Cutting Edge: Slamf8 Is a Negative Regulator of Nox2 Activity in Macrophages
Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. The Journal of Immunology
(Impact Factor: 4.92).
05/2012; 188(12):5829-32. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1102620
Slamf8 (CD353) is a cell surface receptor that is expressed upon activation of macrophages (MΦs) by IFN-γ or bacteria. In this article, we report that a very high NADPH oxidase (Nox2) enzyme activity was found in Slamf8(-/-) MΦs in response to Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus, as well as to PMA. The elevated Nox2 activity in Slamf8(-/-) MΦs was also demonstrated in E. coli or S. aureus phagosomes by using a pH indicator system and was further confirmed by a reduction in the enzyme activity after transfection of the receptor into Slamf8-deficient primary MΦs or RAW 264.7 cells. Upon exposure to bacteria or PMA, protein kinase C activity in Slamf8(-/-) MΦs is increased. This results in an enhanced phosphorylation of p40phox, one key component of the Nox2 enzyme complex, which, in turn, leads to greater Nox2 activity. Taken together, the data show that, in response to inflammation-associated stimuli, the inducible receptor Slamf8 negatively regulates inflammatory responses.
Available from: Jaime De Calisto
- "identification number 032574-UCD) were obtained from the Mutant Mouse Regional Resource Center (MMRRC), an NIH-funded strain repository, and was donated to the MMRRC by Genentech, Inc., Sh2d1a−/− mice on B6 and BALB/c backgrounds have been previously described (47). Slamf8−/− mice on a BALB/c background have been previously described (48). Age- and sex-matched controls on the B6 and BALB/c backgrounds were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) or from Charles River Laboratories (Wilmington, MA, USA). "
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ABSTRACT: Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B-cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT) cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8(+) T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1 + 6](-/-) and Slamf[1 + 5 + 6](-/-) B6 mice have ~70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8(+) T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1 + 5 + 6](-/-) , but not in the Slamf[1 + 6](-/-) strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8(+) T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5(-/-) B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8(+) T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7(-/-) strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8(+) T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3(-/-) BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF(hi)) NKT cells and innate CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8(-/-) BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8(+) T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8(+) T cells.
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages are critical mediators of innate immune responses against bacteria. The Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus express a range of virulence factors, which challenge macrophages' immune competence. We review how macrophages respond to this challenge. Macrophages employ a range of strategies to phagocytose and kill each pathogen. When the macrophages capacity to clear bacteria is overwhelmed macrophages play important roles in orchestrating the inflammatory response through pattern recognition receptor-mediated responses. Macrophages also ensure the inflammatory response is tightly constrained, to avoid tissue damage, and play an important role in downregulating the inflammatory response once initial bacterial replication is controlled.
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Available from: Rajkumar Noubade
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ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by phagocytes are essential for host defence against bacterial and fungal infections. Individuals with defective ROS production machinery develop chronic granulomatous disease. Conversely, excessive ROS can cause collateral tissue damage during inflammatory processes and therefore needs to be tightly regulated. Here we describe a protein, we termed negative regulator of ROS (NRROS), which limits ROS generation by phagocytes during inflammatory responses. NRROS expression in phagocytes can be repressed by inflammatory signals. NRROS-deficient phagocytes produce increased ROS upon inflammatory challenges, and mice lacking NRROS in their phagocytes show enhanced bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Conversely, these mice develop severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis owing to oxidative tissue damage in the central nervous system. Mechanistically, NRROS is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it directly interacts with nascent NOX2 (also known gp91(phox) and encoded by Cybb) monomer, one of the membrane-bound subunits of the NADPH oxidase complex, and facilitates the degradation of NOX2 through the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Thus, NRROS provides a hitherto undefined mechanism for regulating ROS prodution-one that enables phagocytes to produce higher amounts of ROS, if required to control invading pathogens, while minimizing unwanted collateral tissue damage.
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