolic syndrome [152][153][154] or acute coronary disease [11]. When obese individuals consumed capsules of CUR (500 mg C3 Complex (curcuminoids formula + 5 mg bioperine)) for 30 days, serum TG were decreased, as well as LDL, TC/LDL ratio, and PAB in serum [14,149,150], together with increased Zn/Cu and a reduction in Cu/Zn ratio in serum [151]. ...
... CUR was also found to be beneficial in the clinical trials performed on patients suffering from obesity [149][150][151], metabolic syndrome [152][153][154] or acute coronary disease [11]. When obese individuals consumed capsules of CUR (500 mg C3 Complex (curcuminoids formula + 5 mg bioperine)) for 30 days, serum TG were decreased, as well as LDL, TC/LDL ratio, and PAB in serum [14,149,150], together with increased Zn/Cu and a reduction in Cu/Zn ratio in serum [151]. Improved lipid status was also recorded in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, where intake of CUR extract capsules (12 weeks) or C3 Complex (8 weeks) resulted with elevated HDL concentrations and reduced LDL, TG, TC/HDL ratio, non-HDL, TC, TG, and Lp(A) [152,153]. ...
... Obesity is a significant risk factor which triggers various molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and DM [11,23]. Our previous studies demonstrated that by suppressing the pathophysiologic pathways disturbing IST improve insulin sensitivity in obese individuals [42][43][44]. However, the exact molecular pathways involved are unclear yet. ...
Article
The prevalence of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus is rising globally in epidemic proportions. Diabetes and its complications contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Increase in sedentary lifestyle and consumption of more energy-dense diet increased the incidence of obesity which is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Obesity acts as a potent upstream event that promotes molecular mechanisms involved in insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. However, the exact molecular mechanisms between obesity and diabetes are not clearly understood. In the current study, we have reviewed the molecular interactions between obesity and type 2 diabetes.
... Only Panahi et al. [33], after the use of 3 × 500 mg/day (100 mg curcuminoids per capsule) in patients for 8 weeks, noted a statistically significant decrease in TG levels. The effectiveness of curcumin in reducing TG levels has also been observed in people with metabolic syndrome [48], obesity [49], and type-2 diabetes [50]. ...
Article
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Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), formerly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes. It is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide and is a significant public health problem. In the absence of pharmacological therapy, other treatments such as diet, physical activity, or supplementation are sought. Non-pharmacological therapies may include curcumin supplementation, which has been shown to have many health-promoting properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. For this reason, we reviewed available databases to analyze publications describing the effect of curcumin supplementation on biochemical parameters in MAFLD. Nine studies (eight RCTs and one CT) based solely on supplementation of patients with curcumin were included in this review. The results from the individual trials were varied and did not allow clear conclusions. Although they suggest that curcumin shows some potential in the treatment of MAFLD, further research is needed.
... However, not all reports point in the same promising direction. For instance, Mohammadi et al. did not find a statistically significant difference in anthropometric parameters such as BMI, weight and total body fat of obese patients receiving a supplementation of curcumin at a dosage of 1 g/day compared to placebo [181]. Similar findings have been reported by Ghazimoradi et al. after curcumin administration at the same dosage in patients with metabolic syndrome over six weeks [182]. ...
Article
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The use of food supplements for weight loss purposes has rapidly gained popularity as the prevalence of obesity increases. Navigating through the vast, often low quality, literature available is challenging, as is providing informed advice to those asking for it. Herein, we provide a comprehensive literature revision focusing on most currently marketed dietary supplements claimed to favor weight loss, classifying them by their purported mechanism of action. We conclude by proposing a combination of supplements most supported by current evidence, that leverages all mechanisms of action possibly leading to a synergistic effect and greater weight loss in the foreseen absence of adverse events. Further studies will be needed to confirm the weight loss and metabolic improvement that may be obtained through the use of the proposed combination.
... Son yıllarda, dislipidemi yönetiminde curcuminoidlerin etkinliğini gösteren bir dizi çalışma yayınlanmıştır (Hasan et al., 2014;Shin, Ha, McGregor, & Choi, 2011;Um, Hwang, Ahn, & Ha, 2013) Standart bakım tedavileri gören metabolik sendromlu hastalarda, diyete kurkuminoid eklenmesi (günlük 1g dozunda) ile plazma TC, LDL-C, TG ve lipoprotein a düzeylerinde belirgin bir azalma ve HDL-C seviyesinde artış gözlemlenmiştir (Panahi, Khalili, Hosseini, Abbasinazari, & Sahebkar, 2014). Yine sonu yıllarda yayımlanan iki raporda, metabolik sendromlu (Y. S. Yang et al., 2014) ve obez bireylerde (Mohammadi et al., 2013) kurkuminoidlerin önemli TG düşürücü etkisinin olduğunu gösterilmiştir. Kurkuminoidlerin yüksek dozlarda dahi güvenilir olduğu düşünülmektedir (Cheng et al., 2001). ...
Article
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Cholesterol is always an issue because blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein correlate strongly with coronary heart disease. Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by a complex mechanism of sterol absorption, anabolism, catabolism and excretion. In recent years, nutraceuticals and functional foods have attracted much interest as possible alternative therapies for dyslipidemia. Nutraceuticals and functional foods which lower total cholesterol must affect the genes which regulate cholesterol homeostasis. In general, cholesterol-lowering functional foods and nutraceuticals can be classified into seven types namely intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) competitors, intestinal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) inhibitors, 3- hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, LDL receptor up-regulators, bile acid reabsorption inhibitors, plasma cholesteryl ester transporting protein (CETP) inhibitors and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) activators. This review examines some important cholesterol lowering nutraceuticals and functional foods and their cholesterol lowering mechanisms.
... Ramirez-Bosca et al. showed that daily treatment with curcumin can decrease the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in healthy subjects [8]. In addition, Mohammadi et al. [9] demonstrated that one-month oral administration of curcumin (1 gram/day) could reduce the triglycerides concentrations in obese subjects. Rahimi et al., in a randomized trial, highlighted that curcumin reduces HbA1c during three months of therapy [10]. ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is an important issue for public health, and it is growing in the world. In recent years, there has been a growing research interest on efficacy evidence of the curcumin use in the regulation of glycemia and lipidaemia. The molecular structure of curcumins allows to intercept reactive oxygen species (ROI) that are particularly harmful in chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis models. The aim of our study performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of curcumin on glycemic and lipid profile in subjects with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes. The papers included in the meta-analysis were sought in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases as of October 2020. The sizes were pooled across studies in order to obtain an overall effect size. A random effects model was used to account for different sources of variation among studies. Cohen’s d, with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as a measure of the effect size. Heterogeneity was assessed while using Q statistics. The ANOVA-Q test was used to value the differences among groups. Publication bias was analyzed and represented by a funnel plot. Curcumin treatment does not show a statistically significant reduction between treated and untreated patients. On the other hand, glycosylated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) showed a statistically significant reduction in subjects that were treated with curcumin, respectively (p = 0.008, p < 0.001, p = 0.021). When considering HBA1c, the meta-regressions only showed statistical significance for gender (p = 0.034). Our meta-analysis seems to confirm the benefits on glucose metabolism, with results that appear to be more solid than those of lipid metabolism. However, further studies are needed in order to test the efficacy and safety of curcumin in uncomplicated type 2 diabetes.
... The authors speculated that the upregulation of the hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA they observed in the rats could be responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic activity of curcumin (50). In a randomised crossover trial in obese patients, 1g -1 .day of curcuminoids resulted in reduced serum triglycerides but did not have a significant impact on the lipid profile and BMI of the participants (51). ...
Article
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Despite the rising global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a collection of cardio-metabolic risk factors that predispose individuals who have them to the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, its management is still based on the treatment of the different risk factors. There is currently no single therapeutic agent that is used for the concurrent treatment of all the risk factors. The current push for the use of natural products in the management of diseases has inspired research into the beneficial effects of many plant products. Curcumin is a bioactive curcuminoid from the rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa) that has been shown to possess anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-hypertensive properties amongst others. These properties are closely linked to the ability of curcumin to act on several molecular targets in the body to bring about its effects. Considering these anti-MetS activities of curcumin, it holds promise as a potential therapeutic agent for the holistic treatment of the syndrome.
... The FVG decreased from 203.9 mg/dL to 197.3 mg/dL (p¼.070) and HbA1c decreased from 8.6% to 8.5% (p¼.028) in the EG. Corroborating these data, clinical trials conducted in countries such as India, South Africa, Italy and Iran also proved the effectiveness of curcumin in decreasing glycaemic parameters of T2DM patients (Mohammadi et al. 2013;Neerati et al. 2014;Panahi et al. 2017;Pivari et al. 2019). ...
Article
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There is robust evidence of using Curcuma longa L. in reducing metabolic levels in people with diabetes. This study analysed the effectiveness of Curcuma longa L. in the metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes in Brazil. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with 71 participants divided into a Curcuma longa L. group (500 mg/day with piperine 5 mg) and a placebo group, for 120 days. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline, 60 and 120 days after the beginning of the intervention. Paired and independent Student's t-test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. The curcuma group presented a significantly decreased glycaemia (p=.013), glycated haemoglobin (p=.015), HOMA index (p=.037) and triglycerides (TGs) (p=.002). The use of piperine-added Curcuma longa L. was effective in the glycaemic and TG control of patients with type 2 diabetes.
... The subjects of this study consumed 193 mg curcuminoids/d for 12 weeks. A similar outcome was reported in a study with obese people that consumed 193 mg curcuminoids/day for 30 days (Mohammadi et al., 2013). It is also relevant to mention that another study with chronic smokers also support the health benefits associated with the consumption of curcumin (Barber-Chamoux et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is an important condiment used in the culinary of several countries to spice and give a more intense yellow color to food. The importance of this root has gained more attention due to the presence of bioactive compounds known as curcuminoids (the main class of phenolic compounds found in turmeric). The health benefits attributed to curcuminoids are mainly linked to curcumin, the major compound among curcu-minoids. Scientific evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials indicate that turmeric extracts (rich in curcumin) and curcumin can effectively improve the status of subjects by reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as well as assisting in the management of illness. The present review aims to highlight the use of green extraction technologies to obtain curcuminoid-rich extracts and the health benefits associated with the consumption of turmeric extracts and curcumin (as dietary supplements) against cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, and mental disorders at clinical trial level. The current knowledge about the development of functional foods with curcumin is also discussed.
... Curcuminoids modulate gene expression and the activity of enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism, with a decrease in plasma triglycerides and cholesterol [46], as well as an increase in HDL-C [47]. Moreover, a number of studies demonstrated the induction of cellular apoptosis by curcumin, as well as its antiangiogenic action, with applications in cancer treatment [48][49][50][51]. ...
Article
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Scaling and root planing represent the gold standard in the treatment of periodontal disease, but these therapeutic methods cannot eliminate the remaining periodontopathogenic bacteria in cement, tubules, and periodontal soft tissue. Thus, a number of additional therapeutic means have been adopted, including local and systemic antibiotic therapy, as well as the use of photodynamic therapy techniques. Recently, special attention has been paid to potential phytotherapeutic means in the treatment of periodontal disease. In this review, we aim to present the effects generated by the extract of Curcuma longa, the various forms of application of turmeric as an additional therapeutic means, as well as the aspects related to its biotolerance.
... By improving insulin sensitivity [41] [42], reducing adipogensis [43], and reducing blood pressure [44], inflammation [45], and oxidative stress [46] [47], curcumin was shown to reduce several forms of cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that the curcuminoids modulate gene encoding and enzymatic expression in lipid metabolism, ultimately leading to plasma-decreased triglycerides and cholesterol as well as a boost in high cholesterol of lipoprotein [48] [49]. Obesity and overweight also are linked to lower chronic inflammation; and although precise mechanisms are not specific, pro-inflammatory cytokines are reported to be produced. ...
Article
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From the evolution of the mankind, Turmeric has been used in conventional medication. India is in lead for producing, marketing and exporting the Turmeric and its value added products. Curcuma longa (Turmeric) is an In-dian rhizomatous medicinal herb from the Zingiberaceae family that is common and widely available across the globe. The components of Turmeric are curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin and these are collectively known as curcuminoids. Curcumin, the active ingredient of Tur-meric is generally investigated by the scientific community for its wide range of antioxidant activity, anti-Inflammatory properties and anti-cancer activity, anti-metabolic syndrome activities, neuroprotective activity, antimicrobial effects, anti-arthritis effects, anti-viral effects, anti-asthma and anti-diabetic effects , anti-obesity, cardio and liver toxicity protection activity, anti-depression How to cite this paper: Sahoo, and anxiety activities. Turmeric has been widely used as a typical household treatment for cough, sore throat, respiratory ailments and could be an effective immunity booster against SARS-CoV-2 therapy during the ongoing pandemic situation. Safety evaluation studies indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, turmeric and its constituents have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases. So in this review, we describe the various metabolic roles of curcumin and activities for the benefit of human health.
... 71,[74][75][76] Table 2 summarizes the human studies examining the effects of ginger on weight control and energy metabolism in the literature. [78][79][80][81][82][83][84] More human studies are needed to make sound definitive judgments about the effects of turmeric on energy metabolism. found that the mice receiving a 0.3% ginger extract in their diet had higher oxygen consumption and a higher lipid-oxidation rate than the control group's. ...
Context: Energy metabolism is the main determinant of obesity etiology. Consumption of some spices, such as red pepper, ginger, and turmeric, can be considered to be an environmental factor affecting energy metabolism. Objective: This review aimed to examine the effects of red pepper, ginger, and turmeric on weight control, weight loss, and energy metabolism. Design: The research team performed a narrative review by searching the Google scholar, Scopus, PubMed, ResearchGate, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases. The search used the keywords red pepper, ginger, and turmeric in combination with energy metabolism, energy expenditure, energy balance, thermogenesis, anti-obesity, weight management, weight control, weight loss, metabolic rate, and oxygen consumption, without considering any time limitation. Setting: This study has been carried out in Ankara / Turkey. Results: Red pepper, ginger, and turmeric affect energy metabolism through various mechanisms. Dietary red pepper and its pungent principle capsaicin affects satiety and has a promising thermogenic influence. Ginger has positive effects on weight control, obesity prevention, and energy metabolism. In addition, curcumin inhibits the conversion of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes. Conclusions: Red pepper, ginger, and turmeric affect energy metabolism using mechanisms related to thermal effect, BMR, total energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and lipid oxidation. These spices haven't been assigned appropriate doses and periods of use, and no definite judgments can be made on their use. Therefore, it's necessary to conduct further randomized controlled research to reach absolute conclusions and determine by which mechanisms these spices show this effect on energy metabolism.
... The beneficial effect of curcumin has been reported by some preclinical and clinical investigations which showed that curcumin and other dietary polyphenols reduce body weight, ameliorate insulin sensitivity, and prevent diabetes development both in rodent models and in prediabetic subjects [132]. We also found improvements in insulin actions by significantly decreased serum triglyceride levels after curcumin treatment and reducing the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in the serum levels of obese individuals [133,134]. Recent studies suggest that there are some links to changes in gut microbiota because of the metabolic effects of curcumin and polyphenols. In this way, research into the supplementation of curcumin continues to provide novel insights into metabolic regulation and its effectiveness in reducing the oxidative stress burden in obese individuals. ...
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Abstract: Obesity represents one of the most important challenges in the contemporary world that must be overcome. Different pathological consequences of these physical conditions have been studied for more than 30 years. The most nagging effects were found early in the cardiovascular system. However, later, its negative impact was also investigated in several other organs. Damage at cellular structures due to overexpression of reactive oxygen species together with mechanisms that cause under-production of antioxidants leads to the development of obesity-related complications. In this view, the negative results of oxidant molecules due to obesity were studied in various districts of the body. In the last ten years, scientific literature has reported reasonable evidence regarding natural and synthetic compounds’ supplementation, which showed benefits in reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in animal models of obesity. This article attempts to clarify the role of oxidative stress due to obesity and the opposing role of antioxidants to counter it, reported in preclinical studies. This analysis aims to clear-up different mechanisms that lead to the build-up of pro-oxidants during obesity and how various molecules of different origins hinder this phenomenon, behaving as antioxidants.
... Turmeric and curcuminoids, such as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, have been described for their lipid-lowering effects in several preclinical and clinical studies (124)(125)(126)(127)(128)(129)(130)(131)(132)(133)(134). Curcumin is able to improve the metabolic status, decreasing serum triglycerides (TG) levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice (124,125). ...
... Clinical trials for the antiobesity effects of curcumin are limited. Several studies have shown that curcumin supplementation could reduce body weight, waist, and hip circumference and body fat (Mousavi, Milajerdi, Varkaneh, Gorjipour, & Esmaillzadeh, 2020) in obese subjects while others showed no change (Mohammadi et al., 2013). ECGC also produced impressive antiadipogenic effects but clinical trials on humans revealed results disparity (I. ...
Article
Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems in both developed and developing countries in recent years. While lifestyle and diet modifications are the most important management strategies of obesity, these may be insufficient to ensure long‐term weight reduction in certain individuals and alternative strategies including pharmacotherapy need to be considered. However, drugs option remains limited due to low efficacy and adverse effects associated with their use. Hence, identification of safe and effective alternative therapeutic agents remains warranted to combat obesity. In recent years, bioactive phytochemicals are considered as valuable sources for the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment of obesity. Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia increases with obesity and undergo molecular and cellular alterations that can affect systemic metabolism giving rise to metabolic syndrome and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Many phytochemicals have been reported to target adipocytes by inhibiting adipogenesis, inducing lipolysis, suppressing the differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes, reducing energy intake, and boosting energy expenditure mainly in vitro and in animal studies. Nevertheless, further high‐quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of these phytochemicals. This review outlines common pathways involved in adipogenesis and phytochemicals targeting effector molecules of these pathways, the challenges faced and the way forward for the development of phytochemicals as antiobesity agents.
... More than half of the studies were conducted in Iran [23-25, 29-33, 35, 40-44, 46, 47], and remainder were conducted in Thailand, Kentucky (USA), Italy, Japan, China, Australia, or Taiwan [36-39, 45, 48, 49]. Six trials were conducted on patients with type 2 diabetes [24,35,37,45,47,48], two on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [30,31], six on NAFLD [23,25,33,[40][41][42]46], one on coronary artery disease [43], one on patients with dyslipidemia [44], two on metabolic syndrome [29,49], two on obese or overweight participants [32,36], and two on patients with impaired glucose tolerance [38,39]. The intervention periods ranged from 4 to 24 weeks. ...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death worldwide. Lipid abnormalities are one of the major risk factors for CVD. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with lipid-lowering properties. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review to summarize the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of curcumin on lipid profile in patients at risk of CVD. A comprehensive systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to March 1, 2020, to identify controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of curcumin on lipid profile in patients at risk of CVD. From 1051 initially identified studies, 22 met the eligibility criteria. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced at least one of the lipid profile indices (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) in 15 studies and improved more than one index in five studies. However, curcumin had no effect on any of lipid profile indices in seven studies. Overall, studies using a bioavailable formulation of curcumin had a better impact on the lipid profile. The findings of this systematic review showed that curcumin supplementation significantly reduced at least one of the lipid profile indices in more than two-thirds of the included studies. Curcumin might be used as an accessible, inexpensive, and safe agent to reduce risk of CVD. More randomized, clinical controlled trials are needed to verify these results.
... Curcumin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and chemopreventive properties [8], possibly by inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation and inflammation, as well as activating cellular antioxidants [9]. Clinical evidence supports the bioactivity of curcumin in promoting weight loss and reducing the triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with diabetes [10,11]. The pharmacological activity of turmeric is primarily derived from curcuminoids, which are a mixture of curcumin and its demethoxy derivatives, including demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC). ...
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Curcumin is a known anti-adipogenic agent for alleviating obesity and related disorders. Comprehensive comparisons of the anti-adipogenic activity of curcumin with other curcuminoids is minimal. This study compared adipogenesis inhibition with curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), and their underlying mechanisms. We differentiated 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of curcuminoids, to determine lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) production. The expression of adipogenic transcription factors and lipogenic proteins was analyzed by Western blot. A significant reduction in Oil red O (ORO) staining was observed in the cells treated with curcuminoids at 20 μM. Inhibition was increased in the order of curcumin < DMC < BDMC. A similar trend was observed in the detection of intracellular TG. Curcuminoids suppressed differentiation by downregulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), leading to the downregulation of the lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation was also activated by BDMC. Curcuminoids reduced the release of proinflammatory cytokines and leptin in 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with BDMC showing the greatest potency. BDMC at 20 μM significantly decreased leptin by 72% compared with differentiated controls. Molecular docking computation indicated that curcuminoids, despite having structural similarity, had different interaction positions to PPARγ, C/EBPα, and ACC. The docking profiles suggested a possible interaction of curcuminoids with C/EBPα and ACC, to directly inhibit their expression.
... Curcumin is a bioactive compound of turmeric. Besides curcumin's various health benefits, widespread molecular targets have been shown to interact with curcumin (Esatbeyoglu et al. 2012; Mohammadi et al. 2013). The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin are well-recognized attributable to its effects on the activity of COX-2, lipoxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS enzymes and inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (Goel et al. 2008). ...
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Obesity is abnormal fat accumulation in the body which acts as a risk factor for various cardiometabolic states. Adipose tissue in excess can release inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and IL-6, and suppress adiponectin production. TNF-α increases the levels of IL-6 and acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein. Inflammation has a crucial role in developing and progressing various cardiometabolic diseases and a wide range of obesity-related complications. It has been shown that TNF-α has a significant role in the development of insulin resistance. Recently, a growing body of evidence has focused on herbal medicine, phytochemicals and natural bioactive compounds as inexpensive, relatively easy accessible agents with low adverse effects to reduce inflammatory markers such as TNF-α and simultaneously decrease insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia in obesity. The main focus of the current review is to summarize the results of the studies, which assessed the effects of phytochemicals and herbal bio-active compounds on serum TNF-α in subjects with overweight or obesity. This review suggests that herbal medicine have favorable effects on the reduction of TNF-α concentration; however, the results were not uniform for different products. Among the reviewed plants, ginger, ginseng, resveratrol, and flaxseed had more promising effects.
... In one clinical study, obese subjects were treated with a commercial formulation of curcumin supplemented with a bioavailability enhancer, piperine, for one month. Although there were no changes in weight, BMI or body fat, serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased after curcumin treatment, indicating the improvement of insulin's action [100]. ...
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Obesity is an increasingly severe public health problem, which brings huge social and economic burdens. Increased body adiposity in obesity is not only tightly associated with type 2 diabetes, but also significantly increases the risks of other chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver diseases and cancers. Adipogenesis describes the process of the differentiation and maturation of adipocytes, which accumulate in distributed adipose tissue at various sites in the body. The major functions of white adipocytes are to store energy as fat during periods when energy intake exceeds expenditure and to mobilize this stored fuel when energy expenditure exceeds intake. Brown/beige adipocytes contribute to non-shivering thermogenesis upon cold exposure and adrenergic stimulation, and thereby promote energy consumption. The imbalance of energy intake and expenditure causes obesity. Recent interest in epigenetics and signaling pathways has utilized small molecule tools aimed at modifying obesity-specific gene expression. In this review, we discuss compounds with adipogenesis-related signaling pathways and epigenetic modulating properties that have been identified as potential therapeutic agents which cast some light on the future treatment of obesity.
... In addition, this compound can affect adiposity and lipid metabolism through several mechanisms, including the modulation of energy metabolism and inflammation [55]. In clinical practice, there is evidence about the effectiveness of curcumin supplementation in reducing the levels of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol [36,56,57], which suggests its hypocholesterolemic effect [17]. ...
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Exhaustive and acute unusual physical exercise leads to muscle damage. Curcumin has been widely studied due to the variety of its biological activities, attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, it has shown positive effects on physical exercise practitioners. However, there is no literature consensus on the beneficial effects of curcumin in acute physical activities performed by sedentary individuals. Therefore, we systematically reviewed evidence from clinical trials on the main effects of curcumin supplementation on inflammatory markers, sports performance, and muscle damage during acute physical exercises in these individuals. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases, and only original studies were analyzed according to the PRISMA guidelines. The included studies were limited to supplementation of curcumin during acute exercise. A total of 5 studies were selected. Methodological quality assessments were examined using the SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool. Most studies have shown positive effects of curcumin supplementation in sedentary individuals undergoing acute physical exercise. Overall, participants supplemented with curcumin showed less muscle damage, reduced inflammation, and better muscle performance. The studies showed heterogeneous data and exhibited methodological limitations; therefore, further research is necessary to ensure curcumin supplementation benefits during acute and high-intensity physical exercises. Additionally, mechanistic and highly controlled studies are required to improve the quality of the evidence and to elucidate other possible mechanisms. This study is registered with Prospero number CRD42021262718.
... Curcumin was administered at a daily dose of 1 g (500 mg b.i.d.), a dose that was found to be effective and safe in previous trials. [22][23][24] Since curcumin is a fat-soluble component, and also displays higher bioavailability in acidic pH, participants were asked to take capsules after meals (lunch and dinner). The shape and size of the supplements and placebo capsules were identical, with all tablets manufactured by KAREN Company (Yazd, Iran). ...
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Background: Migraine is a prevalent health condition associated with significant pain and disability. Neurogenic inflammation has a key role in migraine pathophysiology. Curcumin is a well-known herb compound with anti-inflammatory function. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin supplementation on clinical features, as well as on serum levels of calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 44 women with migraine, receiving either 500 mg curcumin twice a day or placebo supplements for 8 weeks. Serum CGRP and IL-6 concentration, and clinical symptoms including headache severity, duration and frequency were measured at the baseline and end of study. Results: After 8-week intervention, compared with placebo, curcumin supplementation led to significand reduction in CGRP (P < 0.001), IL-6 (P = 0.041), severity (P = 0.001), and duration of headache (P = 0.007). Headache frequency showed marginal improvement in curcumin group, compared to controls (P = 0.052). Within-analysis indicated significant decrease in CGRP and severity (P < 0.001), frequency (P = 0.014) and duration (P = 0.003) and no significant decrease in IL-6 (P = 0.454), compared to baseline in curcumin group. There were no significant changes in body mass index (BMI), weight, percent body fat (PBF), and percent body muscle (PBM) between the two groups. Conclusions: Curcumin supplementation improved the pro-inflammatory markers and clinical features of migraine headaches and that could be contributed to could be to its anti-inflammatory properties.
... Curcumin was administered at a daily dose of 1 g (500 mg b.i.d.), a dose that was found to be effective and safe in previous trials. [22][23][24] Since curcumin is a fat-soluble component, and also displays higher bioavailability in acidic pH, participants were asked to take capsules after meals (lunch and dinner). The shape and size of the supplements and placebo capsules were identical, with all tablets manufactured by KAREN Company (Yazd, Iran). ...
Article
Full-text available
ackground: Migraine is a prevalent health condition associated with significant pain and disability. Neurogenic inflammation has a key role in migraine pathophysiology. Curcumin is a well-known herb compound with anti-inflammatory function. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin supplementation on clinical features, as well as on serum levels of calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 44 women with migraine, receiving either 500 mg curcumin twice a day or placebo supplements for 8 weeks. Serum CGRP and IL-6 concentration, and clinical symptoms including headache severity, duration and frequency were measured at the baseline and end of study. Results: After 8-week intervention, compared with placebo, curcumin supplementation led to significand reduction in CGRP (P < 0.001), IL-6 (P = 0.041), severity (P = 0.001), and duration of headache (P = 0.007). Headache frequency showed marginal improvement in curcumin group, compared to controls (P = 0.052). Within-analysis indicated significant decrease in CGRP and severity (P < 0.001), frequency (P = 0.014) and duration (P = 0.003) and no significant decrease in IL-6 (P = 0.454), compared to baseline in curcumin group. There were no significant changes in body mass index (BMI), weight, percent body fat (PBF), and percent body muscle (PBM) between the two groups. Conclusions: Curcumin supplementation improved the pro-inflammatory markers and clinical features of migraine headaches and that could be contributed to could be to its anti-inflammatory properties.
... A small randomized controlled trial on 44 overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome showed that curcumin administration is associated with reduced body fat and BMI [132]. A crossover trial with 30 obese subjects revealed a reduction in triglycerides and total HDL-and LDL-cholesterol, whereas body fat and BMI were not changed [133]. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with 65 subjects with metabolic syndrome showed a decrease in triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, but no weight loss or changes in the glucose homeostasis [134]. ...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) contribute to a large part of worldwide mortality. Similarly, two of the major risk factors for these diseases, aging and obesity, are also global problems. Aging, the gradual decline of body functions, is non-modifiable. Obesity, a modifiable risk factor for CVDs, also predisposes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Moreover, it affects not only the vasculature and the heart but also specific fat depots, which themselves have a major impact on the development and progression of CVDs. Common denominators of aging, obesity, and T2DM include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic abnormalities such as altered lipid profiles and glucose metabolism, and inflammation. Several plant substances such as curcumin, the major active compound in turmeric root, have been used for a long time in traditional medicine and for the treatment of CVDs. Newer mechanistic, animal, and human studies provide evidence that curcumin has pleiotropic effects and attenuates numerous parameters which contribute to an increased risk for CVDs in aging as well as in obesity. Thus, curcumin as a nutraceutical could hold promise in the prevention of CVDs, but more standardized clinical trials are required to fully unravel its potential.
Article
This review aims to evaluate if there are clinical benefits of curcumin (CUR) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar) were systematically searched to identify only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that assessed CUR in patients with PCOS from inception to May 5, 2021. Five RCTs were included with a total of 296 patients, with 148 among the CUR groups and 148 patients among the control group. Revised Cochrane risk‐of‐bias tool for randomized trials was used to assess the risk of bias, three RCTs provided a low risk of bias and two provided a high risk of bias. Compared with the control group, CUR was associated with a statistically significant improvement in the glycemic control including fasting blood glucose (MD = −3.67; 95% CI = [−5.25, −2.08], p < .00001), insulin level (MD = −1.91; 95% CI = [−2.97, −0.84], p = .0005), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (MD = −0.55; 95% CI = [−0.83, −0.27], p = .0001), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (MD = 0.01; 95% CI = [0.00, 0.02], p = .0005). The mean difference in total cholesterol was also statistically significant (MD = −15.55; 95% CI = [−30.33, −0.76], p < .04). The rest of the secondary outcomes, including LDL, HDL, sex hormone, body weight, and CRP, were not statistically significant. This review concluded that among patients with PCOS, the use of CUR demonstrated a significant difference from the control group for glycemic control. Those findings suggest that CUR confers clinical benefits in patients with PCOS. However, due to the limited number of the included studies, further high‐quality studies are needed to establish the clinical efficacy of the CUR.
Article
Context Chronic inflammation is a major contributor to the development of noncommunicable diseases. Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol from turmeric, is a well-known anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical research. Clinical evidence remains inconclusive because of discrepancies regarding optimal dosage, duration, and formulation of curcumin. Objective The aim of this systematic review, conducted and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and checklist, was to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin supplementation on systemic inflammatory mediators, comparing dose, duration, and bioavailability status of interventions. Data Sources The Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane literature databases were searched from 1980 to May-end 2019. Randomized controlled trials investigating effects of dietary curcumin on inflammatory mediators in humans not receiving anti-inflammatory treatment were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed titles and abstracts of identified articles for potential eligibility and respective, retrieved, full-text articles; disagreements were resolved by a third author. Evidence quality was critically appraised using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Data Extraction Thirty-two trials (N = 2,038 participants) were included and 28 were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model; effect sizes were expressed as Hedges’ g (95%CI). Data Analysis Pooled data (reported here as weighted mean difference [WMD]; 95%CI) showed a reduction in C-reactive protein (−1.55 mg/L; −1.81 to −1.30), interleukin-6 (−1.69 pg/mL, −2.56 to −0.82), tumor necrosis factor α (−3.13 pg/mL; −4.62 to −1.64), IL-8 (−0.54 pg/mL; −0.82 to −0.28), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (−2.48 pg/mL; −3.96 to −1.00), and an increase in IL-10 (0.49 pg/mL; 0.10 to 0.88), with no effect on intracellular adhesion molecule-1. Conclusion These findings provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and support further investigation to confirm dose, duration, and formulation to optimize anti-inflammatory effects in humans with chronic inflammation. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration no. CRD42019148682.
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The present study investigated the consumption of clarified goat butter (with or without turmeric) on physical, hepatic, biochemical parameters and lipid peroxidation in the livers of male adolescent Wistar rats aged 35 days. Four groups were formed: control (CONT) – treated with distilled water; Turmeric (CM): treated with 60 mg/kg of turmeric; Clarified goat butter (BT): treated with 2000 mg/kg of goat butter and Goat butter mixed with turmeric (BTCM): received 2000 mg/kg of goat butter added with turmeric. Data showed a reduction in the liver fat in CM and BT in relation to the CONT and BTCM. Aspartate aminotransferase was decreased in the CM, BT and BTCM compared to CONT. CM presented reduced glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides (TC) and increased HDL. The BT presented decreased in TC and LDL. BTCM showed reduction in TC, LDL, and HDL. Lipid peroxidation increased in all experimental groups. There was a reduction in the saturated fatty acids in CM liver; BT and BTCM showed higher deposition of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. In conclusion, the consumption of clarified goat butter improved plama lipids but reduced HDL, did not elevated fat liver or liver enzimes but lipid peroxidation was increased. Thus, combined supplementation with clarified goat butter complemented with turmeric did not result in additional benefits when the treatment occurred during adolescence.
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to cartilage damage with mostly accompanied by metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin supplementation on metabolic parameters (lipid profile and glycemic indices), inflammatory factors, visfatin levels, and obesity values in women with RA. This randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical trial was conducted on 48 women with RA. The patients were treated with curcumin (500 mg once a day) or placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, and physical activity levels of subjects were collected at baseline and the end of the study. Curcumin supplementation significantly decreased homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum levels of high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein and triglycerides, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference of patients compared with the placebo at the end of the study (p < .05 for all). HOMA‐IR and triglyceride levels significantly increased within the placebo group. Changes in fasting blood sugar, insulin, other lipids profile, and visfatin levels were not significant in any of the groups (p > .05). These results support the consumption of curcumin, as a part of an integrated approach to modulate metabolic factors, inflammation, and adiposity in women with RA.
Article
Background and aims Metabolic diseases are globally popular, and a systematic review and meta-analysis of turmeric and curcuminoids on glucose metabolism among people with metabolic diseases was performed. Design We comprehensively searched Web of Science, PubMed, Ovid (including EMBASE and MEDLINE), Scopus, the Cochrane Library and two Chinese databases, Wanfang and CNKI for RCTs that focused on the effects of turmeric and curcuminoids on fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), fasting serum insulin (FSI) and HOMA-IR among patients with metabolic diseases. The FBG and HbA1c were the main outcomes to be analyzed. With random-effects models, separate meta-analyses were conducted by inverse-variance and reported as WMD with 95% CIs. Results Evidence from 17 RCTs including 22 trials showed that turmeric and curcuminoids lowered FBG by -7.86 mg/dL (95% CI: -12.04, -3.67 mg/dL; P = 0.0002), HbA1c by -0.38% (95% CI: -0.52%, -0.23%; P < 0.00001) and HOMA-IR by -1.01 (95% CI: -1.6, -0.42; P = 0.0008). Moreover, they decreased fasting serum insulin by -1.69 mU/L (95% CI: -3.22, -0.16 mU/L; P = 0.03) after more than 8 weeks of intervention in a subgroup analysis. Conclusions Turmeric and curcuminiods decrease FBG, HbA1c and HOMA-IR significantly among subjects with metabolic disease. Additionally, they may have an effect on FSI concentrations if the intervention period is more than 8 weeks. However, attention should be paid to these outcomes due to the significant heterogeneity.
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Diabesity represents a classic example of a multifactorial disease. The current strategy for the treatment of diabesity is the inhibition of enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism using various drugs. Side effects caused by the drugs available in the market for the treatment of diabesity have necessitated the discovery and development of new novel drugs. In recent years natural molecules have gained importance in the management of multifactorial disease. These molecules are multitargeted in nature and can be useful in the management of diabesity. Some natural molecules are able to regulate gene expression involved in metabolic pathways like adiponectin gene expression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Apart from gene regulation they are able to inhibit the metabolic enzymes like lipases, amylases and glucosidases. Plants present good sources of natural multifunctional molecules. A number of natural molecules including flavonoids have been reported for multifunctionality. The structural configuration of flavonoids affects the enzymatic activity of lipases and glucosidases which can be useful for designing and development of new drugs for targeting diabesity. The consumption of food in the form of medicine can add a new dimension to the existing drug market. The further acceptance of natural molecules will need to be supported by large clinical studies including studies for toxicity and bioavailability. The present review will provide insight into the anti-diabesity potential of multifunctional natural molecules and will also explain some of the natural molecules in terms of biodistribution and safety. Data from clinical studies of a few such natural molecules is also presented.
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Postnatal overfeeding could increase the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adulthood. This study investigated the effects of curcumin (CUR) on hepatic steatosis in postnatal overfed rats and elucidated potential mechanisms in mitochondrial functions. Male rats were adjusted to ten (normal litter, NL) or three (small litter, SL) at postnatal day 3. After weaning, NL rats were fed with normal diet (NL) or a high-fat diet (NH) for 10 weeks. SL rats were fed with normal diet (SL), a high-fat diet (SH), a normal diet supplemented with 2% CUR (SL-CUR) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% CUR (SH-CUR). At week 13, compared with NL rats, SL and NH rats showed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation, and these changes were more obvious in SH rats. The opposite trends were observed in SL-CUR and SH-CUR rats. Moreover, CUR could preserve mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant response in postnatal overfed rats, and upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of SIRT3. In vitro, L02 cells were exposed to free fatty acids and/or CUR. CUR decreased the levels of cellular lipids and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and increased the mitochondrial DNA copy number and superoxide dismutase activity in fatty L02 cells. However, these effects were blocked after SIRT3 silencing. It was concluded that postnatal overfeeding damaged mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant response, and increased hepatic lipids and the severity of high-fat-induced NAFLD, while CUR alleviated hepatic steatosis, at least partially, by enhancing mitochondrial function through SIRT3.
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Curcumin is a polyphenol which is derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. From the last few decades, it is utilized as a condiment, a flavouring and colouring agent in different food preparations. Owing to its potential , it also possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and neuroprotective actions and has shown preventive actions against various disorders such as cardiovascular, diabetes, brain and many more. In spite of numerous health benefits, the use of curcumin in humans for treatment of several diseases is limited owing to its poor aqueous solubility, wide-ranging first pass metabolism, rapid excretion, and subsequent low bio-availability. Various preclinical and clinical studies of curcumin have pointed out that curcumin plays a role in treatment of different disorders. However, many of the curcumin formulations do not comply much for their safety, stability and efficiency assessment. Henceforth, there is a need to search for an alternate method for successful commercialization of curcumin in a suitable dosage form. In this review we aim to summarize the mechanism of curcumin for treating different disorders and various clinical and preclinical studies conducted on curcumin polyphenol. Further, numerous studies have done in the past to improve its solubility which ultimately enhanced its bioavailability and therapeutic effectiveness have also been summarized.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to assess the impact of curcumin supplementation body mass index and glycemic indices in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design/methodology/approach A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, Scopus and ISI web of science to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from the earliest record up to February 2021. The authors used a random-effects model to estimate pooled effect sizes. Findings A total of four potentially related clinical trials met the inclusion criteria which included a total of 198 participants. Random-effects meta-analysis showed significant effects of curcumin on fasting blood sugar (FBS) (−3.62 mg/dl, 95% CI [−5.65, −1.58], p -value < 0.001, I ² = 0.0%), insulin level (−1.67 µU/mL, 95% CI [−3.06, −0.28], p -value = 0.018, I ² = 0.0%) and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−0.42, 95% CI [−0.76, −0.09], p -value < 0.01, I ² = 0.0%). No evidence of publication bias was discovered in the meta-analyses. Originality/value Present systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs showed beneficial effects of curcumin consumption on FBS, insulin level and HOMA-IR in patients with PCOS. However, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results.
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Orally administered curcumin has been found to have a moderate therapeutic effect on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The present study was conducted to determine lipid-modulating and antiatherosclerosis effects of injectable curcumin in the rabbit model of atherosclerosis induced by a high cholesterol diet (HCD). New Zealand white male rabbits were fed on a normal chow enriched with 0.5% (w/w) cholesterol for 8 weeks. Atherosclerotic rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group receiving intravenous (IV) injection of the saline buffer, two treatment groups receiving IV administration of the injectable curcumin at low (1 mg/kg/week) and high (10 mg/kg/week) over 4 weeks. Plasma lipid parameters, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) were measured. Aortic arch atherosclerotic lesions were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The low dose of curcumin significantly reduced plasma levels of TC, LDL-C, and TG by −14.19 ± 5.19%, −6.22 ± 1.77%, and − 29.84 ± 10.14%, respectively, and increased HDL-C by 14.05 ± 6.39% (p < 0.05). High dose of curcumin exerted greater lipid-modifying effects, in which plasma levels of TC, LDL-C, and TG were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by −56.59 ± 10.22%, −44.36 ± 3.24%, and − 25.92 ± 5.57%, respectively, and HDL-C was significantly increased by 36.24 ± 12.5%. H&E staining showed that the lesion severity was lowered significantly in the high dose (p = 0.03) but not significantly (p > 0.05) in the low-dose curcumin groups, compared to control rabbits. The median (interquartile range) of plaque grades in the high dose and low dose, and control groups was found to be 2 [2-3], 3 [2-3], and 4 [3-4], respectively. The injectable curcumin could significantly improve dyslipidemia and alleviate atherosclerotic lesion in HCD-induced atherosclerotic rabbits.
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The last decade has seen an unprecedented rise in the prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide. Different mono-targeted approaches have been devised to treat these multigenic diseases, still most of them suffer from limited success due to the off-target debilitating side effects and their inability to target multiple pathways. Hence a safe, efficacious, and multi-targeted approach is the need for the hour to circumvent these challenging chronic diseases. Curcumin, a natural compound extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, has been under intense scrutiny for its wide medicinal and biological properties. Curcumin is known to manifest antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, antineoplastic, antifungal, and proapoptotic effects. A plethora of literature has already established the immense promise of curcuminoids in the treatment and clinical management of various chronic diseases like cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, neurological, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. To date, more than 230 clinical trials have opened investigations to understand the pharmacological aspects of curcumin in human systems. Still, further randomized clinical studies in different ethnic populations warrant its transition to a marketed drug. This review summarizes the results from different clinical trials of curcumin-based therapeutics in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.
Article
Objective: Sleep-duration is related to obesity. Curcumin can affect behavioral changes that arise from sleep deprivation in animal models. In this study, we assessed the effects of curcumin on sleep-duration in metabolic-syndrome (MetS) patients. Materials and methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial in 120 adults with MetS. All participants received crude curcuminoids in a simple formulation (n=40), phospholipidated curcuminoids (n=40) or placebo (n=40) 1 g/day during 6 weeks. Demographic data, anthropometric indices and serum biochemical factors were documented for all volunteers at baseline and after the intervention. A standard questionnaire was used for evaluating physical-activity-level (PAL) and patients' sleep-duration, including night time sleep and daily napping. Based on the time of sleep, sleeping hours were classified into: night time sleep; daily naps and total sleeping hours in 24 hours. Results: A total of 120 participants aged 38.72±10.05 years old were enrolled into the study. We did not find significant differences in biochemical factors, sleep-duration or PAL at baseline among the 3 groups (p>0·05). Moreover, curcumin did not exert any significant effect on sleep-duration before, or after, adjustment for confounding factors in the overweight and obese individuals, or in total population (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that curcumin does not have an effect on sleep-duration in subject with MetS.
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Obesity remains a pervasive health concern worldwide with concomitant comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammation, and other metabolic disorders. A wealth of data validates dietary and lifestyle modifications such as restricting caloric intake and increasing physical activity to slow the obesity development. Recently, the advent of phytochemicals such as curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, has attracted considerable research interest in tracking down their possible effects in protection against obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. According to the existing literature, curcumin may regulate lipid metabolism and suppress chronic inflammation interacting with white adipose tissue, which plays a central role in the complications associated with obesity. Curcumin also inhibits the differentiation of adipocyte and improves antioxidant properties. In the present review, we sought to deliberate the possible effects of curcumin in downregulating obesity and curtailing the adverse health effects of obesity.
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Turmeric, or Curcuma longa as it is formally named, is a multifunctional plant with numerous names. It was dubbed “the golden spice” and “Indian saffron” not only for its magnificent yellow color, but also for its culinary use. Turmeric has been utilized in traditional medicine since the dawn of mankind. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which are all curcuminoids, make up turmeric. Although there have been significant advancements in cancer treatment, cancer death and incidence rates remain high. As a result, there is an increasing interest in discovering more effective and less hazardous cancer treatments. Curcumin is being researched for its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-metabolic syndrome, neuroprotective, and antibacterial properties. Turmeric has long been used as a home remedy for coughs, sore throats, and other respiratory problems. As a result, turmeric and its compounds have the potential to be used in modern medicine to cure a variety of diseases. In this current review, we highlighted therapeutic potential of curcumin and its multiple health benefits on various diseases. Graphical abstract
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Background Curcumin possesses multiple bioactivities that have beneficial effects on diabetic foot ulcers. Herein, we aimed to conduct a systematic preclinical review of 9 studies including a total of 262 animals, to assess the possible mechanisms of curcumin for wound healing in diabetic animals. Methods Five databases were searched from inception to May 12, 2020; Rev-Man 5.3 software was applied for data analyses. Cochrane Collaboration’s tool 10-item checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality, and data revealed scores of risk of bias ranging from 2 to 5. Results Meta-analysis indicated that curcumin had significant effects on wound healing rate and blood vessel density when compared with control (P < 0.05). The wound regeneration properties of curcumin for diabetic wounds are thought to mainly work through the possible mechanisms of antioxidation, enhanced cell proliferation, increased collagen formation, and angiogenesis. However, the anti-inflammatory effect on wounds in diabetic animals remains controversial. Conclusions The findings indicate that more randomized controlled trials should be pursued to obtain more reliable results regarding inflammatory response. Overall, curcumin might be a probable candidate for diabetic foot ulcers and may contribute to future clinical trials.
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Diabetes is a chronic non-communicable disease caused by several different routes, which has attracted increasing attention. In order to speed up the development of new selective drugs, machine learning (ML) technology has been applied in the process of diabetes drug development, which opens up a new blueprint for drug design. This review provides a comprehensive portrayal of the application of ML in antidiabetic drug use.
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Turmeric has long been used in medicinal properties. Curcumin, the primary turmeric component, is responsible for the bioactivity. It helps maintain the oxidative and inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, anxiety, hyperlipidemia, and cancers. The low bioavailability of curcumin is a significant problem. However, a better delivery system and more clinical trials on curcumin are required for the effective beneficial system.
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Prolonged inactivity, sedentary lifestyle and unbalanced nutrition predispose to weight gain and obesity, also termed as metabesity (metabolic obesity). Deficient metabolic sugar processing, impaired brain energy generation, dysfunctional important pathways are risk factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Other degenerative diseases, including neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases can make metabesity more complex. These may become aggravated over time owing to several epigenetic factors, including fatty diet, lack of exercise, lack of adequate sleep, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol, and drug use. Metabesity is underlined by vascular- and neuro-inflammation, and encompasses a wide physiological and clinical manifestation. It is imperative to note that the existing interventions are only for the management of diabetes, they are not curative. Secondary complications still occur in many cases of diabetes. While continuous, concerted efforts go on to mitigate this phenomenon, dietary manipulations and modulation remain a promising therapeutic and lifestyle approach. The interrelationship between the central nervous system (mainly the hypothalamus and the brain stem) and diabetes has been elucidated. The hypothalamic neuronal and glial populations have been found to systemically regulate blood glucose levels in such a manner that the hypothalamic astrocytes capacity for glucose sensing affect the overall glucose homeostasis. Inflammatory responses rising from diabetes and obesity affects the astrocytes and the regulation of metabolic hormones. Cancers are notorious for being voracious, and aggressively depicting angiogenesis in order to amass available cell nutrients to themselves by all means and at any cost. As a member of the inflammatory metabesity concept, especially when metastatic, cancer angiogenesis is always to the detriment of normal apparently healthy cell populations within the systems of an organism. Should there be one, or a comorbidity of any two or more of the illnesses consisting metabesity, how may nutrition, nutrigenomics, nutraceuticals and/or functional foods be deployed to regulate, manage, mitigate, treat and cure them. In this chapter, we attempt to answer this question.
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The importance of functional food and nutraceutical products to deal with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has gained attention in the past few years. The aim of this narrative review is to highlight the potential and effectiveness of nutraceutical in the improvement of CMDs and MetS biomarkers, alongside their burden of disease and economic health expenditure. A science database search was conducted between May and June 2021. A total of 35 studies were included in this paper. We included male and female subjects, children, and adults, in good health or with cardiovascular or metabolic disease. CMDs and MetS have gradually become worldwide health problems, becoming two of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in western countries. The results indicate a positive link between daily consumption of nutraceutical products and an improvement in cardiometabolic and anthropometric biomarkers. In this paper we included a wide range of nutraceutical products. Most of them showed promising data, indicating that nutraceuticals could provide a new therapeutic treatment to reduce prevalence and pharmaceutical expenditures attributed to CMDs and MetS. Unfortunately, there is a huge vacuum of data on nutraceutical usage, savings, and burden reduction. Therefore, further clinical and pharmaco-economic research in the field is highly required.
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The rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been used as an herbal medicine, coloring agent, spice, and food additive for thousands of years in different parts of the world particularly in Asian countries. It has been used for a range of diseases in many traditional medical schools, including Islamic traditional medicine, Chinese traditional medicine, and Ayurveda. It has been used mainly for digestive problems, as a cardio-, hepato-, and neuroprotective agent as well as in many inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and for enhancing immune system. Curcumin, a diarylheptanoid derivative found in turmeric, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties; controls obesity and metabolic problems; and improves memory and mood disorders. Therapeutically, curcumin exhibits promising potential in preclinical and clinical studies and is currently in human trials for a variety of conditions, including metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, premenstrual syndrome, ulcerative colitis, knee osteoarthritis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, atherosclerosis, liver cirrhosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, depression, psoriasis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Among all beneficial activities reported for curcumin, the research toward the obesity and metabolic-preventing/suppressing aspects of curcumin is growing. These findings emphasize that most of the traditional applications of turmeric is due to the presence of its key constituent, curcumin. According to the traditional background of turmeric use and clinical values of curcumin, further preclinical studies for unstudied properties and clinical studies with larger sample sizes for confirmed activities are expected.
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It has been suggested that curcumin is a potential agent for lowering the levels of C‐reactive protein (CRP) and high‐sensitivity CRP (hs‐CRP), as markers of inflammation. In the current meta‐analysis, we attempted to clarify the efficacy of curcumin supplementation in lowering the concentrations of CRP and hs‐CRP in patients with autoinflammatory conditions. Nine studies were found evaluating the effect of curcumin on CRP levels, while 23 studies were identified for hs‐CRP. CRP concentration was decreased significantly compared to the placebo (WMD = ‐3.67 mg/L, 95% CI = −6.96 to −0.38, p = 0.02). There was a significant effect of curcumin at dose ≤1,000 mg/day on the CRP concentration. CRP concentration significantly decreased after >10‐week intervention compared with placebo.hs‐CRP concentration in the intervention group was significantly lower than that of placebo group. A significant effect of curcumin consumption was detected on the serum level of hs‐CRP in studies with prescribing ≤1,000 mg/day, and those with ≤10‐week duration of intervention. Curcumin consumption resulted in a reduction of hs‐CRP in a non‐linear fashion with stronger effects with less than 2000 mg curcumin per day. Curcumin seems to be beneficial in decreasing the hs‐CRP and CRP levels in proinflammatory settings.
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The spices fenugreek, garlic, ginger, onion, red pepper, and turmeric are effective as hypocholesterolemics under conditions of experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, fenugreek is effective in human diabetics, whereas garlic and onion are effective in humans with induced lipemia. Capsaicin and curcumin, the active principles of red pepper and turmeric, respectively, are also documented to be efficacious even at doses comparable to calculated human intake. Capsaicin, curcumin, fenugreek, ginger, and onion are understood to cause an enhanced biliary secretion of bile acids also. Considerable human experimentation has been done with garlic and onion, but similar evaluation of the four other spices needs to be done. Limited information is also available on the hypolipidemic influence of spice combinations. Among these six spices, beneficial effects on lipid metabolism would probably be in the order: garlic > onion > red pepper/capsaicin > turmeric/curcumin > fenugreek > ginger. The mechanisms underlying the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic influence of these spices have also been fairly well understood.
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A metabolic abnormality such as obesity is a major obstacle in the maintenance of the human health system and causes various chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, as well as various cancers. This study was designed to summarize the recent scientific knowledge regarding the anti-obesity role of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is isolated from the herb curcuma longa, known to possess anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known about its exact underlying molecular mechanisms in the treatment of obesity and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, cell cultures, animal models of obesity, and few human clinical and epidemiological studies have added the promise for future therapeutic interventions of this dietary compound. An electronic search was performed using Science finder, Medline, Scopus, Google scholar and collected English language articles from 2000 to 2010, relating to the role of curcumin in obesity and metabolic diseases. Obesity has been classified as a growing epidemic and its associated metabolic disorders are considered a major risk to the health system. Curcumin interacts with specific proteins in adipocytes, pancreatic cells, hepatic stellate cells, macrophages, and muscle cells, where it suppresses several cellular proteins such as transcription factor NF-kB, STAT-3, Wnt/β-catenin and activates PPAR-γ, Nrf2 cell signaling pathway. In addition, curcumin downregulates the inflammatory cytokines, resistin and leptin, and upregulates adiponectin as well as other associated proteins. The interactions of curcumin with several signal transduction pathways reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and other inflammatory symptoms associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. The modulation of several cellular transduction pathways by curcumin has recently been extended to elucidate the molecular basis for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. These findings might enable novel phytochemical treatment strategies as well as curcumin translation to the clinical practice for the treatment and prevention of obesity-related chronic diseases. Furthermore, the relatively low cost of curcumin, safety and proven efficacy make it advisable to include curcumin as part of healthy diet.
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There are few data regarding the prevalence of obesity and its socioeconomic determinants among elderly individuals, particularly in Iran. We wished to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in free-living elderly people and the relationship to nutritional and socioeconomic factors in the Razavi-Khorasan province of Iran. Free-living elderly persons (917 males/1045 females), aged > or =60 years, were recruited using cluster sampling. Overweight and obesity were evaluated using body mass index (BMI) and subjects were categorized as thin (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (> or =30 kg/m2). The association between the prevalence of overweight or obesity with socioeconomic and demographic factors, including gender, place of residence, literacy, type of living, source of income, use of supplements during the past 3 months, and employment status, was examined using regression analysis. The distribution of BMI values indicated that 13, 46.5, 28.9, and 11.7% of the total population were thin, normal, overweight, and obese, respectively. The prevalence of central obesity was higher among Iranian women than men (63.1 vs. 18.6%, respectively). Regression analysis results indicated that gender (p < 0.001), place of residence (p < 0.001), literacy (p = 0.01), and source of income (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the incidence of overweight or obesity. This study showed that 40.6% of elderly subjects were overweight or obese. Results reinforce the need to plan strategies for primary prevention of this fast-growing public health problem.
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The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome are increasing globally. The present study was conducted in an attempt to define optimal cutoff values for several anthropometric variables in an Iranian population, as these may vary with ethnicity. Iranian subjects (2483 men and 2445 women), aged 15-65 years, were recruited using a cluster-stratified sampling method from rural and urban areas within the Khorasan province. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to define optimal anthropometric cutoff values. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome were 28, 5.5, 67, and 39.9%, respectively. The gender-specific cutoff values for waist:height ratio to predict hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome among men were 0.52 (sensitivity = 66%; specificity = 66%), 0.54 (sensitivity = 65%; specificity = 65%), 0.50 (sensitivity = 58%; specificity = 57%), and 0.53 (sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 70%), and for women were 0.59 (sensitivity = 61%; specificity = 61%), 0.61 (sensitivity = 64%; specificity = 64%), 0.57 (sensitivity = 61%; specificity = 61%), and 0.59 (sensitivity = 77%; specificity = 77%) (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between waist:height ratio and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, particularly in women. Waist circumference cutoffs were higher for women than men for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.
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Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained on 0.5% curcumin containing diet for 8 weeks. Blood cholesterol was lowered significantly by dietary curcumin in these diabetic animals. Cholesterol decrease was exclusively from LDL-VLDL fraction. Significant decrease in blood triglyceride and phospholipids was also brought about by dietary curcumin in diabetic rats. In a parallel study, wherein diabetic animals were maintained on a high cholesterol diet, the extents of hypercholesterolemia and phospholipidemia were still higher compared to those maintained on control diet. Curcumin exhibited lowering of cholesterol and phospholipid in these animals also. Liver cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid contents were elevated under diabetic conditions. Dietary curcumin showed a distinct tendency to counter these changes in lipid fractions of liver. This effect of curcumin was also seen in diabetic animals maintained on high cholesterol diet. Dietary curcumin also showed significant countering of renal cholesterol and triglycerides elevated in diabetic rats. In order to understand the mechanism of hypocholesterolemic action of dietary curcumin, activities of hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase and HMG CoA reductase were measured. Hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase activity was markedly higher in curcumin fed diabetic animals suggesting a higher rate of cholesterol catabolism. (Mol Cell Biochem 166: 169-175, 1997)
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow substance from the root of the plant Curcuma longa Linn., has been demonstrated to inhibit carcinogenesis of murine skin, stomach, intestine and liver. However, the toxicology, pharmacokinetics and biologically effective dose of curcumin in humans have not been reported. This prospective phase-I study evaluated these issues of curcumin in patients with one of the following five high-risk conditions: 1) recently resected urinary bladder cancer; 2) arsenic Bowen's disease of the skin; 3) uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN); 4) oral leucoplakia; and 5) intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Curcumin was taken orally for 3 months. Biopsy of the lesion sites was done immediately before and 3 months after starting curcumin treament. The starting dose was 500 mg/day. If no toxicity > or = grade II was noted in at least 3 successive patients, the dose was then escalated to another level in the order of 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, and 12,000 mg/day. The concentration of curcumin in serum and urine was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 25 patients were enrolled in this study. There was no treatment-related toxicity up to 8,000 mg/day. Beyond 8,000 mg/day, the bulky volume of the drug was unacceptable to the patients. The serum concentration of curcumin usually peaked at 1 to 2 hours after oral intake of crucumin and gradually declined within 12 hours. The average peak serum concentrations after taking 4,000 mg, 6,000 mg and 8,000 mg of curcumin were 0.51 +/- 0.11 microM, 0.63 +/- 0.06 microM and 1.77 +/- 1.87 microM, respectively. Urinary excretion of curcumin was undetectable. One of 4 patients with CIN and 1 of 7 patients with oral leucoplakia proceeded to develop frank malignancies in spite of curcumin treatment. In contrast, histologic improvement of precancerous lesions was seen in 1 out of 2 patients with recently resected bladder cancer, 2 out of 7 patients of oral leucoplakia, 1 out of 6 patients of intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, I out of 4 patients with CIN and 2 out of 6 patients with Bowen's disease. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that curcumin is not toxic to humans up to 8,000 mg/day when taken by mouth for 3 months. Our results also suggest a biologic effect of curcumin in the chemoprevention of cancer.
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Obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance and establishes the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the molecular mechanisms of this association are poorly understood. The c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) can interfere with insulin action in cultured cells and are activated by inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids, molecules that have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that JNK activity is abnormally elevated in obesity. Furthermore, an absence of JNK1 results in decreased adiposity, significantly improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced insulin receptor signalling capacity in two different models of mouse obesity. Thus, JNK is a crucial mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and a potential target for therapeutics.
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Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In obese individuals, adipose tissue releases increased amounts of non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that are involved in the development of insulin resistance. When insulin resistance is accompanied by dysfunction of pancreatic islet beta-cells - the cells that release insulin - failure to control blood glucose levels results. Abnormalities in beta-cell function are therefore critical in defining the risk and development of type 2 diabetes. This knowledge is fostering exploration of the molecular and genetic basis of the disease and new approaches to its treatment and prevention.
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Health beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of dietary spice principles--curcumin, capsaicin alone and in combination included in the diet for 8 weeks were evaluated in induced hypercholesterolemic rats, in order to verify if there is any additive or synergistic effect of these two bioactive compounds. Dietary curcumin (0.2%), capsaicin (0.015%) or their combination significantly countered the hypercholesterolemia brought about by high cholesterol feeding. Hepatic cholesterol was lowered by dietary spice principles only in normal rats. Liver triglyceride levels were lowered in both normal and hypercholesterolemic rats by capsaicin. Curcumin and capsaicin lowered hepatic and blood lipid peroxides in hypercholesterolemic rats, while the effect in blood was additive with their combination. Hepatic ascorbic acid was enhanced by dietary spice principles in normal rats; glutathione was enhanced by their combination only in hypercholesterolemic rats. Activities of serum glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase and catalase and hepatic glutathione reductase in normal rats and serum glutathione peroxidase in hypercholesterolemic rats were enhanced by dietary spice principles. While dietary curcumin and capsaicin normalized the changes in the levels of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes to a significant extent, this effect was not generally additive when given in combination, and was higher than the individual effects only in a few instances.
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LR: 20061115; JID: 7501160; 0 (Antilipemic Agents); 0 (Cholesterol, HDL); 0 (Cholesterol, LDL); 57-88-5 (Cholesterol); CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2401; author reply 2401-2. PMID: 11712930; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2400-1; author reply 2401-2. PMID: 11712929; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2400; author reply 2401-2. PMID: 11712928; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2400; author reply 2401-2. PMID: 11712927; CIN: JAMA. 2001 May 16;285(19):2508-9. PMID: 11368705; CIN: JAMA. 2003 Apr 16;289(15):1928; author reply 1929. PMID: 12697793; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Aug 1;286(5):533-5. PMID: 11476650; CIN: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2401-2. PMID: 11712931; ppublish
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Curcumin has been reported to lower plasma lipids and glucose in diabetic rats, and to decrease body weight in obese rats, which may partly be due to increased fatty acid oxidation and utilization in skeletal muscle. Diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet plus streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg BW) were fed a diet containing 50, 150, or 250 mg/kg BW curcumin for 7 wk. Curcumin dose-dependently decreased plasma lipids and glucose and the dose 150 mg/kg BW appeared to be adequate to produce a significant effect. Curcumin supplementation reduced glucose and insulin tolerance measured as areas under the curve. L6 myotubes were treated with palmitate (0.25 mmol/L) in the presence of different levels of curcumin for 24 h in our in vitro experiment. Curcumin at 10 μmol/L was adequate to cause a significant increase in 2-deoxy-[(3)H]d-glucose uptake by L6 myotubes. Curcumin up-regulated expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), CD36, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, but down-regulated expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase 4 and phosphorylated glycogen synthase (GS) in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, curcumin increased phosphorylated acetyl COA carboxylase in L6 myotubes. The effects of curcumin on these enzymes except for GS were suppressed by AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. LKB1, an upstream kinase of AMPK, was activated by curcumin and inhibited by radicicol, an LKB1 destabilizer. Curcumin improves muscular insulin resistance by increasing oxidation of fatty acid and glucose, which is, at least in part, mediated through LKB1-AMPK pathway.
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To investigate the attenuating effect of curcumin, an anti-inflammatory compound derived from dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) on the pro-inflammatory insulin-resistant state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glucose uptake rate was determined with the [3H] 2-deoxyglucose uptake method. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and ELISA. Nuclear transcription factor kappaB p65 (NF-kappa p65) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) were detected by Western blot assay. The basal glucose uptake was not altered, and curcumin increased the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Curcumin suppressed the transcription and secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 induced by palmitate in a concentration-dependent manner. Palmitate induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. The activities of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38MAPK decreased in the presence of curcumin. Moreover, pretreatment with SP600125 (inhibitor of JNK) instead of PD98059 or SB203580 (inhibitor of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK, respectively) decreased the up-regulation of TNF-alpha induced by palmitate. Curcumin reverses palmitate-induced insulin resistance state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the NF-kappaB and JNK pathway.
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This study investigated the effect of curcumin (0.05-g/100-g diet) supplementation on a high-fat diet (10% coconut oil, 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) fed to hamsters, one of the rodent species that are most closely related to humans in lipid metabolism. Curcumin significantly lowered the levels of free fatty acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, whereas it elevated the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and paraoxonase activity in plasma, compared with the control group. The levels of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride were also lower in the curcumin group than in the control group. In the liver, fatty acid beta-oxidation activity was significantly higher in the curcumin group than in the control group, whereas fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activities were significantly lower. Curcumin significantly lowered the lipid peroxide levels in the erythrocyte and liver compared with the control group. These results indicate that curcumin exhibits an obvious hypolipidemic effect by increasing plasma paraoxonase activity, ratios of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol and of apo A-I to apo B, and hepatic fatty acid oxidation activity with simultaneous inhibition of hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis in high-fat-fed hamsters.
The effect of curcumin administration in reducing the serum levels of cholesterol and lipid peroxides was studied in ten healthy human volunteers, receiving 500 mg of curcumin per day for 7 days. A significant decrease in the level of serum lipid peroxides (33%), increase in HDL Cholesterol (29%), and a decrease in total serum cholesterol (11.63%) were noted. As curcumin reduced serum lipid peroxides and serum cholesterol, the study of curcumin as a chemopreventive substance against arterial diseases is suggested.
Effect of oral administration of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) on lipid peroxidation in various organs of mice like liver, lung, kidney and brain was studied in control animals as well as those given carbon tetrachloride, paraquat and cyclophosphamide. Oral administration of curcumin significantly lowered the increased peroxidation of lipids in these tissues produced by these chemicals. Administration of curcumin was also found to lower significantly the serum and tissue cholesterol levels in these animals, indicating that the use of curcumin helps in conditions associated with peroxide induced injury such as liver damage and arterial diseases.
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In rats fed cholesterol and curcumin, the coloring principle in tur meric, levels of serum and liver cholesterol fell to one-half or one-third of those in rats fed cholesterol and no curcumin. Deposition of cholesterol was found most in liver sections from rats fed cholesterol and least in specimens from animals con currently fed curcumin. Curcumin increased fecal excretion of bile acids and cho lesterol, both in normal and hypercholesteremic rats. This biliary drainage is a plaus ible explanation for the reduction of tissue cholesterol on curcumin feeding. Alpha- and ß-lipoproteinsin blood plasma showed meaningful response to addition of curcumin. The imbalance in these two lipoproteins brought about by cholesterol feeding was nearly corrected by simultaneous feeding of curcumin. The above beneficial effects of curcumin were about the same with 0.1% or 0.5% of curcumin in the diet, sug gesting that the effective level of curcumin may be even lower than 0.1%. Curcumin maintained body and liver weights, correcting the ill effects in this respect caused by ingested cholesterol. The effect of curcumin in keeping down cholesterol in con ditions which otherwise induced hypercholesteremia was not through alterations in cecal microflora which are known to dismute and utilize bile acids in the gut.
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Obesity (defined as a body mass index > 30 kg/m2) is common in middle-aged Europeans. The prevalence is notably high in women from Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. In most European countries the prevalence of obesity has been shown to be increasing. When the impact of obesity on health status is assessed this should be done at many levels. Not only should be looked at mortality or diseases and disorders associated with obesity. Physical functioning and quality of life are also of great importance although they may not be bound to any specific diagnosis. Mobility disability has been shown to be more strongly related to obesity than the association between obesity and mortality. Estimation of direct health care costs attributable to obesity vary between 1-5% of the total health care expenditure depending on the definition of obesity and the methods for calculating these costs. This ranks obesity among the major determinants of health care costs.
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Obesity is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder affecting not only the US population but also that of the developing world. It is estimated from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1991) that 33% of the US population is obese, compared with 25% in NHANES II (1976-1980).1 Fatness is associated with a number of comorbidities, including several forms of heart disease. Although heredity explains 30% to 70% of cases of obesity, environmental contributions to the increasing prevalence of obesity must be sought since the gene pool has remained stable over the same interval. Diets high in fat (and calories)2 and a reduced expenditure of energy in the form of physical activity3 are the most likely explanations. However, in the United States, despite the reduction in consumption of fat from approximately 40% of calories in 1965 to 34% of calories in 1991,4 a decrease in incidence of obesity has not occurred. This is likely attributable to both maintenance of fat intake with an increase in total caloric intake and reduced physical activity. Interestingly, in developing countries some comorbidities are seen at a lesser degree of excess weight, suggesting that relative weight may be as important as absolute adiposity. The definition of obesity, or being overweight,5 remains controversial. In the United States, mortality data provided by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company historically have been used to define obesity.6 Yet these data relate to mortality only, and the definition depends on a person’s frame (size), which is arbitrary and not independently related to obesity-related mortality or comorbidities. Body mass index (BMI) has recently gained favor as a better measure of adiposity.7 8 BMI is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2). A threshold level of BMI to …
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In response to the emerging body of scientific, medical, and behavioral data about the link between excess adiposity and coronary heart disease, the American Heart Association (AHA) has reclassified obesity as a major, modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease. In doing so, the AHA focuses more of its attention and resources on the role of obesity in cardiovascular disease and issues a “call to action” to the medical and research community, as well as the public. The actions that we request are listed below and begin with the need for more funding for research on obesity, particularly the interrelated roles of the biochemical and behavioral factors that underlie weight regulation. Only through such research can we better understand this disorder and develop more effective preventive strategies and treatments for obesity. Obesity research today is in its infancy, at a stage comparable to lipid research 20 years ago. From epidemiology studies, we have learned that obesity is a serious risk factor for coronary heart disease, on a par with cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and high blood cholesterol. Because the research on this “new” risk factor for heart disease is in its infancy, the solutions are less clear. Few drugs exist to prevent and treat obesity, and certainly there are no drugs comparable to the “statins” to reduce high blood cholesterol. The long-term effects of the few treatments available remain unknown. There are few tools …
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Curcumin, a dietary pigment in curry, suppresses tumor initiation and tumor promotion. Curcumin is also a potent inhibitor for AP-1 and NF-kappaB activation. In this report, we show that curcumin inhibits JNK activation by various agonists including PMA plus ionomycin, anisomycin, UV-C, gamma radiation, TNF-alpha, and sodium orthovanadate. Although both JNK and ERK activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin were suppressed by curcumin, the JNK pathway was more sensitive. The IC50 (50% inhibition concentration) of curcumin was between 5-10 microM for JNK activation and was 20 microM for ERK activation. In transfection assays, curcumin moderately suppressed MEKK1-induced JNK activation; however, it effectively blocked JNK activation caused by co-transfection of TAK1, GCK, or HPK1. Curcumin did not directly inhibit JNK, SEK1, MEKK1 or HPK1 activity. Although curcumin suppressed TAK1 and GCK activities at high concentrations, this inhibition cannot fully account for the JNK inhibition by curcumin in vivo. Our data suggest that curcumin may affect the JNK pathway by interfering with the signaling molecule(s) at the same level or proximally upstream of the MAPKKK level. Taken together, the inhibition of the MEKK1-JNK pathway reveals a possible mechanism of suppression of AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling by curcumin, and may explain the potent anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects of this chemical.
Article
As pointed out by Pilgeram (1993), 'no disease in the history of mankind exacts a greater toll in morbidity than heart or blood vessel disease.' However, the physiopathological mechanisms responsible for this disease are not fully understood. Dating back to 1846, Von Rokitansky was the first to propose that the accumulation of a fibrous substance on the endothelial wall of arteries is the fundamental cause of coronary heart disease (Von Rokitansky, 1846), and at about the same time Anitschow (1933) showed that diets high in cholesterol and fat result in the formation of atheromatous plaques. According to Pilgeram (1993), this was the origin of the two current concepts of atherogenesis: one based on the formation of fibrous tissue, the other on the accumulation of cholesterol. He concludes that the two mechanisms may act in synergy and that the probable atherogenic role of the fiber-forming blood protein fibrinogen may help in the conceptual integration of the above mechanisms. His own data showed an age-related increase in the plasma levels of fibrinogen which was more striking in atherosclerotic subjects, Strong support for the concept that plasma fibrinogen is a major coronary risk factor nad been also provided by Stone and Thorp (1985). They showed that in men aged 40-69 years, who were initially free from overt coronary heart disease, there was a significant positive correlation between initial plasma fibrinogen levels and the subsequent incidence of heart attacks. Specifically, in men with high cholesterol or high systolic blood pressure values the frequency of heart attacks was, respectively six and 12 times greater in those with high plasma fibrinogen levels than in those with low fibrinogen levels. Moreover, these authors state: 'In multivariate models plasma fibrinogen was a highly significant and independent explanatory variable, at least as important as serum cholesterol, blood presure or cigarette; smoking. These results suggest that high plasma fibrinogen levels ale an important corollary risk factor and should be included in profiles used to identify those at high risk of heart attacks.'
Article
The impact of obesity and associated conditions on health has not been assessed in older adults using a generic, utility-based measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study evaluates the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and HRQOL scores and gives estimates of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost to overweight, obesity, and associated conditions. A total of 1326 adults from the Rancho Bernardo longitudinal cohort study, with a mean age of 72 years, completed the Quality of Well-Being Scale (QWB), a generic health-related quality of life measure. Height, weight, exercise, and smoking status were also assessed. Differences in QWB scores between obese adults and those with a normal BMI were used to estimate the QALYs lost due to obesity and associated conditions. Participants were divided into four groups based on BMI: <20 (underweight); 20 to 24.9 (normal); 25 to 29.9 (overweight); >30 kg/m(2) (obese). Analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, smoking history, and exercise showed a significant difference between group means (F(7,1310)=30.79; p <0.001). The normal BMI group had the highest QWB score (0.709), followed by the underweight (0.698), overweight (0.695), and obese (0.663) groups. The QWB score for the obese group was significantly lower than that for the normal and overweight groups. An estimated 2.93 million QALYs are lost in this country each year from obesity and associated conditions. Obese older adults tend to have lower HRQOL than those who are overweight or of normal BMI. The lower QWB scores associated with obesity translate into millions of QALYs lost each year. Being overweight but not obese did not have a significant impact on HRQOL in this population.
Article
Curcumin, a widely used spice and colouring agent in food has been shown to have a broad spectrum of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, antimutagenic and antioxidant. We have used liver slice culture model to demonstrate hepatoprotective activity of curcumin in vitro. Ethanol has been used as a hepatotoxin and the cytotoxicity of ethanol is estimated by quantitating the release of LDH. Ethanol induces 3.5 times more release of LDH from the liver cells and twice the amount of lipid peroxidation as compared to the cells from untreated liver tissue and this was significantly reduced in presence of curcumin (5 microM). We measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) namely superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase and found that in ethanol treated cells activity of all three enzymes was elevated. However, when curcumin was added along with ethanol their levels were kept low. The fact that release of LDH is significantly reduced along with lipid peroxidation and the activity of AOEs is kept low indicates that curcumin by its antioxidant activity reduced the oxidative stress induced by ethanol and protected the liver cells in vitro.
Article
The use of turmeric, derived from the root of the plant Curcuma longa, for treatment of different inflammatory diseases has been described in Ayurveda and in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The active component of turmeric responsible for this activity, curcumin, was identified almost two centuries ago. Modern science has revealed that curcumin mediates its effects by modulation of several important molecular targets, including transcription factors (e.g., NF-kappaB, AP-1, Egr-1, beta-catenin, and PPAR-gamma), enzymes (e.g., COX2, 5-LOX, iNOS, and hemeoxygenase-1), cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1 and p21), cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and chemokines), receptors (e.g., EGFR and HER2), and cell surface adhesion molecules. Because it can modulate the expression of these targets, curcumin is now being used to treat cancer, arthritis, diabetes, Crohn's disease, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and other pathologies. Interestingly, 6-gingerol, a natural analog of curcumin derived from the root of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), exhibits a biologic activity profile similar to that of curcumin. The efficacy, pharmacologic safety, and cost effectiveness of curcuminoids prompt us to "get back to our roots."
Article
It was estimated in 1998 that 85% of the global burden of cardiovascular diseases occurred in low and middle income countries.1,2 Furthermore, about half the deaths in the 1990s attributable to cardiovascular diseases in these countries were in those below the age of 70 years compared with only a quarter in the developed countries.2 Although the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases and prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has generally decreased in economically developed countries, the corresponding mortality rate and risk prevalence has substantially increased in China, other East Asian societies and now India, which have been undergoing rapid demographic, social and economic changes.3,4,5 Dietary and lifestyle changes associated with economic growth and increasing wealth have led to a marked increase in obesity and diabetes in Asia that may further increase the burden of cardiovascular diseases.6,7,8 In sub‐Saharan Africa, where infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death, hypertension and stroke are emerging as an important cause of ill health in the rapidly urbanising population of the region.9 Despite these facts, the vast majority of publications in cardiovascular diseases refer to the populations of North America and Western Europe. Additionally, many of the guidelines derived from these areas are being applied, perhaps inappropriately, to other populations in completely different environments. Heart is attempting to redress this imbalance by publishing a series of invited reviews on different aspects of cardiovascular diseases in India, China, sub‐Saharan Africa and South America. Emphasis is placed on local research data and practices so that these can reach a wider audience; there are many lessons to be learnt for all from practising medicine in a more resource‐poor environment that concentrate the mind on doing what is most cost effective. The first in the series begins with cardiomyopathies and pericarditis in Africa, which are major causes of heart failure (see article on page 1176).10 We thank our many contributors for finding time in their busy clinical schedules to produce these reviews and we hope that our readership will find the articles as interesting and illuminating as we have as editors.
Article
Although turmeric (Curcuma longa; an Indian spice) has been described in Ayurveda, as a treatment for inflammatory diseases and is referred by different names in different cultures, the active principle called curcumin or diferuloylmethane, a yellow pigment present in turmeric (curry powder) has been shown to exhibit numerous activities. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed several important functions of curcumin. It binds to a variety of proteins and inhibits the activity of various kinases. By modulating the activation of various transcription factors, curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cell survival proteins. Curcumin also downregulates cyclin D1, cyclin E and MDM2; and upregulates p21, p27, and p53. Various preclinical cell culture and animal studies suggest that curcumin has potential as an antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antiangiogenic agent; as a mediator of chemoresistance and radioresistance; as a chemopreventive agent; and as a therapeutic agent in wound healing, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and arthritis. Pilot phase I clinical trials have shown curcumin to be safe even when consumed at a daily dose of 12g for 3 months. Other clinical trials suggest a potential therapeutic role for curcumin in diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, hypercholesteremia, atherosclerosis, pancreatitis, psoriasis, chronic anterior uveitis and arthritis. Thus, curcumin, a spice once relegated to the kitchen shelf, has moved into the clinic and may prove to be "Curecumin".
Article
Studies in animals and a short-term human study have suggested that curcumin, a polyphenolic compound concentrated in the curry spice turmeric, decreases serum cholesterol concentration. However, no controlled human trials have examined the effect of curcumin on cholesterol. This study investigated the effects of consuming curcumin on the serum lipid profile in men and women. Elderly subjects (n=36) consumed 4 g/d curcumin, 1g/d curcumin, or placebo in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind trial. Plasma curcumin and its metabolites were measured at 1 month, and the serum lipid profile was measured at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The plasma curcumin concentration reached a mean of 490 nmol/L. The curcumin concentration was greater after capsule than powder administration. Consumption of either dose of curcumin did not significantly affect triacylglycerols, or total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol over 1 month or 6 months. However, the concentrations of plasma curcumin and serum cholesterol were positively and significantly correlated. Curcumin consumption does not appear to have a significant effect on the serum lipid profile, unless the absorbed concentration of curcumin is considered, in which case curcumin may modestly increase cholesterol.
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