Article

Water Extract from the Leaves of Withania somnifera Protect RA Differentiated C6 and IMR-32 Cells against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity

Department of Biotechnology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 05/2012; 7(5):e37080. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037080
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Search for herbal remedies that may possibly act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective role of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian ginseng, against glutamate induced toxicity in the retinoic acid differentiated rat glioma (C6) and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells. The neuroprotective activity of the Ashwagandha leaves derived water extract (ASH-WEX) was evaluated. Cell viability and the expression of glial and neuronal cell differentiation markers was examined in glutamate challenged differentiated cells with and without the presence of ASH-WEX. We demonstrate that RA-differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells, when exposed to glutamate, undergo loss of neural network and cell death that was accompanied by increase in the stress protein HSP70. ASH-WEX pre-treatment inhibited glutamate-induced cell death and was able to revert glutamate-induced changes in HSP70 to a large extent. Furthermore, the analysis on the neuronal plasticity marker NCAM (Neural cell adhesion molecule) and its polysialylated form, PSA-NCAM revealed that ASH-WEX has therapeutic potential for prevention of neurodegeneration associated with glutamate-induced excitotoxicty.

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Available from: Hardeep Kataria
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    • "WS is beneficial in children with memory deficit and old age people with memory loss by promoting overall brain functioning (Pingali et al. 2014). Earlier studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of WS in induction of neuronal regeneration (Kataria et al. 2012; Chaudhary et al. 2003). WS supplementation has been shown to be effective in improving locomotor and cognitive functions during ageing (Singh et al. 2008). "
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    • "In another study, it was demonstrated that W. somnifera root extract and withanolide-A were capable of restoring spatial memory deficit by inhibiting oxidative stress induced alteration in glutamergic neurotransmission, where W. somnifera reduces the expression of N-metyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, which is responsible for spatial memory loss in epileptic rats (Soman et al., 2012). Leaf extracts of W. somnifera were also showing its protective action against glutamate induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells, by inhibiting over expression of stress protein 70 kilodalton heat shock proteins (Kataria et al., 2012). In another study it was found that W. somnifera root extract and withanolide-A regulate the expression and function of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and glutamate levels in brain dopaminergic nervous system and results are attributed to improvement in motor learning in pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy model (Soman et al., 2013). "
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