Hip Fracture Management Tailoring Care for the Older Patient
Department of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 05/2012; 307(20):2185-94. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.4842
Hip fracture is a potentially devastating condition for older adults. Hip fracture leads to pain and immobilization with complications ranging from delirium to functional loss and death. Although a mainstay of treatment is orthopedic repair, a multidisciplinary comanagement approach, including medical specialists and rehabilitation, may maximize patient recovery. Using the case of Mr W, an older man who sustained a fall and hip fracture, we present evidence-based components of care both in the hospital and outpatient settings. Preoperatively, clinicians should correct medical abnormalities and consider the appropriateness, timing, and type of surgical repair in the context of the patient's life expectancy and goals of care. Perioperative care should include prophylaxis with antibiotics, chemoprophylaxis for venous thromboembolism, and correction of major clinical abnormalities prior to surgery. Pain control, delirium, and pressure ulcer prevention are important inpatient care elements. Multidisciplinary models incorporating these care elements can decrease complications during inpatient stay. Rehabilitation strategies should be tailored to patient needs; early mobilization followed by rehabilitation exercises in institutional, home, and group settings should be considered to maximize restoration of locomotive abilities. Attention to care transitions is necessary and treatment for osteoporosis should be considered. The road to recovery for hip fracture patients is long and most patients may not regain their prefracture functional status. Understanding and anticipating issues that may arise in the older patient with hip fracture, while delivering evidence-based care components, is necessary to maximize patient recovery.
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- "Accelerated rehabilitation for patients following hip fracture or total hip replacement (THR) has become established over the last decade to hasten functional recovery and shorten hospital stay (Hol et al, 2010; Hung, Egol, Zuckerman, and Siu, 2012; Robbins et al, 2014; Tayrose et al, 2013). Early or immediate unrestricted weight-bearing is an important aspect of these programs. "
ABSTRACT: Accelerated rehabilitation following hip fracture and joint replacement, including early unrestricted weight-bearing and muscle strengthening, has gained importance in hastening functional recovery and hospital discharge. The influence of walking aids on these parameters is sparsely investigated. In this case report, we document the effect of walking with crutches; an orthotic garment and strapping system, TheraTogs; and no walking aids over 3-4-week periods on walking speed, trunk sway, and muscle activity measured with electromyography (EMG). The patient was a 49-year-old female showing delayed healing following a conservatively treated avulsion fracture of the greater trochanter 12 weeks previously with a 14-year history of total hip arthroplasty. EMG analysis showed muscle activity increased with TheraTogs and decreased with crutches compared with walking with no aids. Walking speed improved at a faster rate in the TheraTogs phase than in the crutches phase and reduced in no-walking-aids phase. Mean speed (SD) for each phase was: crutches 1.11 (0.08) m/s, TheraTogs 1.35 (0.11) m/s, and no-aids 1.19 (0.14) m/s. Trunk sway increased in the crutch and no-aids phases, and became more stable in the TheraTogs phase. In this patient, function and recovery rate of all measured parameters increased more in the TheraTogs phase than the crutches or no-aids phase. This may be because muscle activity was facilitated enabling active support of recovering structures.
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- "Hip fracture is a devastating event for elderly people, with over 25% per-year mortality and incomplete recovery of pre-fractural conditions in more than 50% of survivors (Maggi et al., 2010). Approximately 1.6 million older adults worldwide sustain a hip fracture annually (Hung et al., 2012). What is worse, due to the ongoing demographic transition, the incidence of hip fractures is projected to increase up to 2.6 million by 2025 and reach 4.5 million in 2050 (Cauley et al., 2014). "
ABSTRACT: Background: Failure to meet an adequate dietary intake is involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which in turn increase the risk for falls and fractures, respectively. Older people with hip fracture are often protein-malnourished at hospitalization. Whether low protein-energy intake is associated with muscle atrophy in hip-fractured patients is presently unknown. This information is necessary for the development of novel strategies to manage this especially vulnerable patient population. The aim of this study was, therefore, to explore the relationship between dietary intake and muscle mass in older hip-fractured patients. Methods: Analyses were conducted in hip-fractured elderly admitted to an orthopedic and trauma surgery ward (University Hospital). Muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis within 24 h from admission. Dietary information was collected via 24-h dietary recall and nutrient intake calculated by a nutrition software. Results: Among 62 hip-fractured patients (mean age 84.6 ± 7.6 years, 84% women), the average energy intake was 929.2 ± 170.3 Kcal day(-1), with higher values reported by men (1.046.8 ± 231.4 Kcal day(-1)) relative to women (906.5 ± 148.3 Kcal day(-1); p = 0.01). Absolute and normalized protein intake was 50.0 ± 13.5 g day(-1) and 0.88 ± 0.27 g kg (body weight)(-1) day(-1), respectively, with no gender differences. A positive correlation was determined between total energy intake and muscle mass (r = 0.384; p = 0.003). Similarly, protein and leucine consumption was positively correlated with muscle mass (r = 0.367 and 0.311, respectively; p = 0.005 for both). Conclusion: A low intake of calories, protein, and leucine is associated with reduced muscle mass in hip-fractured elderly. Given the relevance of sarcopenia as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in this patient population, our findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive dietary assessment for the detection of nutritional deficits predisposing to or aggravating muscle atrophy.
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- "Optimizing medical care is important, as treatment for a hip fracture is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The increase in mortality rate persists beyond 10 years after the fracture, and only 25% of patients regain their prefracture ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living . "
ABSTRACT: Background Hip fractures frequently occur in older persons and severely decrease life expectancy and independence. Several care pathways have been developed to lower the risk of negative outcomes but most pathways are limited to only one aspect of care. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a comprehensive care pathway for older persons with a hip fracture and to conduct a preliminary analysis of its effect. Methods A comprehensive multidisciplinary care pathway for patients aged 60 years or older with a hip fracture was developed by a multidisciplinary team. The new care pathway was evaluated in a clinical trial with historical controls. The data of the intervention group were collected prospectively. The intervention group included all patients with a hip fracture who were admitted to University Medical Center Groningen between 1 July 2009 and 1 July 2011. The data of the control group were collected retrospectively. The control group comprised all patients with a hip fracture who were admitted between 1 January 2006 and 1 January 2008. The groups were compared with the independent sample t-test, the Mann–Whitney U-test or the Chi-squared test (Phi test). The effect of the intervention on fasting time and length of stay was adjusted by linear regression analysis for differences between the intervention and control group. Results The intervention group included 256 persons (women, 68%; mean age (SD), 78 (9) years) and the control group 145 persons (women, 72%; mean age (SD), 80 (10) years). Median preoperative fasting time and median length of hospital stay were significantly lower in the intervention group: 9 vs. 17 hours (p < 0.001), and 7 vs. 11 days (p < 0.001), respectively. A similar result was found after adjustment for age, gender, living condition and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. In-hospital mortality was also lower in the intervention group: 2% vs. 6% (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in other outcome measures. Conclusions The new comprehensive care pathway was associated with a significant decrease in preoperative fasting time and length of hospital stay.
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