Human gyrovirus DNA in human blood, Italy

Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, Italy.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 06/2012; 18(6):956-9. DOI: 10.3201/eid1806.120179
Source: PubMed


Human gyrovirus (HGyV) is a recent addition to the list of agents found in humans. Prevalence, biologic properties, and clinical associations of this novel virus are still incompletely understood. We used qualitative PCRs to detect HGyV in blood samples of 301 persons from Italy. HGyV genome was detected in 3 of 100 solid organ transplant recipients and in 1 HIV-infected person. The virus was not detected in plasma samples from healthy persons. Furthermore, during observation, persons for whom longitudinal plasma samples were obtained had transient and scattered presence of circulating HGyV. Sequencing of a 138-bp fragment showed nucleotide identity among all the HGyV isolates. These results show that HGyV can be present in the blood of infected persons. Additional studies are needed to investigate possible clinical implications.

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    • "The presence of gyrovirus in plasma from HIV-infected patients (n = 48) was evaluated as Maggi et al. [18] had identified HGyV1 in one Italian patient. The CD4/μL count ranged from 13 to 1065 with a mean of 397. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Chicken anaemia virus, CAV, was until recently the only member of the Gyrovirus genus. 6 novel gyroviruses, AGV2, HGyV1, and GyV3-6, have since been discovered in human and chicken samples. Methods. PCR amplification of the VP2 gene was used to detect AGV2/HGyV1, GyV3, and CAV in a range of clinical samples including stool, respiratory, CSF, and HIV-positive plasma. Screening of fresh local chicken meat was also performed. Results. AGV2/HGyV1 or GyV3 was detected in stools from healthy children (17/49, 34.7%) and patients with diarrhoea (22/149, 14.8%). 1.2% (3/246) nasopharyngeal respiratory samples were positive. No AGV2/HGyV1 or GyV3 was detected in nasal swabs from wheezing patients, in CSF from patients with meningitis, and in HIVpositive plasma. CAV was found in 51% (25/49) of stools from healthy children and 16% (24/149) in diarrhoea samples. Screening of 28 chicken samples showed a higher prevalence of gyrovirus (20/28, 71%) compared to CAV (1/28, 3.6%). Phylogenetic analysis of the CAV VP1 gene showed South African sequences clustering with Brazilian isolates from genotypes D2 and A2. Conclusion. Novel gyroviruses, including CAV, are present in the South African population with diarrhoea and respiratory illness as well as in healthy children. Their presence suggests an origin from chicken meat consumption.
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    • "Another gyrovirus (GyV4) was identified in human stool samples and in chicken meat sold for human consumption in Hong Kong in 2012 [10]. In the same year, four HGyV DNA samples were detected, three were from kidney transplant recipients and one was from an HIV-infected patient in Italy [11]. Human gyrovirus apoptin protein (VP3) has a similar subcellular distribution pattern and apoptotic function as its CAV homolog [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The chicken anemia virus (CAV), is a known member of the genus Gyrovirus and was first isolated from chickens in Japan in 1979. Some reports have also demonstrated that CAV can be identified in human stool specimens. In this study, a variant of CAV was detected using PCR with CAV-based primers in fecal samples of stray cats. The genome of CAV variant was sequenced and the results suggest that it could be a recombinant viral strain from parental CAV strains JQ690762 and AF311900. Recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism that contributes to genetic diversification. These findings indicate that CAV variant might have originated from CAV-infected chickens. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of this novel virus remains to be elucidated. This study underscores the importance of CAV surveillance and it presents the first evidence suggesting the possibility of CAV homologous recombination in cat.
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    • "GyV3 was detected in samples of diarrhea and normal feces from Chilean children in the USA, and these had a low level of sequence similarity with other gyroviruses, which may reflect the consumption of CAV-infected/vaccinated chickens9; GyV4 was identified in human stool and in chicken meat sold for human consumption in Hong Kong in 201210. In the same year, HGyV DNA was detected in four samples in Italy11. These data reflect the potential for CAV to threaten human health, especially after the consumption of infected or CAV-vaccinated chickens. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important pathogen that causes severe immunosuppression in young chickens. We have characterized 13 CAVs isolated from different commercial farms in southern China between 2011 and 2012. We discovered 92 variable residues compared to 37 other CAV complete genome sequences from other parts of the world listed in GenBank; these residues have not been previously observed. All of the Chinese CAV genomes that were characterized in this study had a glutamine at position 394, a hallmark of highly pathogenic CAVs. We also discovered that intra-group genetic recombination plays a role in generating genetic diversity in natural populations of CAV. The GD-J-12 isolate was a possible recombinant between GD-C-12 and GD-M-12 in the genomic region that encompassed both the coding and non-coding regions.
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