ArticlePDF Available

) Effect of different periods of ambient Storage on chemical composition of apple fruit

Authors:
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & BIOLOGY
1560–8530/2004/06–3–568–571
http://www.ijab.org
Effect of Different Periods of Ambient Storage on Chemical
Composition of Apple Fruit
M. ASIF ALI, HASNAIN RAZA, M. AZAM KHAN AND MANZOOR HUSSAIN
Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad–38040, Pakistan
ABSTRACT
The investigations were carried out on five apple varieties viz. Golden delicious, Mashhadi, King Amri, Kalakulu and Amri to
study the effect of ordinary storage at room temperature (25oC) during the month of September with two weeks interval. The
chemical analysis consisted of sugars, acidity, total soluble solids and ascorbic acids. There was increase in reducing sugar,
decreased in non-reducing sugar and increase in total sugars of all varieties when storage period was prolonged. Non-
significant decrease in acidity and significant increase in total soluble solids during storage of the five varieties at room
temperature was observed. Vitamin C decreased during storage. The experiment enables us to conclude that ‘Amri’ and
‘Golden Delicious’ cvs. of apple can be stored up to six weeks to fetch good market price.
Key Words: Apple; Total soluble solids (TSS); Reducing sugars; Non- reducing sugars; Vitamin C.
INTRODUCTION
The Apple (Malus x malus) is one of leading fruits
which is being grown in temperate region of the world. Its
beautiful appearance, crispy flesh, pleasant flavour and
sweet taste attract the consumers and fetch high price. In
Pakistan apples are grown in temperate region of the
country such as Murree Hills (Rawalpindi), part of
Peshawar region, Northern areas, Kashmir and Quetta.
Despite multifarious problems, the apple growers
obtain a phenomenal profit which leads to ultimate efforts
for increasing the fruit of this production. It is an important
source of vitamin C, vitamin A, thiamin and other vitamin
complexes. Different varieties of apple contain different
amount of vitamin C. Bilisili (1970) observed a decrease in
malic acid, losses of ascorbic acid and considerable
variation in sugar contents during storage. Acidity in
different varieties of apple is reduced during storage. Bilisili
(1970) in an experiment, when fruit was stored at 2-30C for
six months examined at different intervals, observed a great
loss of malic acid, had some losses of ascorbic acid, were
also noticed some changes in reducing, non- reducing and
total sugars. Robert and Von loeska (1960) reported the
changes of sugars in several varieties of apple during
storage. In general, there was an increase in total sugars
followed by the gradual decline during the remaining life of
apple fruit.
Apple fruit is mainly harvested during the month of
August and September and maximum fruit is supplied to the
market during these two months. The growers do not get
proper price during these days due to glut of fruit in the
market. To get the fair price and to keep it in the edible
condition with out hampering its availability thorough out
the year, this fruit has to be stored in ordinary and cold
storage condition. The apple fruit has a good potential for
storage under favourable conditions, especially in Kashmir
and Muree hills where the natural cold storage facilities are
present due to low temperature.
The purpose of present studies was to explore the
optimum storage duration at which the chemical
composition of fruit is least deteriorated and to compare the
response of different varieties to these storage durations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fruits of five apple varieties as given below were randomly
harvested at full maturity from Rawalakot and Dirkot Azad
Kashmir. The fruit was brought to the post graduate
research laboratory, Institute of Horticultural Sciences,
University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The varieties Golden
Delicious, Mashhadi, King Amri, Kalakulu and Amri were
used in these studies. The fruit of each variety was divided
in four samples and kept in storage as, fresh; and two, four,
and six weeks intervals. Each sample comprised of five fruit
that were used for chemical analysis to find out the effect of
storage on fruit at room temperature. The experiment was
laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with
factorial arrangement. Data were collected on reducing
sugars using Lane and Eynon method, non-reducing sugar,
total sugar, and total soluble solids following Hortwitz
(1960). Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was determined by the
method described by Ruck (1961).
CHEMICAL CHANGES IN APPLE STORAGE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE / Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004
569
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect on reducing sugar. At the initial stage of storage
reducing sugar was 10.15% which increased to 14.30%
during six weeks storage in King Amri. In Mashhadi
reducing sugar increased from 11.30 to 14.0% during six
weeks storage. In golden delicious at the starting of storage
there was 11.0% reducing sugars which increased to
14.30% during six week’s storage. In Kalakalu variety at the
beginning of storage, the reducing sugars were 12.0% and at
the end of storage increased to 14.6%. King Amri reducing
sugar increased from 10.55 to 13.80% during six weeks
storage. All differences were different at 5% levels (Fig. 1).
In the storage period of six weeks as a whole the four
varieties viz, King Amri Mashhadi, Golden Delicious and
Kalakulu had significantly higher percentage of reducing
sugars as compared to Amri. However, they did not differ
among themselves. The results of these investigations are in
conformity with the finding of Wright and Whiteman
(1955) who reported that reducing sugars tended to increase
during storage.
Effect on non-reducing sugars percentage. Higher
quantities of non-reducing sugar percentage was 2.15% in
Golden delicious and 2.0% in Kalakulu at initial stage of
storage while lower quantities of non-reducing sugar
percentage was found 1.54% in King Amri, 1.45% in
Mashhadi and 1.15% in Amri at initial stage of storage.
There was decrease in non-reducing sugar during six week
of storage. Decrease in non-reducing sugar during six week
of storage in five varieties of apple was 2.15 to 1.11% in
Golden delicious, from 1.15 to 0.84% in King Amri, from
1.45 to 0.88% in Mashhadi and from 1.15 to 0.76% in Amri
(Fig. 2).
Two varieties Kalakulu and Golden delicious do not
differ between each other and their non reducing sugars
contents were significantly higher as compared to king
Amri, Mashhadi and Amri. However, King Amri and
Mashhadi varieties have more non-reducing sugar was
compared to Amri but they did not differ among
themselves. Similar results were reported by Srivastava and
Souza (1962) who determined the effect of storage on non-
reducing sugar in five different Japanese plus varieties and
reported that the non – reducing sugar decreased during
storage.
Effect on Total Sugars percentage. The highest
percentage of total sugars was 14.25% in Kalakulu at initial
stage of storage. Other three varieties showed higher
percentage of total sugar, 2.90% in Mashhadi, 12.75% in
Golden delicious and 12.75% in King Amri and lowest
amount of total sugars were found in Amri 11.80% at initial
stage of storage. After two week this percentage of total
sugars increased from 14.25% in Kalakulu, from 12.90 to
14.38% in Mashhadi, from 12.75 to 14.10% in Golden
Delicious, from 12.75 to 14.69% in King Amri and 11.80 to
13.50% in Amri variety of apple during storage at room
temperature , after four weeks of storage. The percentage of
total sugars increased in all varieties as with the time of
storage (Fig. 3).
Fig. 1. Effect on the reducing sugar in apple at room
temperature
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
A
mri Mas hhadi Golden De licious King Amri Kalakulu
A
pple Varietie
s
e
ducing Sugar(%)
Fres
h
Two weeks
Four weeks
Six weeks
Fig. 2. Effect on non-reducing sugar percentage in
Apple at room temp
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Amri Mashhadi Go lden Delicious King Amri Kalakulu
Apple Varieties
o
n reducing Sugar (%)
Fres
h
Two weeks
Four weeks
Six weeks
Fig. 3. Effect on Total Sugar Percentage in Apple at
room temp
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
A
mri Mas hhadi Go lden Delicio us King Amri Kalakulu
A
pple Varietie
s
o
tal Sugar (%)
Fres
h
Two weeks
Four weeks
Six weeks
ALI et al. / Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol. 6, No. 3, 2004
570
During six weeks storage period, the Kalakulu variety
differed from all other varieties due to higher total sugars
percentage. Three varieties Mashhadi, Golden Delicious and
King Amri did not differ among themselves but their sugars
were significantly higher than Amri variety. Tahir and
Ericsson (2003) found that the sweetness increased 10%
after storage. These findings also confirm the results of
Krotkov and Helson (1946), Wright and Whiteman (1955),
Robert and Von-Loeske (1960), Bidabe (1970) and
Stranzhey (1973) who reported that there was increase in
total sugars with the increase in storage time.
Effect on the acidity percentage. The results showed that
amount of Acidity was found in Golden Delicious (0.44%),
while in Mashhadi and in King Amri it was 0.4 and 0.39%,
respectively. The lowest amount of acidity percentage was
found in Amri (0.33%) and Kalakulu (0.31%) at initial stage
of storage. As the storage period increased, the percentage
of acidity gradually decreased. Acidity decreased from 0.44
to 0.09% in Golden Delicious, from 0.40 to 0.16% in
Mashhadi, from 0.39 to 0.15% in King Amri, from 0.33 to
0.11% in Amri and from 0.31 to 0.12% in Kalakulu at the
end of six week storage (Fig. 4).
After the storage of six weeks, Golden Delicious and
Mashhadi varieties differ from all other varieties because
their acidity was significantly higher as compared with
varieties. Amri and Kalakulu did not differ with each other
but differs among other varieties of apple at initial stage of
storage. As regards the effect of storage period there was a
non-significant decrease in acidity at each interval during
storage. These results confirm the findings of Crouch (2003)
who reported that there was decline in titrable acidity in
apple fruit after harvesting. Apple fruit stored for six months
were found to bear great losses of malic acid (Billisli, 1970).
Tahir and Ericsson (2003) also found a marked difference in
acidity of apples after storage.
Effect on total soluble solids percentage. The storage
period increased the percentage of total soluble solids
increased from 15.40 to 17.3% in Kalakulu, from 15.25 to
16.20% in Golden Delicious, from 14.60 to 16.30% in
Mashhadi, from 14.46 to 16.80% in King Amri, and from
13.15 to 15.85% in Amri variety of apple at the end of six
week storage (Fig. 5).
These results confirm the findings of Bidabe et al.
(1970). They observed the increase in total soluble solids,
starch and sugar contents, when different varieties of apple
were stored at room temperature, same results were
observed by Isagullyan (1976) and Crouch (2003). The
present investigations have clearly indicated that total
soluble solids in apple fruit would increased throughout
storage period.
Effects on vitamin C percentage. The highest amount of
vitamin C contents were found 12.68% in King Amri,
12.19% in Golden Delicious and lowest amount of vitamin
C contents were found 9.70% in Mashhadi, 9.10% in Amri
and 8.70% in Kalakulu at initial stage of storage. Vitamin C
in these varieties of apple ranged from 8.70 to 12.68%
which reduced significantly during six weeks storage (Fig.
6). During six weeks storage period, the King Amri
variety as a whole was significantly higher in vitamin C
Fig. 4. Effect on Acidity Percentage in Apple at room
temperature
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
A
mri Mas hhadi Golden Delic ious King Amri Kalakulu
A
pple varietie
s
A
cidi ty (%)
Fres
h
Two weeks
Four weeks
Six weeks
Fig. 5. Effect on Total Soluble Solid Percentage (TSS)
in Apple at room temperature
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
A
mri Mashhadi Go lden Deli cious King A mri Kalakulu
Apple Varieties
o
tal Soluble Solid (%)
Fres
h
Two weeks
Four weeks
Six weeks
Fig. 6. Effect on Vitamin C in Apple storage at room
temperature
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
A
mri Mashhadi Go lden Deli cious King A mri Kalakulu
Apple Vari eties
tamin C cont ent (%)
Fres
h
Two weeks
Four weeks
Six weeks
CHEMICAL CHANGES IN APPLE STORAGE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE / Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004
571
contents as compared to all other four varieties. Golden
Deelicious variety of apple was also higher in vitamin C
contents as compared to Mushhadi, Amri and Kalakulu. The
two varieties Mashhadi and Amri did not differ between
themselves but their vitamin C contents significantly higher
than Kalakulu. The storage periods at different intervals had
a profound effect in decreasing of vitamin C contents. Same
results were reported by Martin (1968), Manaschiffmann
(1971), Ahmed et al. (1979) and Purvis (1983).
CONCLUSION
Our experiment shows that the reducing sugar
increases by prolonging storage periods while significant
decrease in non-reducing sugar occurs. As the storage
period increases there was significant increase in total sugar,
non- significant decrease in acidity, increase in total soluble
solids (TSS) in all apple varieties and vitamin C contents
decrease in all apple varieties with different proportions
during storage at room temperature. However, the
maximum decrease in acidity of ‘Golden Delicious’ lead us
to the conclusion that it can be stored up to six weeks after
maturity to fetch good market price. At the end of the
experiment ‘Amri’ possesses the most desirable levels of
vitamin C, total sugars, TSS and acidity so it may also be
stored up to six weeks with out deteriorating its internal fruit
quality.
REFERENCES
Ahmad, M., Z.M. Khalid and W.A. Farooqi, 1979. Effect of waxing and
lining materialon storage life of some citrus fruits. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc., 92: 237–40
Bilisili, A., A. Ayanoglu and N. Baykent, 1970. Quality changes in stored
apples. Teknoloji Laboratuvari Yalova, 3: 50–5.
Bidabe, B., M. Lelezec and J. Babin, 1970. Apple quality in relation to
picking and eatingtimes. Arboric Fruit, 17: 26–8
Crouch, I., 2003. 1–Methylcyclopropene (smartfresh tm) as an alternative to
modified atmosphere and controlled atmosphere storage of apples
and pears. Acta Hort., 600: 433–6
Isagullyan, E.A., 1976. Quality of natural juices with pulp made from
Apples of different storage condations and periods. Chem. Absts., 86:
42032; 1977
Hortwitz, W., 1960. Official Methods of Analysis, 8
th ed. Associates of
official Agric. Chemists Inc. Washington D.C.
Krotkov, G and V. Helson, 1946. Chemical changes and Physiology of
Apple fruit after harvest. Canadian J. Res., 24: 126.
Martin, D., 1968. Vitamin C in apples. N.Z.J. Agric. 116: 71
Manaschiffman, N., F.S. Latter and J. Walks, 1971. The response of grape
fruit to different storage temperatures. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 96:
87–90
Purvis, A.C., 1983. Effect of film thickness and storage temperature on
water loss and internal quality of sealed packed grape fruit. J. Amer.
Soc. Hort. Sci., 108: 562–6
Robert, S. and H. Von Loeska, 1960. Effect of Harvesting and Handling
Percentage on Composition of Unprocessed foods. pp: 76.
Nutritional Evaluation of food processing. John–Willey & Sons, Inc.
New York
Ruck, J.A., 1961. Chemical Methods for Analysis of Fruits and Vegetables.
No. 1154. Research Station Summerland, Research Branch Canada,
Department of Agriculture
Srivastava, H.C. and D. Souza, 1962. Refrigerated storage of plums. Food
Sci. Mysore, 11: 219–26
Stranzhey, A., 1973. Physiological, biological and flavour changes in cold
stored apple fruits. II Biochemical changes. Gandinarska I Lozarska
Nauko, 10: 11–6. Plovdiv, Bulgaria. (Hort. Absts., 44(3): 6348;
1974)
Tahir, I.I. and N.A. Ericsson, 2003. Effect of postharvest heating and ca–
storage on storability and quality of apple cv. 'Aroma'. Acta Hort.,
600: 410–5
Wright, R.C. and T.M. Whiteman, 1955. Some changes in Eastern apples
during storage.Tech. Bull. U.S.D.A., 1120, 54. (Hort. Absts., 26(2):
1460; 1956)
(Received 10 November 2003; Accepted 28 April 2004)
... Even the differences in the values of ascorbic acid were significant within the chambers. Reduction in ascorbic acid during storage has also been reported [18] during storage studies on apple. Decrease in vitamin C content of okra from 35.58 mg/100g to 22.34 mg/100g during 7 days storage in ZECC has also been reported by other researchers [8]. ...
... The present results have shown an increase in reducing sugars during storage. Similar findings have been reported [18] during storage of apple. The researchers reported that reducing sugars in apples increased from 10.15 to 14.30 % during a period of six weeks.s ...
... Though a significant decline in non-reducing sugars was observed during but within the chambers there was no significant difference in the values of non-reducing sugars. Decrease in non-reducing sugars during storage of apples has also been reported by other researchers [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Post-harvest losses of horticultural crops cause huge financial, food and nutritive losses in developing countries. One of the major causes for such losses is lack of proper storage infrastructures. There is a need to develop low cost storage structures that can attain and maintain low temperature and high relative humidity (RH). The evaporative cool chamber is a better option as a low cost storage chamber. Evaporative cool chambers are constructed with bricks. Due to high cost of bricks in most areas of Ethiopia, the construction of evaporative cool chambers using bricks is not affordable for common farmers. In the present studies use of bamboo mat and gunny bags was explored as an alternate material in place of bricks for construction of cool chambers. Both bamboo mat and gunny bags were found suitable for attaining low temperature and high humidity in the storage chambers. There was no significant difference in the mean relative humidity and temperature values of Brick chamber and Bamboo mat chamber. Even no significant temperature difference in Brick chamber and Gunny bag chamber was observed. However, the mean values of relative humidity in the two chambers showed a significant difference. The mean value of RH in Brick chamber was 87.01%, whereas the corresponding value in Gunny bag chamber was 84.785% as against 57.58% in ambient storage. Both Bamboo mat and gunny bags proved equally effective in extending shelf life of papaya. The shelf life of papaya was extended from 12 days (Control) to 27 days in Brick chamber, Bamboo mat chamber and Gunny bag chamber. Physiological weight loss during storage was significantly reduced in all the chambers. Thus the findings indicate that bamboo mat and gunny bags can be used in place of bricks for making evaporative cool chambers for storage of horticultural crops.
... The Apple (Malus x malus) is one of leading fruits which is grown in temperate regions of the world. It's beautiful appearance, crispy flesh, Pleasant flavor and sweet taste attract the consumers (Ali et al., 2004). The therapeutic value of apple is well known for different illness and is good for the treatment of anemia, dysentery, heart disease, kidney stones and promotes vigour and vitality (Suni et al., 2000 andNour et al., 2010). ...
... Leontowicz et al. (2003) found that, polyphenols (mg/100g) was 61.7and carotenoids was 72.3(mg/100g) in apple pulp. Ali et al. (2004) carried out investigations on five apple varieties viz. Golden delicious, Mashhadi, King Amri, Kalakulu and Amri to study the effect of ordinary storage at room temperature (25 o C) during the month of September with two weeks interval. ...
Thesis
The present work aimed to study the use of ohmic heating in the processing of mango, apple, apricot and strawberry pulp comparing to conventional method. Pulps were processed by using ohmic heating under the studied suitable conditions. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of pulps were studied. The results showed that processing of all pulps by using either ohmic heating or conventional method caused an increase in pH, 5-hydroxy methyel furfural (HMF) and electrical conductivity. Total soluble solids (TSS), total carbohydrates and total sugars (reducing and non- reducing sugars) in mango and apple pulp were increased while they were reduced in apricot and strawberry. Also an increase in phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and carotenoids and a decrease in HMF has been observed in all pulps processed by ohmic heating compared to that produced by conventional one. Total pectin and its fractions had slightly reduced by ohmic heating compared to conventional method. Results also showed that total plate count and mold and yeast were reduced by processing of all pulps by using the two methods. However all ohmic heated pulps showed a less total plate count and mold and yeast values after processing and during storage compared to that in conventional method. Coliform and thermophilic bacteria were completely inhibited by using both methods after processing and during storage. Enzymatic activities showed a reduction in poly phenoloxidase (PPO) and polygalacturonase (PG) activity in all pulps processed by conventional method. However ohmic heating completely inhibited PPO and PG activities. An improvement in the organoleptic properties of all pulps processed by ohmic heating compared to conventional process was noticed. Key words: Ohmic heating, Mango pulp, Apple pulp, Apricot pulp, Strawberry pulp, Electric conductivity, Total phenolic compounds and Carotenoids.
... Haas avocados are reported to contain 0.3 % sugars only as reported by Dreher and Davenport (2013). As is observed in Increase in sugar content during storage of apples has also been reported by some researchers (Ali, 2004). ...
... Apple (Malus  domestica Borkh.) is a very popular fruit crop worldwide, with an annual production of more than 83 million tonnes in 2017 (FAOSTAT, 2019), ranking fourth after grapes, citrus and bananas. Its beautiful appearance, crispy flesh, pleasant flavour and sweet taste attract consumers and fetch a high price (Asif Ali et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
During two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) we investigated the effect of two clonal rootstocks on fruit weight, contents of some non-nutrients and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the flesh and peel of cv. 'Hapke' apple. Results showed that fruit weight was significantly higher on M.9 T337 than on M.26 rootstock and similar in both 2018 and 2019. M.26 rootstock significantly improved titratable acidity (TA), vitamin C content, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and TAC in comparison with M.9 T337. As regards fruit tissue, the peel was a significantly better source of acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and had higher antioxidant capacity than the flesh. However, the rootstock  fruit tissue interaction for the content of phenolic compounds indicated the complex nature of accumulation and distribution of acidity, vitamin C and phenolic compounds in apples.
... It is an important fruit originated in south/western Asia, its production in Pakistan is bound to Punjab, Baluchistan and northern hilly areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Shah et al., 2002). Its sweet taste, shiny appearance and crispy flesh attract the consumers towards itself (Ali et al., 2004). Production wise Pakistan ranked on 10 th position in apple production throughout the world (GOP, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate various combination and effect of storage period on the quality of carrot apple blended jam at ambient temperature (18-25 °C). The treatments were CA0, CA1,CA2, CA3, CA4 and CA5. All the treatments were examined for physicochemical properties i.e., total soluble solids (TSS), pH, reducing sugars (%), percent acidity, non-reducing sugars (%), ascorbic acid (mg/100 g),as well as for sensory properties at fifteen days interval for a total storage period of 90 days. Significant increase (P<0.05) were examined in TSS (67.45-70.40 brix), acidity (0.64-0.80) and reducing sugars (16.64-27.78). While, significant decrease (P<0.05) were examined in pH (3.63-3.44), non reducing sugars (45.04-27.69), ascorbic acid (7.81-5.52 mg/100 g), colour (7.33-4.35), taste (7.40-4.12), texture (7.22-4.06) and overall acceptability (7.36-4.14). Statistical results concluded that treatment and storage has a significant effect on the quality and stability of carrot pulp and apple pulp blend jam. Results revealed that good quality jam could be prepared with equal amount of carrot and apple pulp, which showed with minimum damage to physiochemical and sensory attributes among the other treatment even after 90 days of storage.
... Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the leading fruits which are being grown in temperate region of the world. Its beautiful appearance, crispy flesh, pleasant flavour and sweet taste attract the consumers (Ali et al, 2004). Apple consumption has increased in India. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of calcium lactate on osmotically dehydrated apple slices was monitored during storage. Osmotic dehydration (OD) was carried out using 50°Bx sucrose solutions with 4% and 8% calcium lactate (CL) at atmospheric pressure for 16 hours followed by dehydration. Samples were periodically evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, microbiological quality and sensory acceptance, stored at 25 ± 2ºC for 120 days at an interval of 15 days. Moisture content of all the treated samples increased significantly (p<0.05) during storage. The calcium salt significantly (p<0.05) reduced the non-enzymatic browning in samples treated with calcium lactate during storage. Maximum microbial stability was observed in the samples treated with 8% calcium lactate during storage. The sensory panel did not observe any significant differences in appearance, flavor, sweetness, texture and overall acceptability between dried apple slices treated with or without calcium lactate during storage. Thus, it can be concluded that calcium lactate increased the physicochemical characteristics, microbiological quality without affecting sensory characteristics of apple slices up to 120 days of storage. Keywords: Calcium Lactate, Osmotic dehydration, Atmospheric Pressure, Apple, shelf life.
Thesis
نفذت التجربة في أحد البيوت البلاستيكية غير المدفأة الواقعة في ناحية الحيدرية العائدة لمحافظة النجف الاشرف خلال العروة الخريفية للموسم الزراعي 2019. لدراسة تأثير رش اسمدة الكالسيوم النانوي و التقليدي واليوريا في نمو وحاصل صنفين من الخيار، نفذت تجربة عامليه باستعمال تصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكاملةRandomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)بعاملين ,العامل الاول التسميد الورقي. والعامل الثاني عامل الصنف وهما الصنف يكتا و والصنف ميمون٫ وتمت المقارنة بين متوسطات المعاملات حسب اختبار Duncan عند مستوى احتمالية 0.05 و كررت كل معاملة ثلاث مرات ودلت النتائج على الاتي :- 1- تشير النتائج الى تفوق التوليفة (2 غم لتر يوريا+ 1.5 مل.لتر-1 نانو كالسيوم) معنويا في جميع مؤشرات النمو الخضري وصفات الحاصل و مكوناته المدروسة,فبلغ متوسط ارتفاع النبات 3.14 م , متوسط المساحة الورقية 139.09 سم2 ورقة-1 , متوسط عدد الأوراق 42.65 ورقة نبات-1 , متوسط الوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري 39.60 غم نبات-1 , معدل قطر الساق 19.02ملم دليل الكلوروفيل في الأوراق 50.08 SPAD , محتوى النتروجين في الأوراق 37.33 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى الفسفور في الأوراق 4.74 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى البوتاسيوم في الأوراق 29.25 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى الكالسيوم في الأوراق 6.84 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, - محتوى النتروجين في الثمار 22.21غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, محتوى الفسفور في الثمار 3.10 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, محتوى البوتاسيوم الكلي في الثمار 17.57 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, محتوى الكالسيوم في الثمار 5.47 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, متوسط طول الثمرة 18.55 سم ثمرة-1 , متوسط وزن الثمرة 101.69غم ثمرة-1 , متوسط قطر الثمرة 2.91 سم ثمرة-1 , متوسط عدد الثمار 44.77 ثمرة نبات-1 و الحاصل الكلي 4.77 ميكاغرام بيت بلاستيكي-1 . 2- تفوق نباتات الصنف يكتا ((V1 معنويا في جميع مؤشرات النمو الخضري وصفات الحاصل و مكوناته المدروسة٫يبلغ متوسط ارتفاع النبات 2.53 م , متوسط المساحة الورقية 110.76 سم2ورقة-1 , متوسط عدد الأوراق 36.33 ورقة نبات-1 , متوسط الوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري 30.39 غم نبات-1, معدل قطر الساق 16.70 ملم٫ دليل الكلوروفيل في الأوراق 42.92 SPAD , محتوى النتروجين في الأوراق 31.20 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى الفسفور في الأوراق 3.97 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى البوتاسيوم في الأوراق 25.73 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى الكالسيوم في الأوراق 3.87 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, محتوى النتروجين في الثمار19.38 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, محتوى الفسفور في الثمار 2.73 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى البوتاسيوم الكلي في الثمار 15.49 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف٫ محتوى الكالسيوم في الثمار 3.11 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, , متوسط طول الثمرة 16.63 سم ثمرة-1 , متوسط وزن الثمرة 81.78 غم ثمرة-1 , متوسط قطر الثمرة 2.76 سم ثمرة-1 , متوسط عدد الثمار 41.21 ثمرة نبات-1 و الحاصل الكلي 3.67 ميكاغرام بيت بلاستيكي-1 . 3- كان للتداخل بين (2 غم يوريا+ 1.5 مل.لتر-1 نانو كالسيوم) و (V1 ) اثر معنوي في جميع المؤشرات المدروسة ,فبلغ متوسط ارتفاع النبات 3.25 م , متوسط المساحة الورقية 143.47 سم2 ورقة-1 , متوسط عدد الأوراق 43.85 ورقة نبات-1 , متوسط الوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري 40.72 غم نبات-1 ,معدل قطر الساق 19.56 ملم دليل الكلوروفيل في الأوراق 51.51 SPAD , محتوى النتروجين في الأوراق 38.39 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى الفسفور في الأوراق 4.88 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى البوتاسيوم في الأوراق 30.08 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى الكالسيوم في الأوراق 7.03 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, محتوى النتروجين في الثمار 22.85 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف , محتوى الفسفور في الثمار 3.19 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, محتوى البوتاسيوم الكلي في الثمار 18.07 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف ,محتوى الكالسيوم في الثمار 5.62 غم كغم-1 وزن جاف, متوسط طول الثمرة 19.08 سم ثمرة-1 , متوسط وزن الثمرة 104.57غم ثمرة-1 , متوسط قطر الثمرة 3.00 سم ثمرة-1 , متوسط عدد الثمار 46.73 ثمرة نبات-1 و الحاصل الكلي 4.91 ميكاغرام بيت بلاستيكي-1 . Abstract: The experiment was carried out in one of the unheated greenhouses located in Al-Haidariya sub-district of Najaf governorate during the fall season 2019. The effect of spraying calcium fertilizer (Nano- and conventional) and Urea on the growth, yield of two varieties of cucumber, a factorial experiment was conducted using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two factors, the first factor is foliar fertilization. The second factor was the cultivar factor, namely, the Yekta and the cultivar Maimon cultivar. The comparison was made between the averages of treatments according to Duncan's test and under the probability level of 0.05. Each treatment was repeated three times, and the results indicated the following: 1- The plants of the Yecta cultivar (V1) were significantly superior in all indicators of vegetative growth, yield characteristics and components studied, average of plant height (2.53 m), average leaf area (110.76 cm2leaf-1), average number of leaves ( 36.33 leaf.plant-1), average dry weight of shoot system (30.39 g plant-1), relative chlorophyll content in leaves (42.92 SPAD) , total nitrogen content in leaves (31.20 mg kg-1 dry weight), total phosphorous content in leaves (3.97 mg kg-1 dry weight) , total potassium content in leaves (25.73 mg kg-1 dry weight), total calcium content in leaves (3.87 mg kg-1 dry weight), total nitrogen content in fruits (19.83 mg kg-1 dry weight), total phosphorous content in fruits( 2.73 mg kg-1 dry weight), total potassium content in the fruits was (15.49 mg kg-1 dry weight), the total calcium content in the fruit is (3.11 mg kg-1 dry weight), the average length of the fruit was (16.63 cm fruit-1), the average fruit weight is (81.78 g fruit-1), The average fruit diameter is (2.76 cm Fruit-1), the average number of fruits was (41.21. Fruit plant-1 ). and the total yield is 3.76 tons a greenhouse-1. 2- The results showed that the superiority of the combination (2 g urea + 1.5 ml.l-1 nano-calcium) significantly in all indicators of vegetative growth, yield characteristics and components studied, plant height rate (3.16 m), average leaf area (139.49 cm2.leaf-1), average number of leaves (42.65 leaves.plant-1), average of dry weight of shoot system (39.60 g plant-1), relative content of chlorophyll in leaves (50.08 SPAD), total nitrogen content in leaves (37.33 mg kg-1 dry weight), total phosphorous content in leaves (4.74 mg kg-1 dry weight), total potassium content in leaves (29.25 mg kg-1 dry weight), total calcium content in leaves (6.84 mg kg-1 dry weight), total nitrogen content in fruits (22.21 mg kg-1 dry weight), The total phosphorous content in the fruits was (3.10 mg kg-1 dry weight), the total potassium content in the fruits is (17.57 mg kg-1 dry weight) , the total calcium content in the fruits was (5.47 mg kg-1 dry weight), the average length of the fruit was (18.55 cm fruit -1), average fruit weight (101.69 g. fruit-1), average fruit diameter (2.91 cm. fruit-1), average number of fruits (44.77 fruit plant-1), and total yield(4.77 tons greenhouse-1) . 3- The interaction between (2 g urea + 1.5 ml. l-1 nano-calcium) and (Yecta (V1) plants) had a significant effect on all studied parameters, plant height rate (3.25 m), average leaf area (143.47 cm2 leaf-1), average number of leaves (43.85 leaves plant-1), average of dry weight of shoot system (40.72 g plant-1), relative content of chlorophyll in leaves (51.51 SPAD), total nitrogen content in leaves (38.90 mg kg-1 dry weight), total phosphorous content in leaves (4.88 mg kg-1 dry weight), total potassium content in leaves (30.08 mg kg-1 dry weight), total calcium content in leaves (7.03 mg kg-1 dry weight), total nitrogen content in fruits (22.85 mg kg-1 dry weight), content total phosphorous in fruits (3.19 mg kg-1 dry weight), total potassium content in fruits (18.07 mg kg-1 dry weight), total calcium content in fruits (5.62 mg kg-1 dry weight), average fruit length (19.08 cm fruit-1 ), average fruit weight (104.57 g fruit-1), average fruit diameter (3.00 cm fruit-1), average number of fruits (46.73 fruit Plant-1) and total yield 4.91 ton greenhouse-1.
Article
Full-text available
Summer apples are one of the most important plant community in Artvin province located Northeastern part of Turkey. In present study 22 local apple genotypes were characterized by phenological, morphological, biochemical and sensory properties. Harvest date was the main phenological data. Morphological measurements included fruit weight, fruit shape, fruit ground color, fruit over color, fruit over color coverage and fruit firmness, respectively. Sensory measurements were as juiciness and aroma and biochemical characteristics included organic acids, SSC (Soluble Solid Content), vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Genotypes exhibited variable harvest dates ranging from 11 July to 13 August and cv. Summered harvested 30 July 2017. The majority of genotypes were harvested before cv. Summered. Fruit weight were also quite variable among genotypes which found to be between 89 g and 132 g, and most of the genotypes had bigger fruits than cv. Summered. Pink, red, yellow and green fruit skin color was evident and main fruit shape were determined as round, conic and oblate among genotypes. ART08-9, ART08-4, ART08-21 and ART08-22 had distinct bigger fruits and ART08-1, ART08-2, ART08-5, ART08-12 and ART08-17 had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The results of the study showed significant differences for most of the phenological, morphological, sensory and biochemical characteristics. Thus, the phonological, morphological, sensory and biochemical characteristics of summer apple genotypes were distinguishable and these results suggest that phonological, morphological, sensory and biochemical differences of the summer apple genotypes can be attributed to differences in genetic background of genotypes which placed different groups by PCoA analysis.
Article
Full-text available
Banana is a highly nutritious fruit that can be used for production of various novel foods. Although economical, its limited shelf life hinders the storage of pulp for processing purposes. Chemical (0.1 and 0.1% KMS), thermal (65 °C for 30 min) and a combination of both thermal & chemical treatment was applied to freshly prepared banana pulp and various quality parameters of treated as well as untreated (control) pulp were studied for a storage period of 90 days. All the studied parameters viz; acidity, pH, TSS, reducing and non-reducing sugars varied significantly with different treatments during storage. Color, PPO activity and antioxidant properties (DPPH, ABTS and total phenolic content) were also determined. Chemically treated pulp showed highest values of total phenolic content (0.96–0.44 mg GAE/g dfw) but lowest DPPH (IC⁵⁰ = 4.42–32.42 mg/ml) and ABTS (IC⁵⁰ = 3.15–21.37 mg/ml) values. Although lowest values of PPO activity (158.65 units) was seen in samples that were subjected to dual (chemical and thermal) treatment, however lowest change in color index (1.09–58.49) among all the samples during storage was seen in chemically treated samples. Dual treatment was more showed lesser total plate count than samples that were heat or chemically treated samples. All treatments resulted in improved sensory attributes during storage and prolonged the shelf life of samples in comparison to control. Chemical treatment was most effective in preserving quality parameters viz; color and antioxidant activity but samples treated with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment could be stored for longer period without deterioration than rest of the samples.
Article
The present study evaluated phenolics and antioxidant activities in fully ripened fruits of 20 different apple cultivars e.g., Royal Delicious, Fanny, Gale Gala, Esopus Spitzenburg, King David, Winter Banana, Buckinghum, Super Chief, Breven, Red Fuji, Organ Spur, Tompking County, Red Gold, Golden Spur, Vance Delicious, Red Delicious, Macintosh, Rymer, Bhura Delicious, and Richa Red growing at different locations/elevations of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya, India. Total phenolics and tannins varied significantly among cultivars and the maximum content was recorded in Bhura Delicious (phenolics—3.77 mg GAE/g fw; tannins—16.47 mg TAE/g fw) as compared to others. Antioxidant activity using different in vitro assays showed highest activity in Bhura Delicious and lowest in Esopus Spitzenburg. A significant (p < 0.001) positive relationship was found between total phenolics and ABTS (r = 0.816), FRAP (r = 0.797) and DPPH (r = 0.862) assays. Phenolics and antioxidant activity exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher content in the peel as compared to whole fruit and flesh portion. Based on the results, it is concluded that Bhura Delicious is one of the promising sources of phenolics and antioxidant activity and, therefore, recommended for large scale plantation to harness its potential.
Article
Two main problems downgrade 'Aroma' apple in the Swedish market: high bruise sensitivity and low resistance against pathogens. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of postharvest heating and CA storage on this cultivar storability. Fruits were picked at optimum harvest date, divided in to two parts. The first part was inoculated with Penicillium expansum and Gloeosporium, divided in to 26 groups, two of them were stored directly either in NA (2-3°C& 90% RH) or in CA (2% O2, 2% CO2), the rest was covered with polyethylene film and held at 20, 30, 40° C for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr. After heating, 12 groups were stored in NA for 15 weeks and 12 groups in CA storage for 20 weeks. Quality parameters, decayed percentage and bruise susceptibility were measured or quantified at the end of storage. The same experimental procedure was applied on the fruits of second part which was kept without inoculation. Fruit decay and lesion diameter decreased due to heating, regardless of storage method. Post-harvest heating improved the effect of CA storage on the pathogen growth, quality and storability of inoculated and non-inoculated fruits. CA storage decreased bruise susceptibility by 20 - 30% in comparison with NA storage. Pre-storage heating showed slight improvement on this effect, especially in fruits treated with high impact energy. CA-apples were 25% firmer, 10% sweeter and they contained 25% higher acidity than NA-apples. Pre - storage heating did not improve the effect of storage method neither on fruits firmness nor on fruit acidity.
Effect of waxing and lining materialon storage life of some citrus fruits Quality changes in stored apples
  • M Ahmad
  • Z M Khalid
  • W A Farooqi
Ahmad, M., Z.M. Khalid and W.A. Farooqi, 1979. Effect of waxing and lining materialon storage life of some citrus fruits. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 92: 237–40 Bilisili, A., A. Ayanoglu and N. Baykent, 1970. Quality changes in stored apples. Teknoloji Laboratuvari Yalova, 3: 50–5