The Silurian fishes from China are characterized by their unique characteristics, high diversity, wide geographic distribution and early stratigraphic occurrence. These fossil materials have provided critical data in the quest for early vertebrate evolution, such as the origin of jaws, the origin and early diversification of crown gnathostomes, the origin of osteichthyans, and the early ... [Show full abstract] diversification of sarcopterygians. They have also offered reliable paleoichthyological evidence for some regional stratigraphic issues, exemplified by the subdivision and correlation of Silurian fish-bearing strata and the definition of several geological boundaries in China. We summarize eleven distinctive Silurian fish assemblages in China: the Wentang and Tataaiertage assemblages (early Telychian of Llandovery), the Fentou and Yimugantawu assemblage (middle Telychian), the Maoshan assemblage (late Telychian), the Miaogou assemblage (Homerian of Wenlock), the Yangtze and Keziertage assemblages (early-middle Ludfordian of Ludlow), the Hongmiao assemblage (late Ludfordian of Ludlow), and the Liaojiaoshan and Yanglugou assemblages (Pridoli). In the light of these assemblages, we corroborate that the Silurian shallow marine red beds in the Yangtze area of South China occurred mainly in three horizons, i.e., the lower Telychian of Llandovery (Lower Red Beds), the upper Telychian of Llandovery (Upper Red Beds), and the early-middle Ludfordian of Ludlow (Ludlow Red Beds). We also discuss the subdivision, correlation and geological age of the Silurian red sandstones and mudstones (also termed the "Old Red Rock Series") exposed in the northwestern margin of the Tarim Basin, and review the study of the Silurian-Devonian Boundary in South China on the basis of the fish assemblages and the chemostratigraphic results.