Anticancer Effect of Fraction Isolated from Medicinal Birch Polypore Mushroom, Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae): In Vitro Studies

Article (PDF Available)inInternational Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 4(4) · January 2009with 2,527 Reads 
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DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v11.i4.20
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Abstract
Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Fomitopsidaceae) has been commonly used in folk medicine as an antiparasitic and antimicrobial agent in the treatment of wounds and for the treatment of rectal cancer and stomach diseases. Tea obtained from this mushroom has antibacterial, antifatiguing, immunoenhancing, and soothing properties. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of fraction isolated from P. betulinus. The effect on cell proliferation, motility, and viability was assessed in a range of cancer and normal cells. P. betulinus fraction prepared from dried fruiting bodies was subjected to anticancer evaluation in human lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and rat glioma (C6) cell cultures. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodenrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, and mouse neurons (P19) were applied to test toxicity in normal cells. The following methods were applied: tumor cell proliferation (MTT assay and BrdU assay), cytotoxicity (LDH assay), tumor cell motility (wound assay), tumor cell morphology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining), and death detection (ELISA). P. betulinus fraction elicited anticancer effects that were attributed to decreased tumor cell proliferation, motility, and the induction of morphological changes. Of note is the fact that it produced no or low toxicity in tested normal cells.
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  • ... B.K. Cui, M.L. Han et Y.C. Dai (Fomitopsidaceae, Polyporales, Agaricomycetes, = Piptoporus betulinus) 1,2 is commonly known as birch bracket, birch polypore, or razor strop and grows mostly on dead or weakened birch trees (Betula) in the northern temperate forest. 3 F. betulina is one of the most common brown rot mushroom species in Europe and Northern America and forms annual, white to light brown, tough to woody hard fruiting bodies. 2,4 The polypore is not cultivated; it is potentially edible but due to its very hard structure, it is not known as a common food rather than a medicinal or health supplement. ...
    ... They discovered F. betulina within the mummies' equipment. 3,14,15 Extracts and infusions made from F. betulina have been used in traditional European medicine as medication against different diseases for thousands of years. 16 Extracts made of the mushroom have immune enhancing, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifatiguing, and soothing properties. ...
    ... In addition, dressings and extracts made of F. betulina are known to have antiseptic, antibleeding, and antibiotic properties. 3,5,[17][18][19][20] Extracts (from different solvents like ethanol, ether, water, or methanol) from F. betulina showed antiproliferative effects on various cancer lines such as lung carcinoma (A549), adenocarcinoma (HT-29), human breast cancer (T47D), rat glioma (C6), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (LS 180) in vitro. 2,3,16 Nontoxicity or very low toxicity in human cells like human skin firoblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, mouse neurons (P19), and a colon epithelium-derived cell line (CCD 841) were also studied. ...
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    Wild-grown fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Fomitopsis betulina (Agaricomycetes, birch bracket mushroom, = Piptoporus betulinus) in different growing stages were collected and analyzed for their beta-glucan content. It could be shown that no significant difference in beta-glucan content regarding size or location of the collected fruiting bodies could be determined, but all samples displayed high values of beta-glucan in comparison to other well-known culinary or medicinal mushroom species. Furthermore, F. betulina fruiting bodies extracted with cold sodium chloride were separated into several fractions by cross flow ultrafiltration, and glucan and protein content were analyzed. The fractions showed varying amounts of beta-glucan and very low protein contents were detected. Also, bioactivity of the fractionated extract was analyzed. None of the mushroom extract fractions induced significant cytotoxicity after 48 h of incubation at a concentration up to 1 mg/mL. Interestingly, in a scratch wound assay, the extract FbS 1, an ultrafiltrated fraction > 300 kDa, was able to block tumor cell migration by 38% compared to solvent control after 48 h of incubation at a concentration of 0.33 mg/mL. In conclusion, our results have high potential for identifying novel antitumor activities based on F. betulina.
  • ... B.K. Cui, M.L. Han et Y.C. Dai (Fomitopsidaceae, Polyporales, Agaricomycetes, = Piptoporus betulinus) 1,2 is commonly known as birch bracket, birch polypore, or razor strop and grows mostly on dead or weakened birch trees (Betula) in the northern temperate forest. 3 F. betulina is one of the most common brown rot mushroom species in Europe and Northern America and forms annual, white to light brown, tough to woody hard fruiting bodies. 2,4 The polypore is not cultivated; it is potentially edible but due to its very hard structure, it is not known as a common food rather than a medicinal or health supplement. ...
    ... They discovered F. betulina within the mummies' equipment. 3,14,15 Extracts and infusions made from F. betulina have been used in traditional European medicine as medication against different diseases for thousands of years. 16 Extracts made of the mushroom have immune enhancing, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifatiguing, and soothing properties. ...
    ... In addition, dressings and extracts made of F. betulina are known to have antiseptic, antibleeding, and antibiotic properties. 3,5,[17][18][19][20] Extracts (from different solvents like ethanol, ether, water, or methanol) from F. betulina showed antiproliferative effects on various cancer lines such as lung carcinoma (A549), adenocarcinoma (HT-29), human breast cancer (T47D), rat glioma (C6), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (LS 180) in vitro. 2,3,16 Nontoxicity or very low toxicity in human cells like human skin firoblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, mouse neurons (P19), and a colon epithelium-derived cell line (CCD 841) were also studied. ...
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    Lentinus edodes (shiitake) ranks among the most well-known medicinal mushrooms worldwide. Immune-modulating effects of shiitake extracts have been widely demonstrated in animals and humans. Apart from providing highly purified compounds such as lentinan, crude mushroom extracts also show antitumor activities. The direct cytotoxicity of crude preparations still requires investigation. The focus of our study lies in the molecular weight cutoff distribution of β-glucans and proteins in a cold aqueous extract from L. edodes. We applied cross-flow ultrafiltration to obtain 6 fractions with different molecular sizes. β-glucan and protein contents were quantified. We were able to show that only small amounts of β-glucans were extracted and that protein content decreases with fraction size. The cytotoxic potential of the cold aqueous preparation was demonstrated by analyzing inhibition of the growth of non-small cell lung cancer and triple-negative breast cancer cells.
  • ... F. betulina has been commonly used in folk medicine, especially in Russia, Poland, and other Baltic countries (Grienke et al., 2014;Guthmann, 2016;Lemieszek et al., 2009). The earliest evidence of its use by humans dates back over 5000 years ago; pieces of F. betulina (as well as F. fomentarius) fruiting bodies were found among Ötzi's numerous belongings (Grienke et al., 2014;Guthmann, 2016;Lemieszek et al., 2009;Peintner et al., 1998;Vunduk et al., 2015;Zink et al., 2019), although his intended purpose for them (spiritual or medicinal) is not clear. ...
    ... F. betulina has been commonly used in folk medicine, especially in Russia, Poland, and other Baltic countries (Grienke et al., 2014;Guthmann, 2016;Lemieszek et al., 2009). The earliest evidence of its use by humans dates back over 5000 years ago; pieces of F. betulina (as well as F. fomentarius) fruiting bodies were found among Ötzi's numerous belongings (Grienke et al., 2014;Guthmann, 2016;Lemieszek et al., 2009;Peintner et al., 1998;Vunduk et al., 2015;Zink et al., 2019), although his intended purpose for them (spiritual or medicinal) is not clear. An autopsy found that Ötzi suffered from parasitic intestinal whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) that cause stomach pain and diarrhoea; plausibly, he used the fungus as an attempted remedy (Peintner et al., 1998). ...
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    Background: The application of mushrooms for health purposes has a long tradition and is very common in Asian countries. This trend is also becoming increasingly popular in the western hemisphere. However, mushrooms from European tradition are being treated in a restrained manner despite having significant potential as drugs or as sources of pure bioactive substances. Aim: The present review provides an overview of the most important mushrooms used in European ethnomedical traditions and explores their pharmacological potential and the challenges for the development of new drugs from these sources of natural products. Method: Mushroom species were selected based on information in old herbal books and dispensaries, uninterrupted use and scientific literature in the PubMed database up to June 2019. Results: Traditional experiences and modern studies have demonstrated that medical mushrooms used in European traditions have promising distinct pharmacological potential mediated through defined mechanisms (anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-bacterial). However, the number of modern chemical, biological and pharmacological studies remains relatively small, and some mushroom species have not been studied at all. Unfortunately, no valid clinical studies can be found. Unlike the case with herbal and fungal drugs from traditional Chinese medicine, we are far from comprehensively exploring this potential. Conclusions: Mushrooms from traditional European medicine have the potential to be used in modern medicine. Considerable research, interdisciplinary collaboration, involvement of the pharmaceutical industry, time and money are necessary to explore this potential not only in the form of dietary supplements but also in the form of approved drugs.
  • ... Plodnice sa vytvárajú na žijúcich aj odumretých kmeňoch briez najmä vo východnej časti krajiny a využívajú sa ako imunomodulátor pre ľudí aj pre domáce zvieratá. Na tento účel sa vyrábajú odvary a čaje (Gregori, 2013), ktoré majú okrem posilňovania imunity antibakteriálne, protiúnavové a povzbudzujúce účinky (Lemieszek et al., 2009 ...
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    In natural conditions of Slovenia, there are naturally about 2,400 species of mushrooms, of which, in particular, the mushrooms have been a part of the food and culture of the inhabitants of this country for thousands of years. In the past, they were picked and collected directly in nature. At present, however, many of them are grown in the form of fruiting bodies, or fungal biomass on various substrates. Their immunostimulatory, antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer effects, as well as their use against allergies, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and many other diseases are relatively well known and increasingly exploited. They represent enormous potential as natural healing and health-enhancing substances with minimal or no side effects, they are part of food supplements and their direct use in medicine is very promising. They are a natural treasure, and their cultivation allows people to use them more and more either as a food or as a medicine.
  • ... Piptoporus betulinus, a brown-rot parasitic fungus of birch trees (Betula species), has been used as a common anti-parasitic and antibacterial agent for the treatment of wounds and various diseases, such as cancer, inflammation and so on [1,2]. Its extract has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing fatigue, strengthen immunity and relieving pain. ...
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    Piptoporus betulinus, a brown-rot parasitic fungus of birch trees (Betula species), has been used as a common anti-parasitic and antibacterial agent. The lack of genetic resource data for P. betulinus has limited the exploration of this species. In this present study, we used Illumina Hiseq 2500 technology to examine the transcriptome assembly of P. betulinus in response to birch sawdust induction. By de novo assembly, 21,882 non-redundant unigenes were yielded, and 21,255 (97.1%) were annotated with known gene sequences. A total of 340 responsive unigenes were highly homologous with putative lignocellulose-degrading enzyme candidates. Additionally, 86 unigenes might be involved in the chemical reaction in xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, which suggests that this fungus could convert xenobiotic materials and has the potential ability to clean up environmental pollutants. To our knowledge, this was the first study on transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of P. betulinus, which provided a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying birch sawdust induction and identified lignocelluloses degrading enzymes.
  • ... Piptoporus betulinus, a brown-rot parasitic fungus of birch trees (Betula species), has been used as a common anti-parasitic and antibacterial agent for the treatment of wounds and various diseases, such as cancer, inflammation and so on [1,2]. Its extract has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing fatigue, strengthen immunity and relieving pain. ...
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    Piptoporus betulinus, a brown-rot parasitic fungus of birch trees (Betula species), has been used as a common anti-parasitic and antibacterial agent. The lack of genetic resource data for P. betulinus has limited the exploration of this species. In this present study, we used Illumina Hiseq 2500 technology to examine the transcriptome assembly of P. betulinus in response to birch sawdust induction. By de novo assembly, 21,882 non-redundant unigenes were yielded, and 21,255 (97.1%) were annotated with known gene sequences. A total of 340 responsive unigenes were highly homologous with putative lignocellulose-degrading enzyme candidates. Additionally, 86 unigenes might be involved in the chemical reaction in xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, which suggests that this fungus could convert xenobiotic materials and has the potential ability to clean up environmental pollutants. To our knowledge, this was the first study on transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of P. betulinus, which provided a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying birch sawdust induction and identified lignocelluloses degrading enzymes.
  • ... Immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiparasitic, antiseptic, antiviral, antibacterial, and other biological activities of this mushroom have been reported. [8][9][10][11][12] Traditionally, P. betulinus is decocted in water to make a tea or extracted with alcohol to make a tincture and maximize the extraction of the active principle components. The tea brewed with this mushroom is sometimes used as a substitute for coffee. ...
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