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An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Acai ( Euterpe oleracea ) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

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Abstract

An evidence-based systematic review of acai (Euterpe oleracea) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
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... Oprócz wspomnianych wyżej, w surowcu oznaczono również niewielkie ilości witaminy C [3,15]. Niektóre źródła podają, że açaí może zawierać także witaminy z grupy B, takie jak witamina B 1 , B 2 oraz B 3 [35]. ...
... Znane są przypadki alergii i nadwrażliwości na owoce açaí, ich składniki, a także inne gatunki z rodziny Arecaceae. Nie znane jest bezpieczeństwo stosowania produktów z owoców açaí w ciąży oraz podczas karmienia piersią ze względu na brak takowych badań [35]. ...
... Asaí or açaí palm tree grows up to 25 m in height, mainly in floodplains, swamps, and upland regions of the Amazonian region. Although the soft interior stem may be used as a source for heart of palm, it is better known for its fruit (Ulbricht et al., 2012). The fruit is round-shaped drupe with a diameter of about 12 mm clustered into bunches; it has one large seed of 7e10 mm that represents around 80%e90% of its volume (Heinrich et al., 2011); the hard, purple epicarp is a very thin layer, and the mesocarp is 1e2 mm in thickness; in addition, ripe fruit is covered with a wax cuticle. ...
... Concerns about açaí as a dietary supplement exist in the literature [25,26]. Evidence suggests that the presence of different elements such as manganese and the amino acid D-aspartate in açaí might lead to several potential AEs such as cholestatic jaundice [27,28]. ...
Article
Background: To examine adverse event (AE) reporting patterns for concomitant Botanical Dietary Supplements (BDS) and anticancer drugs. Research Design and Methods: Using the 2004-2015 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database, AEs involving commonly used BDS and anticancer drugs (categorized into CYP3A4 interactive and CYP3A4 non-interactive) were focused on. Disproportionality analyses using reporting odds ratios (RORs) assessed the relative reporting rates of 1) serious AEs (i.e., mortality and morbidity) with concomitant use of BDS (overall and by type) and anticancer drugs compared to anticancer drugs only; and 2) AEs by specific System Organ Classes (SOCs). Results: A total of 3,264 AEs were reported involving concomitant BDS and CYP3A4 interactives, and 3,885 involving concomitant BDS and non-interactive anticancer drugs. ROR of serious AEs with concomitant all BDS and anticancer drugs compared to anticancer drugs alone showed a potential protective signal (ROR=0.65, 95% CI=0.62,0.68), but ROR for açaí and non-interactive anticancer drugs indicated potential risk (ROR=1.70, 95% CI=1.01,2.86). Heterogeneity of reporting patterns of AEs related to certain SOCs was observed for use of BDS along with anticancer drugs. Conclusion: This study identified potential protective and risk signals for AEs with concomitant use of BDS and anticancer drugs.
... In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the Brazilian native species. Good examples are the already widely consumed Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) [3], jaboticaba (Plinia cauliflora) [4 -6], açaí (Euterpe oleraceae) [7], juçara (Euterpe edulis) [8], and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) [9,10]. Unconventional, neglected and underutilised species have also been the subject of worldwide interest. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Scientific evidence supports the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidemic properties of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí), which all converge to reduce cardiovascular risks. Macerating the pulp of açaí fruit produces a viscous aqueous extract (AE) rich in flavonoids that is commonly used in food production. In addition to nutritional aspects, cardiovascular benefits are attributed to AE by traditional medicine. Aim of the study Evaluation of AE impact on blood flow in vivo in rats and investigation of the mechanism underlying this response in vitro in rat endothelial cells (RECs). Materials and Methods For the measurement of acute blood flow, a perivascular ultrasound probe was used in Wistar rats. The in vitro assays employed REC to evaluate: concentration (1-1000 μg/mL) and time response (2-180 min) of AE in MTT cell viability assays; nitric oxide (NO) levels measurement and intracellular calcium handling using DAF-2DA and Fluo-4-AM, respectively; cellular biopterin content by HPLC; activation of Akt pathway using western blot analysis. For the chemical analyses of AE, stock solutions of the standards (+)catechin and quercetin were used for obtaining linear calibration curves. Identification and quantification of flavonoids in AE were based on comparisons with the retention times, increase in peak area determine by co-injection of AE with standards, UV-Vis scan and standard curves of known spectra. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-test (p<0.05). Results Although in vivo data have revealed the participation of NO in increasing of acute blood flow on abdominal aorta, in vitro analysis demonstrated that vasodilatation AE-induced is not related to its direct action on endothelial cells inducing eNOS activation. Besides, we demonstrated in isolated endothelial cells that highest concentrations of AE caused a reduction in NO levels, effect that could be partly justified by inhibition of Akt phosphorylation which, in turn, could decrease NOS activation. The involvement of cell transduction pathways involving variations in intracellular calcium and biopterins concentration were discarded. The participation of catechin and quercetin, identified in AE, was postulated to induce the responses of AE in REC. Conclusions Despite the responses in vitro, vasodilation prevailed in vivo, probably by activating intermediate pathways, validating a potential beneficial effect of AE in reducing cardiovascular risks.
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Background: Given the disadvantages and limitations of current endometriosis therapy, there is a progressive increase in studies focusing on plant-derived agents as a natural treatment option with the intention of achieving high efficiency, avoiding adverse effects and preserving the chance for successful pregnancy. The heterogeneity of these studies in terms of evaluated agents, applied approaches and outcomes illustrates the need for an up-to-date summary and critical view on this rapidly growing field in endometriosis research. Objective and rationale: This review provides a comprehensive overview of plant-derived agents and natural treatment strategies that are under preclinical or clinical investigation and critically evaluates their potential for future endometriosis therapy. Search methods: An English language PubMed literature search was performed using variations of the terms 'endometriosis', 'natural therapy', 'herb/herbal', 'plant', 'flavonoid', 'polyphenol', 'phytochemical', 'bioactive', 'Kampo' and 'Chinese medicine'. It included both animal and human studies. Moreover, the Clinicaltrials.gov database was searched with the term 'endometriosis' for clinical trials on plant-derived agents. No restriction was set for the publication date. Outcomes: Natural therapies can be assigned to three categories: (i) herbal extracts, (ii) specific plant-derived bioactive compounds and (iii) Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Agents of the first category have been shown to exert anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-oxidant effects on endometrial cells and endometriotic lesions. However, the existing evidence supporting their use in endometriosis therapy is quite limited. The most studied specific plant-derived bioactive compounds are resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, puerarin, ginsenosides, xanthohumol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, quercetin, apigenin, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, wogonin, baicalein, parthenolide, andrographolide and cannabinoids, with solid evidence about their inhibitory activity in experimental endometriosis models. Their mechanisms of action include pleiotropic effects on known signalling effectors: oestrogen receptor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1 and -6, tumour necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, nuclear factor-kappa B, matrix metalloproteinases as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-related proteins. Numerous studies suggest that treatment with CHM is a good choice for endometriosis management. Even under clinical conditions, this approach has already been shown to decrease the size of endometriotic lesions, alleviate chronic pelvic pain and reduce postoperative recurrence rates. Wider implications: The necessity to manage endometriosis as a chronic disease highlights the importance of identifying novel and affordable long-term safety therapeutics. For this purpose, natural plant-derived agents represent promising candidates. Many of these agents exhibit a pleiotropic action profile, which simultaneously inhibits fundamental processes in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, such as proliferation, inflammation, ROS formation and angiogenesis. Hence, their inclusion into multimodal treatment concepts may essentially contribute to increase the therapeutic efficiency and reduce the side effects of future endometriosis therapy.
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The search for new nutritional alternatives that favor human health is related to one of the world’s tendencies in science and food technology nowadays: research on food with functional properties (antioxidant activity, prebiotic activity, intestinal motility, among others), mainly regions’ autochthonous products, from which the productive sector can benefit thanks to its transformation and added value generation. In this review, the importance of four Andean food items with the potential to be explored and maximized by obtaining functional products is described. Because of the fact that blackberry, yacón, açaí and yellow pitahaya are promissory Andean foods with exceptional qualities for consumers’ health, information was gathered about studies and possible effects in treatment of diseases, and the most used methods for the product and therefore for their biocompounds. It was concluded that this kind of food items represents important alternatives for the transformation and extraction of biocompounds (pigments, antioxidants, fructo-oligosaccharides, fiber, among others), in which non-thermal technologies play a fundamental role in conserving their functional properties, and at the same time, strengthen rural agro-industry and the exploitation of autochthonous products for strengthening region’s and world’s economy.
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The Andean and Amazonian regions harbor a remarkably rich biodiversity. Many food crops such as corn, potato, cassava, tomato, peanut, and cacao have crossed borders and are consumed worldwide. However, there are still plenty of other native food crops that have not been fully exploited, which have a great potential for the development of innovative food products and derivatives and may contribute to food security, reduction of biodiversity loss, and resilience to climate change. Some grains, cereals, legumes, tubers, roots, and fruits are rich not only in macronutrients and micronutrients but also in bioactive compounds, which seem to be able to modulate metabolic processes with a positive effect on human health, although the mechanism of action of bioactive compounds is not completely understood. Food crops with an interesting content of nutrients and bioactive compounds that have been selected for presentation in this chapter are Amaranthus caudatus, Chenopodium pallidicaule, Chenopodium quinoa, Lupinus mutabilis, Zea mays, Lepidium peruvianum, Smallanthus sonchifolius, Tropaeolum tuberosum, Annona muricata, Euterpe oleracea, Myrciaria dubia, Physalis peruviana, Plukenetia volubilis, and Solanum betaceum.
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In this review, several recently identified biologically active principles of selected botanical dietary supplement ingredients are described, and were isolated using classical phytochemical chromatographic methods, with various spectroscopic procedures used for their isolation and structure elucidation. A central component of such an approach is "activity-guided fractionation" to monitor the compound purification process. In vitro assays germane to cancer chemoprevention were used to facilitate the work performed. Bioactive compounds, including several new substances, were characterized from açai (Euterpe oleracea), baobab (Adansonia digitata), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), and noni (Morinda citrifolia). Many of these compounds exhibited quite potent biological activity, but tended to be present in their plant of origin only at low concentration levels.
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