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Madarosis: A Marker of Many Maladies

Authors:
  • Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre

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Madarosis is a terminology that refers to loss of eyebrows or eyelashes. This clinical sign occurs in various diseases ranging from local dermatological disorders to complex systemic diseases. Madarosis can be scarring or non-scarring depending upon the etiology. Appropriate diagnosis is essential for management. Follicular unit transplantation has been found to be a useful method of treating scarring madarosis and the procedure relevant to eyebrow and eyelash reconstruction has been discussed. A useful clinical approach to madarosis has also been included for bedside diagnosis. The literature search was conducted with Pubmed, Medline, and Google scholar using the keywords madarosis, eyebrow loss, and eyelash loss for articles from 1960 to September 2011. Relevant material was also searched in textbooks and used wherever appropriate.
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... Ciliary madarosis or milphosis is a form of alopecia wherein there is loss of eyelashes. 1 The common causes of ciliary madarosis include blepharitis, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, xeroderma pigmentosa, hyperthyroidism and AA. [2][3][4][5] Among blepharitis, anterior blepharitis is associated with milphosis most commonly. ...
... 6 Trichotemnomania is a psychiatric disorder where the affected individual has a tendency or shaving and trimming of hair. 1 Our patient had both trichotillomania and trichotemnomania. However, the absence of clinical signs hinted more towards a psychiatric disorder. ...
... 3 Madarosis (loss of eyebrows and eyelashes) is one of the hallmarks of lepromatous leprosy. 4 The incidence of madarosis in multibacillary disease varies between 45% and 76% in various studies. 5 The bilateral symmetric cicatricial madarosis occurs due to histiocytic infiltration of hair follicles. ...
... Absence of madarosis in long-standing cases is a good prognostic sign. 4 The hair growth usually does not occur after treatment, thereby warranting cosmetic camouflage or hair transplant. 5 ...
... Madarosis (i.e., loss of eyebrows or eyelashes) is an innocuous manifestation of a variety of systemic illnesses (for example, endocrinopathies, infections, genetic disorders) including autoimmune diseases like lupus and localized scleroderma [1]. Alopecia in acute KD, which is a rare manifestation and mostly limited to loss of scalp hair, may reflect the underlying autoimmune/inflammatory mechanisms involved in the disease pathogenesis [2][3][4]. ...
... The most common type caused by medication is telogen effluvium, which characterized by the thinning or shedding of hair resulting from the early entry of hair in the telogen phase. [6][7][8][9] Methylphenidate is a stimulant drug used for the treatment of ADHD. A case of eyebrow loss caused by methylphenidate had been reported. ...
... Such lengthening of eyelashes is suggested to be due to mast cells release of histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes in response to allergies (Church & McGill, 2002;Singh & Pawar, 2018), remodelling hair follicle tissue . On the other hand, the loss of eyelashes, or when they are very short, may signal disorders of a dermatological or nutritional 4 nature, or alternatively, endocrine or systemic diseases (Khong, Casson, Huilgol & Selva, 2006;Kumar & Karthikeyan, 2012). ...
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