Incidence and Mortality of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma in Persons With Inflammatory Bowel Disease From 1998 to 2010
Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA. Gastroenterology
(Impact Factor: 16.72).
05/2012; 143(2):382-9. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.04.054
The relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the incidence and mortality of colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) has not been evaluated recently.
We calculated the incidence and standardized incidence and mortality rate ratios of CRC among adult individuals with intact colons using Kaiser Permanente of Northern California's database of members with IBD and general membership data for the period of 1998 to June 2010 (data through 2008 were used to calculate mortality). We also evaluated trends in medication use and rates of cancer detection over time.
We identified 29 cancers among persons with Crohn's disease (CD) and 53 among persons with ulcerative colitis (UC). Overall, the incidence rates of cancer among individuals with CD, UC, or in the general membership were 75.0, 76.0, and 47.1, respectively, per 100,000 person-years. In the general population, the incidence of CRC was 21% higher in 2007-2010 than in 1998-2001 (P for trend, <.0001), coincident with the growth of CRC screening programs. The incidence of CRC among individuals with CD or UC was 60% higher than in the general population (95% confidence interval [CI] for CD, 20%-200%; 95% CI for UC, 30%-200%) and was stable over time (P for trend was as follows: CD, .98; UC, .40). During 1998-2008, the standardized mortality ratio for CRC in individuals with CD was 2.3 (95% CI, 1.6-3.0) and 2.0 in those with UC (95% CI, 1.3-2.7). Over the study period, anti-tumor necrosis factor agents replaced other therapies for CD and UC; the rate of colonoscopy increased by 33% among patients with CD and decreased by 9% in those with UC.
From 1998 to 2010, the incidence of CRC in patients with IBD was 60% higher than in the general population and essentially stable over time.
Available from: Xinhua Chen
- "Often, chronic inflammation predisposes to cancer development via multiple mechanisms  and epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. A recent report estimated that incidence rates of cancer in patients with IBD was 75 per 100,000 person years compared to 47 per 100,000 person-years in patients without IBD . Notably, in patients with IBD we have found a significant upregulation of MCH and its receptor, which correlated positively with the severity of the disease . "
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ABSTRACT: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an evolutionary conserved hypothalamic neuropeptide that in mammals primarily regulates appetite and energy balance. We have recently identified a novel role for MCH in intestinal inflammation by demonstrating attenuated experimental colitis in MCH deficient mice or wild type mice treated with an anti-MCH antibody. Therefore, targeting MCH has been proposed for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the link between chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, in the present study we sought to investigate whether blocking MCH might have effects on intestinal tumorigenesis that are independent of inflammation.
Tumor development was evaluated in MCH-deficient mice crossed to the APCmin mice which develop spontaneously intestinal adenomas. A different cohort of MCH-/- and MCH+/+ mice in the APCmin background was treated with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) to induce inflammation-dependent colorectal tumors. In Caco2 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, the role of MCH on cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis was investigated.
APCmin mice lacking MCH developed fewer, smaller and less dysplastic tumors in the intestine and colon which at the molecular level are characterized by attenuated activation of the wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway and increased apoptotic indices. Form a mechanistic point of view, MCH increased the survival of colonic adenocarcinoma Caco2 cells via inhibiting apoptosis, consistent with the mouse studies.
In addition to modulating inflammation, MCH was found to promote intestinal tumorigenesis at least in part by inhibiting epithelial cell apoptosis. Thereby, blocking MCH as a therapeutic approach is expected to decrease the risk for colorectal cancer.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), may be complicated by colorectal cancer (CRC). In a recent population-based cohort study of 47 347 Danish patients with IBD by Tine Jess and colleagues 268 patients with UC and 70 patients with CD developed CRC during 30 years of observation. The overall risk of CRC among patients with UC and CD was comparable with that of the general population. However, patients diagnosed with UC during childhood or as adolescents, patients with long duration of disease and those with concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis were at increased risk. In this commentary, we discuss the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis in IBD and current investigations of genetic susceptibility in IBD patients. Further advances will depend on the cooperative work by epidemiologist and molecular geneticists in order to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in IBD-associated CRC. The ultimate goal is to incorporate genotypes and clinical parameters into a predictive model that will refine the prediction of risk for CRC in colonic IBD. The challenge will be to translate these new findings into clinical practice and to determine appropriate preventive strategies in order to avoid CRC in IBD patients. The achieved knowledge may also be relevant for other inflammation-associated cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is a bioactive lipid that elicits a wide range of biological effects associated with inflammation and cancer. PGE(2) exerts diverse effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune surveillance. This review concentrates primarily on gastrointestinal cancers, where the actions of PGE(2) are most prominent, most likely due to the constant exposure to dietary and environmental insults and the intrinsic role of PGE(2) in tissue homeostasis. A discussion of recent efforts to elucidate the complex and interconnected pathways that link PGE(2) signaling with inflammation and cancer is provided, supported by the abundant literature showing a protective effect of NSAIDs and the therapeutic efficacy of targeting mPGES-1 or EP receptors for cancer prevention. However, suppressing PGE(2) formation as a means of providing chemoprotection against all cancers may not ultimately be tenable, undoubtedly the situation for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Future studies to fully understand the complex role of PGE(2) in both inflammation and cancer will be required to develop novel strategies for cancer prevention that are both effective and safe.
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